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2006/871/EC: Council Decision of 18 July 2005 on the conclusion on behalf of the European Community of the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds

OJ L 345, 8.12.2006, p. 24–25 (ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, SK, SL, FI, SV)
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8.12.2006   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 345/24


COUNCIL DECISION

of 18 July 2005

on the conclusion on behalf of the European Community of the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds

(2006/871/EC)

THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular, Article 175(1), in conjunction with Article 300(2), first sentence of the first subparagraph, Article 300(3), first subparagraph, and Article 300(4) thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the Commission,

Having regard to the opinion of the European Parliament (1),

Whereas:

(1)

The European Community is a Contracting Party to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (hereinafter referred to as the Bonn Convention) (2).

(2)

Article IV of the Bonn Convention provides for the conclusion of regional agreements which, for species with an unfavourable conservation status (Appendix II species), should be concluded as soon as possible.

(3)

The waterbirds of the African-Eurasian flyways, which are Appendix II species, merit immediate attention in order to improve their conservation status and to gather information as a basis for sound management decisions.

(4)

The first Conference of the Parties to the Bonn Convention decided to draw up an Agreement for the Conservation of Western Palaearctic Anatidae. The draft Agreement was subsequently developed and renamed so as to include other species of migratory waterbirds.

(5)

In the field relating to this agreement, the Community has adopted Council Directives 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds (3), and 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (4).

(6)

The Commission participated on behalf of the Community, and in accordance with the negotiating directives issued by the Council on 7 June 1995, at the negotiation meeting that took place from 12 to 16 June 1995 in The Hague. This meeting adopted by consensus the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (hereinafter referred to as the Agreement).

(7)

The Agreement was opened for signature from 16 October 1995. It was signed on behalf of the Community on 1 September 1997. It came into effect on 1 November 1999.

(8)

Article X of the Agreement provides for amendments to the Annexes to enter into force ninety days after the Meeting of the Parties at which they are adopted for all Parties, except for Parties that enter a reservation in accordance with paragraph 6 thereof.

(9)

The Annexes to the Agreement were amended by Resolutions at the first Meeting of the Parties, held in Cape Town, South Africa, in November 1999, and at the second Meeting of the Parties, held in Bonn, Germany, in September 2002.

(10)

The Agreement should be approved,

HAS DECIDED AS FOLLOWS:

Article 1

The Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds, is hereby approved on behalf of the Community.

The text of the Agreement is attached to this Decision.

Article 2

The President of the Council is hereby authorised to designate the person or persons empowered to deposit the instrument of approval with the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, being the Depositary for the Agreement, in accordance with Article XVII thereof.

Article 3

1.   As regards matters falling within Community competence, the Commission is hereby authorised to approve, on behalf of the Community, amendments to the Annexes to the Agreement adopted in accordance with Article X(5) of the Agreement.

2.   The Commission shall be assisted in carrying out this task by a special committee appointed by the Council.

3.   The authorisation referred to in paragraph 1 shall be limited to those amendments that are consistent with, and do not entail any modification of, Community legislation on the conservation of wild birds and their natural habitats.

4.   Whenever an amendment to the Annexes to the Agreement is not implemented in the relevant Community legislation within ninety days of the date of its adoption by the Meeting of the Parties, the Commission shall by written notification to the Depositary enter a reservation with respect to that amendment in accordance with Article X(6) of the Agreement before the expiry of that ninety day period. Where the amendment is subsequently implemented, the Commission shall withdraw the reservation without delay.

Article 4

This Decision shall be published in the Official Journal of the European Union.

Done at Brussels, 18 July 2005.

For the Council

The President

M. BECKETT


(1)  Not yet published in the Official Journal.

(2)  OJ L 210, 19.7.1982, p. 10.

(3)  OJ L 103, 25.4.1979, p. 1. Directive as last amended by the 2003 Act of Accession.

(4)  OJ L 206, 22.7.1992, p. 7. Directive as last amended by the 2003 Act of Accession.


