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Report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Equality between women and men — 2008

/* COM/2008/0010 final */
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Report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Equality between women and men — 2008 /* COM/2008/0010 final */


[pic] | COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES |

Brussels, 23.1.2008

COM(2008) 10 final

REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS

Equality between women and men — 2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction 3

2. Main developments 3

2.1. Gender gaps 3

2.2. Policy and legislative developments 5

3. Challenges and policy orientations 6

3.1. Quality jobs to foster equal economic independence 6

3.2. Quality services making for reconciliation of work and private life 7

3.3. Tackling stereotypes, support for individual choices 8

3.4. Institutional mechanisms in support of political commitments and implementation of legislation 8

4. Conclusions 9

ANNEX 10

INTRODUCTION

Equality between women and men is one of the fundamental values of the European Union. Through the combined efforts of the Community and Member States, the situation of men and women in Europe has been genuinely transformed in many fields. For example, female participation in employment has steadily increased, and women today have a higher level of education than men. Nevertheless, major challenges remain. In particular, although there is no doubting progress in terms of quantity, efforts are still needed to boost the qualitative aspect of equality. This is the principal message highlighted in the report.

The year 2007 saw the implementation of a large number of measures announced in the European Commission's Roadmap for Equality between Women and Men and the European Council's Pact for Gender Equality in 2006. All these measures converge towards the objective of achieving effective equality between women and men by acting on both quantity and quality aspects. The Commission has also made a contribution towards creating common flexicurity principles[1], so as to promote the creation of more and better jobs. 2007 was also marked by several celebrations and important events for gender equality policy: the 50th anniversary of European gender equality policy; the European Year of Equal Opportunities for All; the tenth anniversary of the signing of the Amsterdam Treaty, the basis for the European Employment Strategy and for gender mainstreaming in Community policies.

This fifth annual report on equality between women and men, produced in collaboration with the Member States at the request of the European Council of Heads of State and Government, is the first to cover the enlarged European Union of 27 Member States, the increased diversity of which is likely to raise new challenges for equality policies. However, enlargement testifies to the new Member States’ embracing of the European Union’s fundamental values and their commitment to pursuing its fundamental tasks, which include achieving equality between women and men.

Main developments

Gender gaps

“More and better jobs” is a strategic objective which is at the heart of the Lisbon agenda for growth and jobs. Although over the last ten years progress has been made in female employment in terms of quantity, further efforts will be needed in order to improve the quality aspect.

Female employment has been the main factor in the steady growth of employment in the EU in recent years. Between 2000 and 2006 employment in EU-27 grew by nearly 12 million, including more than 7.5 million women. The female employment rate went up each year, reaching 57.2% in 2006, 3.5 percentage points more than in 2000, bringing the objective of 60% by 2010 within reach. During the same period the male employment rate rose by less than one point. Among workers over the age of 55 , the female employment rate also increased more than the male rate, reaching 34.8%, a 7.4 point increase on 2000. At the same time the unemployment rate for women fell to 9%, its lowest level for ten years.

This positive trend has resulted in a significant narrowing of the employment rate gap between women and men, which fell from 17.1 points in 2000 to 14.4 points in 2006. However, the very fact that there is still a gap, also among young people (6 points for the age group 15-24) raises questions, particularly as young women have better success rates at school and university. Furthermore, the gap seems to grow wider with age, culminating at 17.8 points for the over-55s.

Several aspects of the quality of women’s work remain problematic. Equality between women and men is one of the work quality dimensions identified by the Commission[2]. The indicators for pay, labour market segregation and the number of women in decision-making jobs have not shown any significant increase for several years. The pay gap has remained steady at 15% since 2003, and has narrowed by only one point since 2000. Sectoral and occupational segregation by gender is not diminishing and is even increasing in certain countries, a sign that women who have recently joined the labour market have gone into sectors and occupations already dominated by women. The presence of female managers in companies has stayed at 33%, and the number of female politicians is rising only very slowly (only 23% of national MPs and 33% of MEPs are women).

Furthermore, gaps between women and men may persist in all other aspects of work quality, e.g. reconciling professional and private life , working arrangements which do not fully exploit people’s skills and in the field of health and safety at work. Evidence of this is the sharp fall in the employment rate for women with young children (-13.6 points on average), while the rate for men is rising. As a result, the employment rate for women with dependent children is only 62.4%, compared with 91.4% for men, a difference of 29 points. More than three-quarters of part-time workers are women (76.5%), corresponding to one woman in three, as against less than one man in ten. Temporary employment contracts are also more common for women (15.1%, one point more than for men).

In other words, it would appear that the substantial efforts made in connection with the European Strategy for Growth and Jobs with a view to creating more and better jobs for women have proved more successful in terms of quantity than quality.

Gaps also remain on the social side which may reflect the gaps on the labour market. For example, long-term unemployment is still much more common among women (4.5%) than men (3.5%). Women’s shorter, slower and less well-paid careers also have an impact on their risk of falling into poverty, especially for the over-65s (21%, or 5 points more than men).

Policy and legislative developments

The Roadmap for Equality between Women and Men[3] has given new impetus to Community policy in this area. The Commission follows up the achievements and forecasts for measures under the Roadmap in a detailed annual work programme [4], in which it is noted that substantial progress has been made in terms of gender mainstreaming in EU policies, especially in the fields identified as priorities in the Roadmap.

The reconciliation of professional, private and family life is a key aspect of equality between women and men and one of the Roadmap’s priority action areas. It is also an essential factor in work quality. At the end of 2006 the Commission launched a formal consultation of the social partners [5] at European level on the possible approach of Community action in this field with a view to improving or supplementing the existing framework. The consultation found that the social partners agreed on the need to act, especially to encourage men to take more part in family life. Therefore, on 30 May 2007, the Commission launched the second phase[6] of the consultation, concerning the content of possible proposals in this field. These proposals covered improvements to the legal provisions on maternity and parental leave, the introduction of new types of leave (paternity leave, adoption leave and leave to care for dependent family members), and other non-legislative measures. After analysing the replies the Commission will be able, if appropriate, to table proposals to improve the present legislative framework, taking account of the opening of any negotiations between social partners and the results of the necessary impact analyses.

The Commission has also given its support[7] to the European Alliance for Families proposed by the Spring European Council, which will provide a platform for exchanges and knowledge concerning pro-family policies and best practices in the Member States, with a view to meeting the challenge of demographic change.

Legislation has always played a central role in progress towards equality for women and men. As regards equal treatment legislation, the infringement proceedings for failure to transpose Directive 2002/73[8] have been wound up, except in one case where the Directive has only partially been transposed. The conformity of the national implementing measures is now being analysed. The first stage of the procedure under Article 226 EC was launched in 2007. Verification of the conformity of national legislation will continue in 2008.

Despite some progress, substantial gaps remain between women and men on the labour market, constituting obstacles to the objective of equal economic independence. In particular, in a Communication adopted on 18 July 2007[9], the Commission demonstrated its full commitment to tackling the pay gap between women and men . The idea is to improve the capacity to analyse the phenomenon, which remains complex and poorly understood, so as to develop targeted approaches and identify possible improvements to the existing legislative framework. Concerted action, especially in the context of the new cycle of the European Strategy for Growth and Jobs and common principles of flexicurity[10], will also be necessary in order to close the gaps which remain on the labour market.

The establishing of the European Institute for Gender Equality has made progress with the active support of the Commission. The appointment of the members of the Management Board[11] has provided the Institute with a decision-making body. The Institute will be required to provide substantial technical support in relation to gender equality policies.

CHALLENGES AND POLICY ORIENTATIONS

Under the European Strategy for Growth and Jobs, improving the quality of work is of particular importance both for the well-being of workers and for boosting productivity and employment. The cycle which has now ended was characterised by a steady increase in the female employment rate, but less progress was made on the quality side. Gender gaps remain wide, especially differences in working arrangements between women and men (for example the use of part-time employment and fixed-term contracts, or lower-quality jobs with less pay), horizontal and vertical labour market segregation remains and is even increasing in certain countries, and the pay gap is not getting any narrower.

More efforts need to be made to create more and better jobs, taking account of the importance of a flexicurity approach and bearing in mind the differing impact of employment policies on women and men during their lifetime. This approach must cover both the intrinsic quality of work and all the aspects affecting it, such as the development of infrastructures to allow everyone to enter and remain in the labour market, or the possibility for individuals to achieve their professional ambitions and personal choices outside all the stereotypes. It is also essential to create the institutional tools needed to ensure good governance and effective implementation of political commitments.

Quality jobs to foster equal economic independence

The creation of more jobs must go hand in hand with an improvement in quality[12]. Quality jobs attract workers and allow them to fully exploit their productive potential and contribute to improving the quality of life in society as a whole. Equality between women and men is an essential quality component of work. The idea is both to eliminate gaps which remain in the labour market and to address all aspects of quality taking account of gender, also in connection with questions of health and well-being at work.

- The efforts directed at eliminating gender gaps in employment must be continued and intensified as part of the new cycle of the European Strategy for Growth and Jobs, so as to significantly narrow the gaps in terms of employment, unemployment and pay, as well as tackling labour market segregation.

- Support for the reconciliation of professional and private life should be stepped up and should aim to help both men and women, for example through innovative and flexible work and leave arrangements which help men and women responsible for dependent persons to enter and remain in employment and encourage fairer sharing of domestic and family duties in line with the principle of joint responsibility.

- Advanced training for workers should be ensured so as to provide them with the chance to develop and fully exploit their potential throughout their lifetime and in order to work towards balanced representation of both sexes in decision-making jobs.

- The approach to issues of health and well-being at work and quality of the work environment should take account of the specific situations and problems of women and men.

- It is necessary to ensure that the potential offered by the Structural Funds is fully exploited in order to support policies aimed at creating more and better jobs.

Quality services making for reconciliation of work and private life

The possibility of reconciling professional life and private life[13] depends both on modern work organisation (combining flexibility and security, taking account of gender) and on the availability of accessible and affordable quality services. Much attention has been focused on improving the availability and accessibility of these services, particularly childcare and care for other dependent persons. The quality aspects need the same attention, as has been highlighted by the Commission’s consultation on active inclusion[14].

- Efforts to improve the availability and accessibility of childcare services in line with the Barcelona objectives[15] and care services for dependent persons should be continued and intensified, paying the same attention to the quality of services, including the times they are available.

- The quality of services should be enhanced by providing continuing training and skills upgrading for employees and by fostering job enrichment.

- The quality of services of general interest, in particular transport services and employment administration or services, should be ensured. Special attention should be devoted to ensuring that the availability of these services is compatible with full-time working schedules of men and women with responsibility for dependent persons.

- It should be ensured that the potential offered by the Structural Funds is fully exploited in order to support the improvement, accessibility and quality of services supporting better reconciliation between professional life and private life for everyone.

Tackling stereotypes, support for individual choices

Stereotyping constitutes a barrier to individual choice for both men and women. It helps to preserve inequalities by influencing the choice of education, training or employment, participation in domestic and family duties, and representation in decision-making jobs. It can also affect how an individual’s job is valued. Getting rid of stereotypes is one of the priorities of the Roadmap and the European social partners’ framework of action on gender equality.

- Action to combat gender-based stereotypes must start at a very young age and should promote behaviour models which value individual choices of education pathways and support equality between men and women, also in the sharing of domestic and family duties.

- It is necessary to remove cultural barriers in order to facilitate access for women and men to non-traditional occupations, including decision-making jobs, and to fully support individual choices.

- Approaches to ongoing training, professional development and vocational guidance should disregard all stereotypes. Training and vocational guidance professionals should be made more aware of this issue.

- The media as a whole must participate in efforts to tackle stereotypical images of women and men and must promote a realistic image of their abilities.

Institutional mechanisms in support of political commitments and implementation of legislation

Clear commitments in support of equality between women and men have been expressed at the highest political level, by the Commission, the European Council and the European social partners. The Roadmap attaches great importance to the good governance that is necessary in order to ensure effective means of implementing these commitments.

- It is important to develop training and implementation tools which will allow all stakeholders to include a gender perspective in their respective areas of competence, also in assessing the specific impact of policies on women and men. It is vital to ensure the effective use of existing tools, such as the manuals for gender mainstreaming of employment policies produced by the Commission[16].

- It is essential to develop the capacities of the main players and bodies working for gender equality, so that they have the skills, instruments and resources they need in order to implement their policies.

- The implementation and follow-up of policies must be ensured using quantity and quality indicators as well as gender-based statistics which are reliable, comparable and available when needed.

CONCLUSIONS

In order to achieve effective equality between women and men in terms of both quantity and quality, the European Council is requested to urge the Member States to meet the challenges described above in collaboration with the social partners and civil society. In the light of this report, special attention should be focused on:

- creating more and better jobs for women in the new cycle of the European Strategy for Growth and Employment;

- including a gender perspective in all aspects of job quality;

- improving both the supply and quality of services helping to reconcile professional and private life for both men and women;

- tackling stereotypes in education, employment and the media and emphasising the role of men in promoting equality;

- developing tools to assess the impact of policies from the gender perspective.