AGREEMENT

on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds

THE CONTRACTING PARTIES,

RECALLING that the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 1979, encourages international cooperative action to conserve migratory species;

RECALLING further that the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention, held in Bonn in October 1985, instructed the Secretariat of the Convention to take appropriate measures to develop an Agreement on Western Palearctic Anatidae;

CONSIDERING that migratory waterbirds constitute an important part of the global biological diversity which, in keeping with the spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992, and Agenda 21 should be conserved for the benefit of present and future generations;

AWARE of the economic, social, cultural and recreational benefits accruing from the taking of certain species of migratory waterbirds and of the environmental, ecological, genetic, scientific, aesthetic, recreational, cultural, educational, social and economic values of waterbirds in general;

CONVINCED that any taking of migratory waterbirds must be conducted on a sustainable basis, taking into account the conservation status of the species concerned over their entire range as well as their biological characteristics;

CONSCIOUS that migratory waterbirds are particularly vulnerable because they migrate over long distances and are dependent on networks of wetlands that are decreasing in extent and becoming degraded through non-sustainable human activities, as is expressed in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 1971;

RECOGNISING the need to take immediate action to stop the decline of migratory waterbird species and their habitats in the geographic area of the African-Eurasian waterbird migration systems;

CONVINCED that the conclusion of a multilateral Agreement and its implementation through coordinated or concerted action will contribute significantly to the conservation of migratory waterbirds and their habitats in the most efficient manner, and will have ancillary benefits for many other species of animals and plants; and

ACKNOWLEDGING that effective implementation of such an Agreement will require assistance to be provided to some Range States for research, training and monitoring of migratory waterbird species and their habitats, for the management of those habitats as well as for the establishment or improvement of scientific and administrative institutions for the implementation of this Agreement,

HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:

Article I

Scope, definitions and interpretation

1.   The geographic scope of this Agreement is the area of the migration systems of African-Eurasian waterbirds, as defined in Annex 1 to this Agreement, hereafter referred to as the ‘Agreement area’.

2.   For the purpose of this Agreement:

(a)

‘Convention’ means the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 1979;

(b)

‘Convention Secretariat’ means the body established under Article IX of the Convention;

(c)

‘Waterbirds’ means those species of birds that are ecologically dependent on wetlands for at least part of their annual cycle, have a range which lies entirely or partly within the Agreement Area and are listed in Annex 2 to this Agreement;

(d)

‘Agreement secretariat’ means the body established under Article VI(7)(b) of this Agreement;

(e)

‘Parties’ means, unless the context otherwise indicates, Parties to this Agreement;

and

(f)

‘Parties present and voting’ means the Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote; those abstaining from voting shall not be counted amongst the Parties present and voting.

In addition, the terms defined in Article I(1)(a) to (k), of the Convention shall have the same meaning, mutatis mutandis, in this Agreement.

3.   This Agreement is an Agreement within the meaning of Article IV(3), of the Convention.

4.   The Annexes to this Agreement form an integral part thereof. Any reference to the Agreement includes a reference to its annexes.

Article II

Fundamental principles

1.   Parties shall take coordinated measures to maintain migratory waterbird species in a favourable conservation status or to restore them to such a status. To this end, they shall apply within the limits of their national jurisdiction the measures prescribed in Article III, together with the specific actions determined in the Action Plan provided for in Article IV, of this Agreement.

2.   In implementing the measures prescribed in paragraph 1, Parties should take into account the precautionary principle.

Article III

General conservation measures

1.   The Parties shall take measures to conserve migratory waterbirds, giving special attention to endangered species as well as to those with an unfavourable conservation status.

2.   To this end, the Parties shall:

(a)

accord the same strict protection for endangered migratory waterbird species in the Agreement Area as is provided for under Article III(4) and (5) of the Convention;

(b)

ensure that any use of migratory waterbirds is based on an assessment of the best available knowledge of their ecology and is sustainable for the species as well as for the ecological systems that support them;

(c)

identify sites and habitats for migratory waterbirds occurring within their territory and encourage the protection, management, rehabilitation and restoration of these sites, in liaison with those bodies listed in Article IX(a) and (b) of this Agreement, concerned with habitat conservation;

(d)

coordinate their efforts to ensure that a network of suitable habitats is maintained or, where appropriate, re-established throughout the entire range of each migratory waterbird species concerned, in particular where wetlands extend over the area of more than one Party to this Agreement;

(e)

investigate problems that are posed or are likely to be posed by human activities and endeavour to implement remedial measures, including habitat rehabilitation and restoration, and compensatory measures for loss of habitat;

(f)

cooperate in emergency situations requiring international concerted action and in identifying the species of migratory waterbirds which are the most vulnerable to these situations as well as cooperate in developing appropriate emergency procedures to provide increased protection to these species in such situations and in the preparation of guidelines to assist individual Parties in tackling these situations;

(g)

prohibit the deliberate introduction of non-native waterbird species into the environment and take all appropriate measures to prevent the unintentional release of such species if this introduction or release would prejudice the conservation status of wild flora and fauna; when non-native waterbird species have already been introduced, the Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent these species from becoming a potential threat to indigenous species;

(h)

initiate or support research into the biology and ecology of migratory waterbirds including the harmonisation of research and monitoring methods and, where appropriate, the establishment of joint or cooperative research and monitoring programmes;

(i)

analyse their training requirements for, inter alia, migratory waterbird surveys, monitoring, ringing and wetland management to identify priority topics and areas for training and cooperate in the development and provision of appropriate training programmes;

(j)

develop and maintain programmes to raise awareness and understanding of migratory waterbird conservation issues in general and of the particular objectives and provisions of this Agreement;

(k)

exchange information and results from research, monitoring, conservation and education programmes;

and

(l)

cooperate with a view to assisting each other to implement this Agreement, particularly in the areas of research and monitoring.

Article IV

Action Plan and Conservation Guidelines

1.   An Action Plan is appended as Annex 3 to this Agreement. It specifies actions which the Parties shall undertake in relation to priority species and issues, under the following headings, consistent with the general conservation measures specified in Article III of this Agreement:

(a)

species conservation;

(b)

habitat conservation;

(c)

management of human activities;

(d)

research and monitoring;

(e)

education and information;

and

(f)

implementation.

2.   The Action Plan shall be reviewed at each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties, taking into account the Conservation Guidelines.

3.   Any amendment to the Action Plan shall be adopted by the Meeting of the Parties, taking into consideration the provisions of Article III of this Agreement.

4.   The Conservation Guidelines shall be submitted to the Meeting of the Parties for adoption at its first session, and shall be regularly reviewed.

Article V

Implementation and financing

1.   Each Party shall:

(a)

designate the authority or authorities to implement this Agreement which shall, inter alia, monitor all activities that may have impact on the conservation status of those migratory waterbird species of which the Party is a Range State;

(b)

designate a contact point for the other Parties, and communicate without delay its name and address to the Agreement secretariat to be circulated forthwith to the other Parties;

and

(c)

prepare for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties, beginning with the second session, a report on its implementation of the Agreement with particular reference to the conservation measures it has undertaken. The format of such reports shall be determined by the first session of the Meeting of the Parties and reviewed as may be necessary at any subsequent session of the Meeting of the Parties. Each report shall be submitted to the Agreement secretariat not less than 120 days before the ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties for which it has been prepared, and copies shall be circulated forthwith to the other Parties by the Agreement secretariat.

2.

(a)

Each Party shall contribute to the budget of the Agreement in accordance with the United Nations scale of assessment. The contributions shall be restricted to a maximum of 25 % of the total budget for any Party that is a Range State. No regional economic integration organisation shall be required to contribute more than 2,5 % of the administrative costs.

(b)

Decisions relating to the budget and any changes to the scale of assessment that may be found necessary shall be adopted by the Meeting of the Parties by consensus.

3.   The Meeting of the Parties may establish a conservation fund from voluntary contributions of Parties or from any other source for the purpose of financing monitoring, research, training and projects relating to the conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds.

4.   Parties are encouraged to provide training and technical and financial support to other Parties on a multilateral or bilateral basis to assist them in implementing the provisions of this Agreement.

Article VI

Meeting of the Parties

1.   The Meeting of the Parties shall be the decision-making body of this Agreement.

2.   The Depositary shall, in consultation with the Convention Secretariat, convene a session of the Meeting of the Parties not later than one year after the date of the entry into force of this Agreement. Thereafter, the Agreement secretariat shall convene, in consultation with the Convention Secretariat, ordinary sessions of the Meeting of the Parties at intervals of not more than three years, unless the Meeting of the Parties decides otherwise. Where it is possible to do so, such sessions should be held in conjunction with the ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.