ANNEX

This statistical annex provides an overview of the situation of women and men in the EU, its evolution over time and remaining gender gaps in different fields such as the labour market, education, presence in decision making positions and social inclusion. Indicators have been chosen according to their relevance in covering aspects of the lives of women and men and the availability of comparable and reliable data. These indicators were already presented in the previous reports in order to facilitate the follow-up from one year to another.

Employment rates

The European Strategy for Jobs and Growth set the target of reaching an employment rate for women of 60% by 2010. In the past years, female employment has witnessed continuous growth, at a rate that was consistently higher for women than for men. The employment rate of women rose by almost 3 percentage points (p.p.) between 2001 and 2006, from 54.3% to 57.2%, whereas over the same period the employment rate of men increased by only 0.7 p.p., from 70.9% to 71.6%. As a result, the gap between women's and men's employment rates decreased from 16.6 p.p. in 2001 to 14.4 p.p. in 2006. At national level, significant differences exist across the EU, as the employment rate of women in Malta (34.9%) was less than half that reported in Denmark (73.4%) or Sweden (70.7%). The employment rate gap between women and men ranged from less than 5 p.p. in Finland and Sweden to more than 25 p.p. in Greece and Malta. In general, the employment rate gap increases with age and is the highest amongst older workers (55 to 64 years). In 2006, it was on average 17.8, down from 19.5 p.p. in 2001 thanks to the strong increase of the employment rate of women above 55 years, from 28.2% in 2001 to 34.8% in 2006.

Unemployment rates

A similar trends could be evidenced in the evolution of unemployment rates, that dropped by 0.6 p.p. to 9.0% between 2001 and 2006 for women, whilst the decrease was limited to 0.1 p.p. for men to 7.6%. As a result, the gap between women's and men's unemployment rates narrowed from 1.9 p.p. in 2001 to 1.4 p.p. in 2006. This decrease occurred notably in countries where the gap was the highest in 2001 (Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Germany, France and Poland).

Part-time work

Women's participation in the labour market is still largely characterised by a high and increasing share of part-time work. In 2007, the share of women employees working part-time was 31.4% in the EU-27 while the corresponding figure for men was 7.8%. The share of female part-timers exceeded 30% in France, Ireland, Denmark and Luxembourg, 40% in Sweden, Austria, Belgium, United Kingdom and Germany and even reached 74.9% in the Netherlands. Conversely, the share of part-timers among female workers was very low in Bulgaria, Slovakia, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Latvia.

Reconciliation of professional, private and family life

Parenthood has a significant long-term effect on women's participation to the labour market. This reflects women's predominant role in the care of children, elderly or disabled persons. In 2006, the employment rate for women aged 20-49 was 62.4% when they had children under 12, compared with 76% when they did not, a negative difference of 13.6 p.p. Interestingly, men with children under 12 had a significantly higher employment rate than those without, 91.4% vs. 80.8%, a positive difference of 10.6 p.p. Participation in employment and the amount of time worked by women between 20 and 49 years are closely linked to the number and age of their children, which is less the case for men.

Education

Women record a higher educational attainment than men in all Member States. On average, 80.7% of young women (20-24) reached at least upper secondary school in the EU in 2006, against only 74.8% on young men. Furthermore, women represent as much as 59% of university graduates. However, study fields continue to be greatly segmented with a low presence of women in engineering or science and technology and a high one in health, education or the humanities.

Segregation

The choice of study fields certainly impacts on the gender segregation of the labour markets evidenced both for occupations and economic sectors. Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, and Finland face high segregation in occupations whilst sectoral segregation is the highest in Estonia, Slovakia, Lithuania, Ireland, Finland and Sweden. In consequence of segregated labour markets there is an under-representation of women in sectors crucial for economic development and usually well remunerated. For example, only 29% of scientists and engineers in the EU are women.

Decision-making

The average number of women member of national parliaments (single/lower houses) was 23% in 2007, unchanged since 2004 level. This share exceeds 35% Belgium, Spain, Denmark and the Netherlands and 40% in Finland and Sweden. However, it was below 15% in Greece, Cyprus, France, Slovenia, Ireland, Romania and Hungary and did not exceed 10% in Malta. Regarding decision-making in the economic sphere, women's share among managers in enterprises and administrations was 32.6% in 2006, up from 30.1% in 2001. This share exceeded 35% in Hungary, France, Latvia and Lithuania, but was lower than 20% in Malta and Cyprus.

At risk of poverty rate for older people

The disadvantaged position of women on the labour market has consequences on the higher exposure risk of women to poverty. This was particularly true for persons above 65 years, amongst which the share of people living in households at risk of poverty (having an income below the threshold set at 60% of the national median income) was significantly higher for women than for men in the EU-25 in 2005 (21% vs. 16%). This was a pattern in almost all Member States. The gap exceeds 10 p.p. in six countries: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuanian, Slovenia and Finland.

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Employment rates (women and men aged 15-64) in EU Member States – 2001 and 2006