3.   On the written request of at least one third of the Parties, the Agreement secretariat shall convene an extraordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties.

4.   The United Nations, its specialised agencies, the International Atomic Energy Agency, any State not a Party to the Agreement, and the secretariats of international conventions concerned, inter alia, with the conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds may be represented by observers in sessions of the Meeting of the Parties. Any agency or body technically qualified in such conservation matters or in research on migratory waterbirds may also be represented at sessions of the Meeting of the Parties by observers, unless at least one third of the Parties present object.

5.   Only Parties have the right to vote. Each Party shall have one vote, but regional economic integration organisations which are Parties to this Agreement shall, in matters within their competence, exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their Member States which are Parties to the Agreement. A regional economic integration organisation shall not exercise its right to vote if its Member States exercise theirs, and vice versa.

6.   Unless provided otherwise in this Agreement, decisions of the Meeting of the Parties shall be adopted by consensus or, if consensus cannot be achieved, by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting.

7.   At its first session, the Meeting of the Parties shall:

(a)

adopt its rules of procedure by consensus;

(b)

establish an Agreement secretariat within the Convention Secretariat to perform the secretariat functions listed in Article VIII of this Agreement;

(c)

establish the Technical Committee provided for in Article VII of this Agreement;

(d)

adopt a format for the reports to be prepared according to Article V(1)(c) of this Agreement;

and

(e)

adopt criteria to define emergency situations which require urgent conservation measures, and determine the modalities for assigning responsibility for action to be taken.

8.   At each of its ordinary sessions, the Meeting of the Parties shall:

(a)

consider actual and potential changes in the conservation status of migratory waterbirds and the habitats important for their survival, as well as the factors which may affect them;

(b)

review the progress made and any difficulty encountered in the implementation of this Agreement;

(c)

adopt a budget and consider any matters relating to the financial arrangements for this Agreement;

(d)

deal with any matter relating to the Agreement secretariat and the membership of the Technical Committee;

(e)

adopt a report for communication to the Parties to this Agreement and to the Conference of the Parties of the Convention;

and

(f)

determine the time and venue of the next session.

9.   At any of its sessions, the Meeting of the Parties may:

(a)

make recommendations to the Parties as it deems necessary or appropriate;

(b)

adopt specific actions to improve the effectiveness of this Agreement and, as the case may be, emergency measures as provided for in Article VII(4) of this Agreement;

(c)

consider and decide upon proposals to amend this Agreement;

(d)

amend the Action Plan in accordance with Article IV(3) of this Agreement;

(e)

establish such subsidiary bodies as it deems necessary to assist in the implementation of this Agreement, in particular for coordination with bodies established under other international treaties, conventions and agreements with overlapping geographic and taxonomic coverage;

and

(f)

decide on any other matter relating to the implementation of this Agreement.

Article VII

Technical Committee

1.   The Technical Committee shall comprise:

(a)

nine experts representing different regions of the Agreement Area, in accordance with a balanced geographical distribution;

(b)

one representative from the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), one from the International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau (IWRB) and one from the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC);

and

(c)

one expert from each of the following fields: rural economics, game management, and environmental law.

The procedure for the appointment of the experts, the term of their appointment and the procedure for designation of the Chairman of the Technical Committee shall be determined by the Meeting of the Parties. The Chairman may admit a maximum of four observers from specialised international inter-governmental and non-governmental organisations.

2.   Unless the Meeting of the Parties decides otherwise, meetings of the Technical Committee shall be convened by the Agreement secretariat in conjunction with each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties and at least once between ordinary sessions of the Meeting of the Parties.

3.   The Technical Committee shall:

(a)

provide scientific and technical advice and information to the Meeting of the Parties and, through the Agreement secretariat, to Parties;

(b)

make recommendations to the Meeting of the Parties concerning the Action Plan, implementation of the Agreement and further research to be carried out;

(c)

prepare for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties a report on its activities, which shall be submitted to the Agreement secretariat not less than one hundred and twenty days before the session of the Meeting of the Parties, and copies shall be circulated forthwith by the Agreement secretariat to the Parties;

and

(d)

carry out any other tasks referred to it by the Meeting of the Parties.