Women | Men | Gender gap |

2001 | 2006 | 2001 | 2006 | 2001 | 2006 |

EU-27 | 54.3 | 57.2 | 70.9 | 71.6 | 16.6 | 14.4 |

Belgium | 51.0 | 54.0 | 68.8 | 67.9 | 17.8 | 13.9 |

Bulgaria | 46.8 | 54.6 | 52.7 | 62.8 | 5.9 | 8.2 |

Czech Republic | 56.9 | 56.8 | 73.2 | 73.7 | 16.3 | 16.9 |

Denmark | 72.0 | 73.4 | 80.2 | 81.2 | 8.2 | 7.8 |

Germany | 58.7 | 62.2 | 72.8 | 72.8 | 14.1 | 10.6 |

Estonia | 57.4 | 65.3 | 65.0 | 71.0 | 7.6 | 5.7 |

Ireland | 54.9 | 59.3 | 76.6 | 77.7 | 21.7 | 18.4 |

Greece | 41.5 | 47.4 | 71.4 | 74.6 | 29.9 | 27.2 |

Spain | 43.1 | 53.2 | 72.5 | 76.1 | 29.4 | 22.9 |

France | 56.0 | 57.7 | 69.7 | 68.5 | 13.7 | 10.8 |

Italy | 41.1 | 46.3 | 68.5 | 70.5 | 27.4 | 24.2 |

Cyprus | 57.2 | 60.3 | 79.3 | 79.4 | 22.1 | 19.1 |

Latvia | 55.7 | 62.4 | 61.9 | 70.4 | 6.2 | 8.0 |

Lithuania | 56.2 | 61.0 | 58.9 | 66.3 | 2.7 | 5.3 |

Luxembourg | 50.9 | 54.6 | 75.0 | 72.6 | 24.1 | 18.0 |

Hungary | 49.8 | 51.1 | 62.9 | 63.8 | 13.1 | 12.7 |

Malta | 32.1 | 34.9 | 76.2 | 74.5 | 44.1 | 39.6 |

Netherlands | 65.2 | 67.7 | 82.8 | 80.9 | 17.6 | 13.2 |

Austria | 60.7 | 63.5 | 76.4 | 76.9 | 15.7 | 13.4 |

Poland | 47.7 | 48.2 | 59.2 | 60.9 | 11.5 | 12.7 |

Portugal | 61.3 | 62.0 | 77.0 | 73.9 | 15.7 | 11.9 |

Romania | 57.1 | 53.0 | 67.8 | 64.6 | 10.7 | 11.6 |

Slovenia | 58.8 | 61.8 | 68.6 | 71.1 | 9.8 | 9.3 |

Slovakia | 51.8 | 51.9 | 62.0 | 67.0 | 10.2 | 15.1 |

Finland | 65.4 | 67.3 | 70.8 | 71.4 | 5.4 | 4.1 |

Sweden | 72.3 | 70.7 | 75.7 | 75.5 | 3.4 | 4.8 |

United Kingdom | 65.0 | 65.8 | 78.0 | 77.3 | 13.0 | 11.5 |

Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages

Provisional value: EU-27, DE and FR.

Employment rates of older workers (women and men aged 55-64) in EU Member States – 2001 and 2006

Women | Men | Gender gap |

2001 | 2006 | 2001 | 2006 | 2001 | 2006 |

EU-27 | 28.2 | 34.8 | 47.7 | 52.6 | 19.5 | 17.8 |

Belgium | 15.5 | 23.2 | 35.1 | 40.9 | 19.6 | 17.7 |

Bulgaria | 14.7 | 31.1 | 34.2 | 49.5 | 19.5 | 18.4 |

Czech Republic | 23.1 | 32.1 | 52.6 | 59.5 | 29.5 | 27.4 |

Denmark | 49.7 | 54.3 | 65.5 | 67.1 | 15.8 | 12.8 |

Germany | 29.4 | 40.6 | 46.5 | 56.4 | 17.1 | 15.8 |

Estonia | 42.1 | 59.2 | 56.7 | 57.5 | 14.6 | -1.7 |

Ireland | 28.7 | 39.1 | 64.6 | 67.0 | 35.9 | 27.9 |

Greece | 22.9 | 26.6 | 55.3 | 59.2 | 32.4 | 32.6 |

Spain | 21.7 | 28.7 | 57.7 | 60.4 | 36.0 | 31.7 |

France | 27.8 | 35.2 | 36.2 | 40.1 | 8.4 | 4.9 |

Italy | 16.2 | 21.9 | 40.4 | 43.7 | 24.2 | 21.8 |

Cyprus | 32.2 | 36.6 | 66.9 | 71.6 | 34.7 | 35.0 |

Latvia | 30.0 | 48.7 | 46.2 | 59.5 | 16.2 | 10.8 |

Lithuania | 31.1 | 45.1 | 49.2 | 55.7 | 18.1 | 10.6 |

Luxembourg | 15.2 | 27.8 | 35.9 | 38.7 | 20.7 | 10.9 |

Hungary | 14.9 | 27.1 | 34.1 | 41.4 | 19.2 | 14.3 |

Malta | 10.2 | 11.2 | 50.4 | 50.4 | 40.2 | 39.2 |

Netherlands | 28.0 | 37.2 | 51.1 | 58.0 | 23.1 | 20.8 |

Austria | 18.4 | 26.3 | 40.1 | 45.3 | 21.7 | 19.0 |

Poland | 20.4 | 19.0 | 35.6 | 38.4 | 15.2 | 19.4 |

Portugal | 40.3 | 42.8 | 61.6 | 58.2 | 21.3 | 15.4 |

Romania | 42.9 | 34.5 | 54.3 | 50.0 | 11.4 | 15.5 |

Slovenia | 15.8 | 21.0 | 35.9 | 44.5 | 20.1 | 23.5 |

Slovakia | 9.8 | 18.9 | 37.7 | 49.8 | 27.9 | 30.9 |

Finland | 45.0 | 54.3 | 46.6 | 54.8 | 1.6 | 0.5 |

Sweden | 64.0 | 66.9 | 69.4 | 72.3 | 5.4 | 5.4 |

United Kingdom | 43.0 | 49.1 | 61.7 | 66.0 | 18.7 | 16.9 |

Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages

Provisional value: EU-27, DE and FR.

Unemployment rates (women and men aged 15 and over) in EU Member States – 2001 and 2006

In this table, the gender gap is calculated as women's unemployment rate minus men's unemployment rate

Women | Men | Gender gap |

2001 | 2006 | 2001 | 2006 | 2001 | 2006 |

EU-27 | 9.6 | 9.0 | 7.7 | 7.6 | 1.9 | 1.4 |

Belgium | 6.9 | 9.3 | 5.6 | 7.4 | 1.3 | 1.9 |

Bulgaria | 18.9 | 9.3 | 20.9 | 8.6 | -2.0 | 0.7 |

Czech Republic | 9.6 | 8.8 | 6.7 | 5.8 | 2.9 | 3.0 |

Denmark | 4.8 | 4.5 | 3.6 | 3.3 | 1.2 | 1.2 |

Germany | 7.8 | 10.1 | 7.8 | 10.3 | 0 | -0.2 |

Estonia | 13.1 | 5.6 | 11.8 | 6.2 | 1.3 | -0.6 |

Ireland | 3.5 | 4.1 | 3.8 | 4.6 | -0.3 | -0.5 |

Greece | 15.9 | 13.6 | 6.9 | 5.6 | 9.0 | 8.0 |

Spain | 15.0 | 11.6 | 7.3 | 6.3 | 7.7 | 5.3 |

France | 10.5 | 9.9 | 7.0 | 8.4 | 3.5 | 1.5 |

Italy | 13.0 | 8.8 | 7.4 | 5.4 | 5.6 | 3.4 |

Cyprus | 5.7 | 5.4 | 2.6 | 3.9 | 3.1 | 1.5 |

Latvia | 11.5 | 6.2 | 14.6 | 7.4 | -3.1 | -1.2 |

Lithuania | 14.1 | 5.4 | 19.5 | 5.8 | -5.4 | -0.4 |

Luxembourg | 2.2 | 6.2 | 1.6 | 3.5 | 0.6 | 2.7 |

Hungary | 4.9 | 7.8 | 6.3 | 7.2 | -1.4 | 0.6 |

Malta | 8.1 | 8.9 | 6.7 | 6.5 | 1.4 | 2.4 |

Netherlands | 2.5 | 5.0 | 1.8 | 4.1 | 0.7 | 0.9 |

Austria | 4.1 | 5.2 | 3.9 | 4.3 | 0.2 | 0.9 |

Poland | 20.0 | 14.9 | 17.0 | 13.0 | 3.0 | 1.9 |

Portugal | 4.9 | 9.0 | 2.9 | 6.5 | 2.0 | 2.5 |

Romania | 6.0 | 6.1 | 7.0 | 8.2 | -1.0 | -2.1 |

Slovenia | 6.0 | 7.2 | 5.4 | 4.9 | 0.6 | 2.3 |

Slovakia | 18.6 | 14.7 | 20.1 | 12.3 | -1.5 | 2.4 |

Finland | 10.8 | 8.1 | 9.9 | 7.4 | 0.9 | 0.7 |

Sweden | 4.4 | 7.3 | 5.0 | 6.9 | -0.6 | 0.4 |

United Kingdom | 4.1 | 4.9 | 5.2 | 5.7 | -1.1 | -0.8 |

Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages

Provisional value: EU-27, DE and FR.

Share of part-time workers in total employment, in EU Member States - 2002 and 2007

Women | Men |

2002 | 2007 | 2002 | 2007 |

EU-27 | 28.5 | 31.4 | 6.6 | 7.8 |

Belgium | 37.7 | 41.9 | 5.9 | 7.5 |

Bulgaria | 3.7 | 2.3 | 2.4 | 1.5 |

Czech Republic | 8.3 | 8.7 | 2.1 | 2.3 |

Denmark | 31.4 | 36.5 | 11.0 | 13.6 |

Germany | 39.5 | 46.2 | 5.8 | 9.5 |

Estonia | 9.6 | 11.6 | 3.9 | 4.3 |

Ireland | 30.7 | 32.7 | 6.5 | 7.1 |

Greece | 8.0 | 10.5 | 2.3 | 2.8 |

Spain | 17.1 | 23.0 | 2.6 | 4.3 |

France | : | 31.0 | : | 5.6 |

Italy | 16.7 | 26.6 | 3.7 | 4.9 |

Cyprus | 11.3 | 10.4 | 4.0 | 4.2 |

Latvia | 11.2 | 9.2 | 7.3 | 5.4 |

Lithuania | 11.0 | 10.3 | 8.6 | 6.5 |

Luxembourg | 26.4 | 39.7 | 1.8 | 2.2 |

Hungary | 5.1 | 5.7 | 2.3 | 2.7 |

Malta | 18.9 | 25.3 | 4.3 | 4.1 |

Netherlands | 72.8 | 74.9 | 21.5 | 23.7 |

Austria | : | 41.5 | : | 7.4 |

Poland | 13.4 | 12.4 | 8.3 | 6.8 |

Portugal | 16.5 | 16.9 | 7.2 | 8.2 |

Romania | 12.8 | 10.3 | 10.2 | 9.0 |

Slovenia | 8.3 | 12.1 | 5.2 | 8.2 |

Slovakia | 2.7 | 4.7 | 1.2 | 1.1 |

Finland | 17.1 | 18.7 | 8.0 | 8.9 |

Sweden | 32.9 | 40.3 | 11.2 | 11.7 |

United Kingdom | 43.9 | 42.5 | 9.6 | 10.8 |

Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS) - Spring results

Share of employees with temporary contracts (women and men aged 15 - 64) in EU Member States- 2001 and 2006

Women | Men | Gender gap |

2001 | 2006 | 2001 | 2006 | 2001 | 2006 |

EU-27 | 13.3 | 14.9 | 11.7 | 13.9 | 1.6 | 1.0 |

Belgium | 12.0 | 10.9 | 6.3 | 6.9 | 5.7 | 4.0 |

Bulgaria | 5.9 | 6.1 | 6.6 | 6.3 | -0.7 | -0.2 |

Czech Republic | 8.9 | 10.1 | 7.2 | 7.5 | 1.7 | 2.6 |

Denmark | 10.7 | 10.0 | 7.7 | 8.0 | 3.0 | 2.0 |

Germany | 12.7 | 14.1 | 12.2 | 14.7 | 0.5 | -0.6 |

Estonia | 1.8 | 2.2 | 3.3 | 3.3 | -1.5 | -1.1 |

Ireland | 6.2 | 3.9 | 4.4 | 2.9 | 1.8 | 1.0 |

Greece | 15.7 | 13.0 | 11.6 | 9.1 | 4.1 | 3.9 |

Spain | 34.7 | 36.7 | 30.6 | 32.0 | 4.1 | 4.7 |

France | 16.2 | 14.0 | 13.2 | 13.0 | 3.0 | 1.0 |

Italy | 11.9 | 15.8 | 8.3 | 11.2 | 3.6 | 4.6 |

Cyprus | 14.8 | 19.0 | 7.1 | 7.9 | 7.7 | 11.1 |

Latvia | 5.0 | 5.4 | 8.5 | 8.8 | -3.5 | -3.4 |

Lithuania | 4.2 | 2.7 | 7.6 | 6.4 | -3.4 | -3.7 |

Luxembourg | 6.4 | 6.6 | 5.2 | 5.7 | 1.2 | 0.9 |

Hungary | 6.8 | 6.0 | 8.1 | 7.4 | -1.3 | -1.4 |

Malta | 6.4 | 6.0 | 2.8 | 2.7 | 3.6 | 3.3 |

Netherlands | 17.4 | 18.0 | 11.9 | 15.4 | 5.5 | 2.6 |

Austria | 8.7 | 8.9 | 7.2 | 9.1 | 1.5 | -0.2 |

Poland | 10.9 | 26.0 | 12.4 | 28.5 | -1.5 | -2.5 |

Portugal | 22.5 | 21.7 | 18.4 | 19.5 | 4.1 | 2.2 |

Romania | 2.8 | 1.6 | 3.2 | 2.0 | -0.4 | -0.4 |

Slovenia | 14.0 | 19.3 | 12.1 | 15.5 | 1.9 | 3.8 |

Slovakia | 4.7 | 5.2 | 5.1 | 5.0 | -0.4 | 0.2 |

Finland | 19.9 | 20.0 | 12.9 | 12.6 | 7.0 | 7.4 |

Sweden | 17.6 | 19.1 | 12.9 | 15.4 | 4.7 | 3.7 |

United Kingdom | 7.5 | 6.4 | 6.0 | 5.1 | 1.5 | 1.3 |

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages. EU-27, DE and FR : Provisional value

Pay gap between women and men in unadjusted form in EU Member States - 2006 (Difference between men’s and women’s average gross hourly earnings as a percentage of men’s average gross hourly earnings)

2006 (1) |

EU (27 countries) | 15 |

Belgium | 7 |

Bulgaria | 14 |

Czech Republic | 18 |

Denmark | 18 |

Germany | 22 |

Estonia | 25 |

Ireland | 9 |

Greece | 10 |

Spain | 13 |

France | 11 |

Italy | 9 |

Cyprus | 24 |

Latvia | 16 |

Lithuania | 15 |

Luxembourg | 14 |

Hungary | 11 |

Malta | 3 |

Netherlands | 18 |

Austria | 20 |

Poland | 12 |

Portugal | 9 |

Romania | 10 |

Slovenia | 8 |

Slovakia | 22 |

Finland | 20 |

Sweden | 16 |

United Kingdom | 20 |

Source: Eurostat. Administrative data are used for LU, Labour Force Survey for FR and MT. Provisional results of EU-SILC (Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) are used for BE, IE, EL, ES, IT, AT, PT, and UK. All other sources are national surveys. EU27, BE, IE, EL, ES, FR, CY and SI: Provisional results.