4.   Where in the opinion of the Technical Committee there has arisen an emergency which requires the adoption of immediate measures to avoid deterioration of the conservation status of one or more migratory waterbird species, the Technical Committee may request the Agreement secretariat to convene urgently a meeting of the Parties concerned. These Parties shall meet as soon as possible thereafter to establish rapidly a mechanism to give protection to the species identified as being subject to particularly adverse threat. Where a recommendation has been adopted at such a meeting, the Parties concerned shall inform each other and the Agreement secretariat of measures they have taken to implement it, or of the reasons why the recommendation could not be implemented.

5.   The Technical Committee may establish such working groups as may be necessary to deal with specific tasks.

Article VIII

Agreement Secretariat

The functions of the Agreement secretariat shall be:

(a)

to arrange and service the sessions of the Meeting of the Parties as well as the meetings of the Technical Committee;

(b)

to execute the decisions addressed to it by the Meeting of the Parties;

(c)

to promote and coordinate activities under the Agreement, including the Action Plan, in accordance with decisions of the Meeting of the Parties;

(d)

to liaise with non-Party Range States and to facilitate coordination between the Parties and with international and national organisations, the activities of which are directly or indirectly relevant to the conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds;

(e)

to gather and evaluate information which will further the objectives and implementation of the Agreement and to arrange for appropriate dissemination of such information;

(f)

to invite the attention of the Meeting of the Parties to matters pertaining to the objectives of this Agreement;

(g)

to circulate copies of the reports of the Authorities referred to in Article V5(1)(a) of this Agreement and of the Technical Committee, along with copies of the reports it must provide pursuant to paragraph (h) of this Article, to each Party not less than sixty days before the commencement of each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties;

(h)

to prepare, on an annual basis and for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties, reports on the work of the secretariat and on the implementation of the Agreement;

(i)

to administer the budget for the Agreement and, if established, its conservation fund;

(j)

to provide information for the general public concerning the Agreement and its objectives;

and

(k)

to perform such other functions as may be entrusted to it under the Agreement or by the Meeting of the Parties.

Article IX

Relations with international bodies dealing with migratory waterbirds and their habitats

The Agreement secretariat shall consult:

(a)

on a regular basis, the Convention Secretariat and, where appropriate, the bodies responsible for the secretariat functions under Agreements concluded pursuant to Article IV(3)(4) of the Convention which are relevant to migratory waterbirds, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 1971, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1973, the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1968, the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, 1979, and the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992, with a view to the Meeting of the Parties cooperating with the Parties to these conventions on all matters of common interest and, in particular, in the development and implementation of the Action Plan;

(b)

the secretariats of other pertinent conventions and international instruments in respect of matters of common interest;

and

(c)

other organisations competent in the field of conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds and their habitats, as well as in the fields of research, education and awareness raising.

Article X

Amendment of the Agreement

1.   This Agreement may be amended at any ordinary or extraordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties.

2.   Proposals for amendment may be made by any Party.

3.   The text of any proposed amendment and the reasons for it shall be communicated to the Agreement secretariat not less than 150 days before the opening of the session. The Agreement secretariat shall transmit copies forthwith to the Parties. Any comments on the text by the Parties shall be communicated to the Agreement secretariat not less than 60 days before the opening of the session. The Secretariat shall, as soon as possible after the last day for submission of comments, communicate to the Parties all comments submitted by that day.

4.   An amendment to the Agreement other than an amendment to its annexes shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting and shall enter into force for those Parties which have accepted it on the 30th day after the date on which two thirds of the Parties to the Agreement at the date of the adoption of the amendment have deposited their instruments of acceptance of the amendment with the Depositary. For each Party which deposits an instrument of acceptance after the date on which two thirds of the Parties have deposited their instruments of acceptance, the amendment shall enter into force on the 30th day after the date on which it deposits its instrument of acceptance.

5.   Any additional annexes and any amendment to an annex shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting and shall enter into force for all Parties on the 90th day after the date of its adoption by the Meeting of the Parties, except for Parties which have entered a reservation in accordance with paragraph 6 of this Article.

6.   During the period of ninety days provided for in paragraph 5 of this Article, any Party may by written notification to the Depositary enter a reservation with respect to an additional annex or an amendment to an annex. Such reservation may be withdrawn at any time by written notification to the Depositary, and thereupon the additional annex or the amendment shall enter into force for that Party on the 30th day after the date of withdrawal of the reservation.

Article XI

Effect of this Agreement on international conventions and legislation

1.   The provisions of this Agreement do not affect the rights and obligations of any Party deriving from existing international treaties, conventions or agreements.

2.   The provisions of this Agreement shall in no way affect the right of any Party to maintain or adopt stricter measures for the conservation of migratory waterbirds and their habitats.

Article XII

Settlement of disputes

1.   Any dispute which may arise between two or more Parties with respect to the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Agreement shall be subject to negotiation between the Parties involved in the dispute.

2.   If the dispute cannot be resolved in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article, the Parties may, by mutual consent, submit the dispute to arbitration, in particular that of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague, and the Parties submitting the dispute shall be bound by the arbitral decision.

Article XIII

Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval, accession

1.   This Agreement shall be open for signature by any Range State, whether or not areas under its jurisdiction lie within the Agreement Area, or regional economic integration organisation, at least one member of which is a Range State, either by:

(a)

signature without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval;

or

(b)

signature with reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval, followed by ratification, acceptance or approval.

2.   This Agreement shall remain open for signature at The Hague until the date of its entry into force.

3.   This Agreement shall be open for accession by any Range State or regional economic integration organisation mentioned in paragraph 1 on and after the date of entry into force of the Agreement.

4.   Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.

Article XIV

Entry into force

1.   This Agreement shall enter into force on the first day of the third month after at least 14 Range States or regional economic integration organisations, comprising at least seven from Africa and seven from Eurasia, have signed without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval, or have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval in accordance with Article XIII of this Agreement.

2.   For any Range State or regional economic integration organisation which has:

(a)

signed without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance, or approval;

(b)

ratified, accepted, or approved;

or

(c)

acceded to this Agreement after the date on which the number of Range States and regional economic integration organisations necessary to enable entry into force have signed it without reservation or have ratified, accepted or approved it, this Agreement shall enter into force on the first day of the third month following the signature without reservation, or deposit, by that State or organisation, of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

Article XV

Reservations

The provisions of this Agreement shall not be subject to general reservations. However, a specific reservation may be entered by any State or regional economic integration organisation on signature without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval or, as the case may be, on depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession in respect of any species covered by the Agreement or any specific provision of the Action Plan. Such a reservation may be withdrawn at any time by the State or regional economic integration organisation which had entered it, by notification in writing to the Depositary; such a State or organisation shall not be bound by the provisions which are the object of the reservation until 30 days after the date on which the reservation has been withdrawn.

Article XVI

Denunciation

Any Party may denounce this Agreement by written notification to the Depositary at any time. The denunciation shall take effect 12 months after the date on which the Depositary has received the notification.

Article XVII

Depositary

1.   The original of this Agreement, in the Arabic, English, French and Russian languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands which shall be the Depositary. The Depositary shall transmit certified copies of these versions to all States and regional economic integration organisations referred to in Article XIII(1) of this Agreement, and to the Agreement secretariat after it has been established.

2.   As soon as this Agreement enters into force, a certified copy thereof shall be transmitted by the Depositary to the Secretariat of the United Nations for registration and publication in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

3.   The Depositary shall inform all States and regional economic integration organisations that have signed or acceded to the Agreement, and the Agreement secretariat, of:

(a)

any signature;

(b)

any deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;

(c)

the date of entry into force of this Agreement and of any additional annex as well as of any amendment to the Agreement or to its Annexes;

(d)

any reservation with respect to an additional annex or to an amendment to an annex;

(e)

any notification of withdrawal of a reservation;

and

(f)

any notification of denunciation of the Agreement.

The Depositary shall transmit to all States and regional economic integration organisations that have signed or acceded to this Agreement, and to the Agreement secretariat, the text of any reservation, of any additional annex and of any amendment to the Agreement or to its annexes.

In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised to that effect, have signed this Agreement.