Exception to the reference year: (1) 2005: DK, DE, EE, IT, LT, NL, PT and UK

NB: EU27 estimates are population weighted-averages of the latest available values. CZ: calculations based on the median earnings.

Life-long learning - Percentage of the population aged 25-64 participating in education and training over the four weeks prior to the survey, 2006

Women | Men |

EU-27 | 10.4 | 8.8 |

Belgium | 7.6 | 7.4 |

Bulgaria | 1.3 | 1.3 |

Czech Republic | 5.9 | 5.4 |

Denmark | 33.8 | 24.6 |

Germany | 7.3 | 7.8 |

Estonia | 8.6 | 4.2 |

Ireland | 8.9 | 6.1 |

Greece | 1.8 | 2.0 |

Spain | 11.5 | 9.3 |

France | 7.8 | 7.2 |

Italy | 6.5 | 5.7 |

Cyprus | 7.8 | 6.5 |

Latvia | 9.3 | 4.1 |

Lithuania | 6.6 | 2.9 |

Luxembourg | 8.7 | 7.6 |

Hungary | 4.4 | 3.1 |

Malta | 5.6 | 5.5 |

Netherlands | 15.9 | 15.3 |

Austria | 14.0 | 12.2 |

Poland | 5.1 | 4.3 |

Portugal | 4.0 | 3.7 |

Romania | 1.3 | 1.3 |

Slovenia | 16.3 | 13.8 |

Slovakia | 4.6 | 4.0 |

Finland | 27.0 | 19.3 |

Sweden | 36.5 | 27.9 |

United Kingdom | 31.2 | 22.0 |

Source: Eurostat, Labour force Survey. NB: BE, LT, LV, PT and UK : Provisional value. EE and LT : values for men : Unreliable or uncertain data. Exception to the reference year: SE: 2005

Educational attainment (at least upper secondary school) of women and men aged 20 - 24, in EU Member States – 2006

Women | Men |

EU-27 | 80.7 | 74.8 |

Belgium | 85.6 | 79.1 |

Bulgaria | 81.1 | 80.0 |

Czech Republic | 92.4 | 91.1 |

Denmark | 81.5 | 73.4 |

Germany | 73.5 | 69.8 |

Estonia | 89.8 | 74.1 |

Ireland | 89.1 | 81.8 |

Greece | 86.6 | 75.5 |

Spain | 69.0 | 54.6 |

France | 84.3 | 80.0 |

Italy | 79.4 | 71.7 |

Cyprus | 90.7 | 76.1 |

Latvia | 86.2 | 75.9 |

Lithuania | 91.2 | 85.3 |

Luxembourg | 74.5 | 64.0 |

Hungary | 84.7 | 81.2 |

Malta | 52.8 | 48.1 |

Netherlands | 79.6 | 69.9 |

Austria | 86.7 | 84.9 |

Poland | 93.8 | 89.6 |

Portugal | 58.6 | 40.8 |

Romania | 77.8 | 76.6 |

Slovenia | 91.4 | 87.7 |

Slovakia | 91.7 | 91.2 |

Finland | 87.0 | 82.3 |

Sweden | 88.6 | 84.5 |

United Kingdom | 80.3 | 77.3 |

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages.

NB: BG, CY, EL, FI, IT, MT, RO: Provisional value. Students living abroad for one year or more and conscripts on compulsory military service are not covered by the EU Labour Force Survey, which may imply lower rates than those available at national level. This is especially relevant for CY.

Members of single/lower houses of national parliaments in EU Member States - Distribution by sex 2004 and 2007 (1)

2004 | 2007 |

Women | Men | Women | Men |

EU 27 | 23 | 77 | 23 | 77 |

Belgium | 33 | 67 | 35 | 65 |

Bulgaria | : | : | 22 | 78 |

Czech Republic | 15 | 85 | 15 | 85 |

Denmark | 38 | 62 | 37 | 63 |

Germany | 32 | 68 | 31 | 69 |

Estonia | 15 | 85 | 22 | 78 |

Ireland | 12 | 88 | 13 | 87 |

Greece | 13 | 87 | 14 | 86 |

Spain | 35 | 65 | 37 | 63 |

France | 13 | 87 | 13 | 87 |

Italy | 12 | 88 | 17 | 83 |

Cyprus | 9 | 91 | 14 | 86 |

Latvia | 17 | 83 | 19 | 81 |

Lithuania | 22 | 78 | 24 | 76 |

Luxembourg | 24 | 76 | 25 | 75 |

Hungary | 9 | 91 | 11 | 89 |

Malta | 9 | 91 | 9 | 91 |

Netherlands | 38 | 62 | 39 | 61 |

Austria | 36 | 64 | 32 | 68 |

Poland | 21 | 79 | 20 | 80 |

Portugal | 20 | 80 | 26 | 74 |

Romania | : | : | 11 | 89 |

Slovenia | 13 | 87 | 13 | 87 |

Slovakia | 17 | 83 | 19 | 81 |

Finland | 40 | 60 | 42 | 58 |

Sweden | 48 | 52 | 48 | 52 |

United Kingdom | 18 | 82 | 20 | 80 |

Source: European Commission, Employment, Social affairs and Equal opportunities DG, Database on Women and Men in Decision making. NB: (1) Data for 2007 have been collected in June 2007. The indicator has been developed within the framework of the follow-up of the Beijing Platform for Action in the EU Council of Ministers. Data for 2004 are not available for BG and RO. EU aggregate : for 2004, the value is for EU-25 and not EU-27.

Distribution of managers by sex in EU Member States – 2001 and 2006

2001 | 2006 |

Women | Men | Women | Men |

EU-27 (1) | 30.1 | 69.9 | 32.6 | 67.4 |

Belgium | 33.3 | 66.7 | 31.3 | 68.7 |

Bulgaria | 32.4 | 67.6 | 30.5 | 69.5 |

Czech Republic | 26.5 | 73.5 | 29.2 | 70.8 |

Denmark | 20.8 | 79.2 | 24.3 | 75.7 |

Germany | 27.0 | 73.0 | 27.4 | 72.6 |

Estonia | 34.2 | 65.8 | 33.4 | 66.6 |

Ireland | 27.3 | 72.7 | 30.2 | 69.8 |

Greece | 24.7 | 75.3 | 26.8 | 73.2 |

Spain | 32.3 | 67.7 | 31.8 | 68.2 |

France | 35.6 | 64.4 | 38.5 | 61.5 |

Italy | 17.8 | 82.2 | 32.9 | 67.1 |

Cyprus | 19.4 | 80.6 | 16.1 | 83.9 |

Latvia | 37.7 | 62.3 | 40.6 | 59.4 |

Lithuania | 46.7 | 53.3 | 40.7 | 59.3 |

Luxembourg | 30.5 | 69.5 | 25.9 | 74.1 |

Hungary | 35.2 | 64.8 | 37.1 | 62.9 |

Malta | 15.8 | 84.2 | 18.6 | 81.4 |

Netherlands | 26.0 | 74.0 | 27.0 | 73.0 |

Austria | 30.3 | 69.7 | 28.7 | 71.3 |

Poland | 32.1 | 67.9 | 35.2 | 64.8 |

Portugal | 30.8 | 69.2 | 33.1 | 66.9 |

Romania | - | - | 31.1 | 68.9 |

Slovenia | 31.8 | 68.2 | 33.4 | 66.6 |

Slovakia | 31.2 | 68.8 | 27.7 | 72.3 |

Finland | 27.7 | 72.3 | 29.5 | 70.5 |

Sweden | 30.3 | 69.7 | 31.8 | 68.2 |

United Kingdom | 31.0 | 69.0 | 34.8 | 65.2 |

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS). (1) EU aggregate for 2001 is the value for EU-25 and not EU-27.

NB: Managers are persons classified in ISCO 12 and 13.

For MT and CY: data lack reliability due to small sample size

For IT: Change of data collection method. No data for RO in 2001.

Gender segregation in occupations and in economic sectors in EU Member States, in 2001 and 2006

Gender segregation in occupations | Gender segregation in economic sectors |

2001 | 2006 | 2001 | 2006 |

Belgium | 26.1 | 26.1 | 18.1 | 18.3 |

Bulgaria | 27.0 | 28.7 | 17.5 | 19.6 |

Czech Republic | 29.2 | 28.1 | 18.9 | 19.1 |

Denmark | 28.1 | 27.8 | 19.0 | 19.4 |

Germany | 27.0 | 26.5 | 18.2 | 18.2 |

Estonia | 32.4 | 31.6 | 24.4 | 24.3 |

Ireland | 26.7 | 26.8 | 20.7 | 22.7 |

Greece | 21.5 | 22.4 | 15.4 | 15.9 |

Spain | 24.9 | 27.1 | 19.3 | 20.4 |

France | 26.6 | 26.6 | 17.4 | 18.1 |

Italy | 21.9 | 23.7 | 15.2 | 17.8 |

Cyprus | 29.5 | 29.3 | 17.5 | 19.6 |

Latvia | 29.7 | 29.4 | 21.0 | 23.8 |

Lithuania | 28.4 | 29.4 | 20.8 | 23.1 |

Luxembourg | 26.8 | 26.4 | 19.6 | 18.3 |

Hungary | 28.3 | 28.8 | 19.3 | 19.9 |

Malta | 17.2 | 24.7 | 15.2 | 16.5 |

Netherlands | 25.0 | 25.6 | 18.1 | 18.0 |

Austria | 27.2 | 25.9 | 20.3 | 19.3 |

Poland | 25.6 | 25.5 | 13.9 | 19.4 |

Portugal | 26.3 | 26.5 | 21.2 | 20.4 |

Romania | 11.8 | 22.8 | 13.8 | 15.5 |

Slovenia | 26.8 | 26.8 | 17.4 | 17.8 |

Slovakia | 31.2 | 29.9 | 22.8 | 22.8 |

Finland | 29.6 | 29.0 | 21.9 | 22.7 |

Sweden | 28.0 | 26.8 | 21.2 | 21.6 |

United Kingdom | 26.8 | 25.6 | 18.8 | 18.6 |

Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS) – Spring data. FR : Provisional value. Exception to the reference year for occupations: LU: 2005 (annual average)

Gender segregation in occupations is calculated as the average national share of employment for women and men applied to each occupation; differences are added up to produce the total amount of gender imbalance expressed as a proportion of total employment (ISCO classification). Gender segregation in sectors is calculated as the average national share of employment for women and men applied to each sector; differences are added up to produce the total amount of gender imbalance expressed as a proportion of total employment (NACE classification).

Employment rates of women and men (aged 25-49), depending on whether they have children (under 12) – 2006

Without children | With children | Difference |

Women | Men | Women | Men | Women | Men |

EU-27 | 76.0 | 80.8 | 62.4 | 91.4 | -13.6 | 10.6 |

Belgium | 75.5 | 81.7 | 69.3 | 92.2 | -6.2 | 10.5 |

Bulgaria | 74.7 | 76.6 | 61.5 | 81.2 | -13.2 | 4.7 |

Czech Republic | 83.2 | 87.1 | 53.4 | 93.9 | -29.8 | 6.8 |

Germany | 80.3 | 80.6 | 62.7 | 91.4 | -17.6 | 10.8 |

Estonia | 82.7 | 86.9 | 66.7 | 92.4 | -16.0 | 5.5 |

Greece | 64.1 | 82.5 | 57.0 | 96.8 | -7.0 | 14.3 |

Spain | 75.5 | 84.3 | 58.8 | 93.2 | -16.7 | 8.8 |

France | 73.7 | 76.6 | 65.9 | 91.1 | -7.7 | 14.4 |

Italy | 66.7 | 80.7 | 54.6 | 93.8 | -12.1 | 13.1 |

Cyprus | 82.1 | 87.8 | 70.8 | 95.7 | -11.3 | 7.8 |

Latvia | 82.1 | 80.9 | 68.4 | 91.2 | -13.7 | 10.3 |

Lithuania | 81.5 | 78.9 | 77.2 | 89.7 | -4.3 | 10.7 |

Luxembourg | 80.2 | 90.3 | 65.0 | 95.7 | -15.3 | 5.5 |

Hungary | 76.1 | 79.1 | 49.8 | 86.1 | -26.3 | 7.0 |

Malta | 68.7 | 88.6 | 32.6 | 94.0 | -36.1 | 5.3 |

Netherlands | 83.8 | 87.9 | 72.7 | 94.5 | -11.2 | 6.6 |

Austria | 83.6 | 87.7 | 68.5 | 92.9 | -15.1 | 5.3 |

Poland | 69.9 | 71.5 | 60.8 | 88.0 | -9.2 | 16.5 |

Portugal | 77.3 | 82.7 | 76.4 | 94.2 | -0.9 | 11.5 |

Romania | 70.7 | 76.9 | 66.3 | 85.4 | -4.3 | 8.6 |

Slovenia | 77.1 | 82.7 | 84.8 | 95.3 | 7.8 | 12.6 |

Slovakia | 79.0 | 79.5 | 54.2 | 88.2 | -24.8 | 8.7 |

Finland | 78.9 | 79.5 | 70.6 | 92.7 | -8.3 | 13.2 |

United Kingdom | 82.9 | 84.1 | 63.1 | 91.0 | -19.8 | 6.8 |

Source : Eurostat, European Labour Force Survey, annual averages.

Notes: No data for DK, IE and SE.

At-risk-of-poverty rate after social transfers for older people (women and men aged 65 years and over) in EU Member States – 2004

Women | Men |

EU-27 | 21 | 16 |

Belgium | 22 | 20 |

Bulgaria | 23 | 5 |

Czech Republic | 7 | 2 |

Denmark | 18 | 17 |

Germany | 18 | 12 |

Estonia | 26 | 10 |

Ireland | 36 | 30 |

Greece | 30 | 25 |

Spain | 32 | 26 |

France | 18 | 15 |

Italy | 25 | 19 |

Cyprus | 53 | 47 |

Latvia | 26 | 12 |

Lithuania | 22 | 6 |

Luxembourg | 5 | 9 |

Hungary | 8 | 4 |

Malta | 17 | 16 |

Netherlands | 6 | 5 |

Austria | 17 | 10 |

Poland | 9 | 5 |

Portugal | 28 | 28 |

Romania | 21 | 12 |

Slovenia | 26 | 11 |

Slovakia | 10 | 3 |

Finland | 23 | 11 |

Sweden | 14 | 6 |

United Kingdom | 29 | 24 |

Source: Eurostat. SILC and national sources.

NB: 1) At risk of poverty rate for elderly persons: The share of persons aged 65+ with an income below the risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60% of the national median income. Income must be understood as equivalised disposable income (sum from all sources, adjusted for household size and composition). It should be noted that the risk-of-poverty indicator is computed using an income definition which does not yet include imputed rent of owner-occupiers. Comparisons between genders are based on the assumption of equal sharing of resources within households. Source: EU-25 : SILC(2005) Income data 2004. BG: National HBS 2004, income data 2004 and RO National HBS 2005, income data 2005. Exception to the income reference period : UK: income year 2005 and IE: moving income reference period (2004-2005). EU aggregates are computed as population weighted averages of national values.

Indicators for the candidate countries in 2006

Turkey | Croatia | FYROM |

|Women |Men |Gap |Women |Men |Gap |Women |Men |Gap | |Activity rate (15-64) (1) |26.1 |74.4 |48.3 |56.9 |68.9 |12.0 |43.2 |64.9 |21.7 | |Employment rate (15-64) (2) |23.9 |68.1 |44.2 |49.4 |62.0 |12.6 |30.7 |48.3 |17.6 | |Employment rate (of people aged 20-49) with/without children <12 |22.3/40.8 |88/76.4 |- |65.8/68.9 |86/73.6 |- |: |: |: | |Employment rate of older workers (55-64) (3) |16.7 |44.1 |27.4 |25.7 |44.4 |18.7 |17 |36 |19 | |Unemployment rate (2) |8.4 |8.4 |0 |12.7 |9.8 |-2.9 |37.2 |35.3 |-1.9 | |Unemployment on population 15-24 (4) |3.9 |8 |4.1 |9.8 |10.9 |1.1 |20.2 |21.1 |0.9 | |Share of part-time workers |17.8 |4.4 |-13.4 |11.7 |7.5 |-4.2 |: |: |: | |Share of employees with temporary contracts |13.1 |13.3 |0.2 |12.6 |13.1 |0.5 |: |: |: | |Educational attainment (upper secondary school, 20-24) (5) |51.7 |38.9 |12.8 |94.9 |92.8 |2.1 |: |: |: | |Life long learning (5) |2.4 |1.6 |0.8 |2.1 |2.0 |0.1 |: |: |: | |Share of members of national parliaments (6) |3 |97 |- |22 |78 |- |27.5 |72.5 |- | |Share among managers |7.8 |92.2 |- |25.6 |74.4 |- |: |: |: | |Source: LFS 2006. For FYROM: other sources indicated below.

The gender gap is always calculated as the value for men minus the value for women.

(1) For FYROM, the reference year is 2004 and the source is Labour Force Survey 2005, Basic – Republic of Macedonia, State Statistical Office. It should be noted that the activity rate is calculated among all persons older than 15 (and not 15-64).

(2) For FYROM, the source is the FYROM 2007 Progress report (SEC(2007)1432).

(3) For FYROM, the reference year is 2004 and the source is DG EMPL's estimate based on Labour Force Survey 2005, Basic – Republic of Macedonia, State Statistical Office.

(4) For FYROM, the reference year is 2004 and the source is Labour Force Survey 2005, Basic – Republic of Macedonia, State Statistical Office.

(5) Exception to the reference year: Croatia: 2005

(6) Source: European Commission, Employment, Social affairs and Equal opportunities DG, Database on Women and Men in Decision making, except for FYROM where the source is the FYROM 2007 Progress report (SEC(2007)1432).

[1] COM(2007) 359.

[2] COM(2001) 313.

[3] COM(2006) 92.

[4] SEC(2007) 537.

[5] SEC(2006) 1245.

[6] http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/social_dialogue/consultations_en.htm

[7] COM(2007) 244.

[8] Directive 2002/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 September 2002 amending Council Directive 76/207/EEC on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions.

[9] COM(2007) 424.

[10] COM(2007) 359.

[11] Decision of the Council of 30.05.2007 (2007/C 128/02) and of the Commission of 30.04.2007.

[12] An issue emphasised at the informal meeting of ministers responsible for equality issues in October 2007 under the Portuguese Presidency of the Council.

[13] This is one of the priority subjects identified in the declaration of the Trio Presidency on gender equality in the EU, adopted at the end of the informal meeting of ministers responsible for equality issues in May 2007 under the German Presidency of the Council.

[14] COM(2007) 620.

[15] To cover 33% of children aged 0–3 years and 90% of children from the age of 3 up to school-age by 2010.

[16] http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/gender_equality/docs/2007/manual_gend_mainstr_en.pdf

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