Done at The Hague on the sixteenth day of June in this year one thousand nine hundred and ninety-five.

ANNEX 1

DEFINITION OF THE AGREEMENT AREA

The boundary of the Agreement area is defined as follows: from the North Pole south along the 130° W line of longitude to 75° N; thence east and south-east through Viscount Melville Sound, Prince Regent Inlet, the Gulf of Boothia, Foxe Basin, Foxe Channel and Hudson Strait to a point in the north-west Atlantic at 60° N, 60° W; thence south-east through the north-west Atlantic to a point at 50° N, 30° W; thence south along the 30° W line of longitude to 10° N; thence south-east to the Equator at 20° W; thence south along the 20° W line of longitude to 40° S; thence east along the 40° S line of latitude to 60° E; thence north along the 60° E line of longitude to 35° N; thence east-north-east on a great circle to a point in the western Altai at 49° N, 87°  27' E; thence northeast on a great circle to the coast of the Arctic Ocean at 130° E; thence north along the 130° E line of longitude to the North Pole. The outline of the Agreement Area is illustrated on the following map.

Image

ANNEX 2

WATERBIRD SPECIES TO WHICH THE AGREEMENT APPLIES (1)

SPHENISCIDAE

Spheniscus demersus

African Penguin

GAVIIDAE

Gavia stellata

Red-throated Diver

Gavia arctica

Black-throated Diver

Gavia immer

Great Northern Diver

Gavia adamsii

White-billed Diver

PODICIPEDIDAE

Tachybaptus ruficollis

Little Grebe

Podiceps cristatus

Great Crested Grebe

Podiceps grisegena

Red-necked Grebe

Podiceps auritus

Slavonian Grebe

Podiceps nigricollis

Black-necked Grebe

PELECANIDAE

Pelecanus onocrotalus

Great White Pelican

Pelecanus rufescens

Pink-backed Pelican

Pelecanus crispus

Dalmatian Pelican

SULIDAE

Sula (Morus) capensis

Cape Gannet

PHALACROCORACIDAE

Phalacrocorax coronatus

Crowned Cormorant

Phalacrocorax pygmeus

Pygmy Cormorant

Phalacrocorax neglectus

Bank Cormorant

Phalacrocorax carbo

Great Cormorant

Phalacrocorax nigrogularis

Socotra Cormorant

Phalacrocorax capensis

Cape Cormorant

ARDEIDAE

Egretta ardesiaca

Black Heron

Egretta vinaceigula

Slaty Egret

Egretta garzetta

Little Egret

Egretta gularis

Western Reef Egret

Egretta dimorpha

Mascarene Reef Egret

Ardea cinerea

Grey Heron

Ardea melanocephala

Black-headed Heron

Ardea purpurea

Purple Heron

Casmerodius albus

Great Egret

Mesophoyx intermedia

Intermediate Egret

Bubulcus ibis

Cattle Egret

Ardeola ralloides

Squacco Heron

Ardeola idae

Madagascar Pond-Heron

Ardeola rufiventris

Rufous-bellied Heron

Nycticorax nycticorax

Black-crowned Night-Heron

Ixobrychus minutus

Little Bittern

Ixobrychus sturmii

Dwarf Bittern

Botaurus stellaris

Great Bittern

CICONIIDAE

Mycteria ibis

Yellow-billed Stork

Anastomus lamelligerus

African Openbill

Ciconia nigra

Black Stork

Ciconia abdimii

Abdim's Stork

Ciconia episcopus

Woolly-necked Stork

Ciconia ciconia

White Stork

Leptoptilos crumeniferus

Marabou Stork

BALAENICIPITIDAE

Balaeniceps rex

Shoebill

THRESKIORNITHIDAE

Plegadis falcinellus

Glossy Ibis

Geronticus eremita

Waldrapp

Threskiornis aethiopicus

Sacred Ibis

Platalea leucorodia

Eurasian Spoonbill

Platalea alba

African Spoonbill

PHOENICOPTERIDAE

Phoenicopterus ruber

Greater Flamingo

Phoenicopterus minor

Lesser Flamingo

ANATIDAE

Dendrocygna bicolor

Fulvous Whistling-Duck

Dendrocygna viduata

White-faced Whistling-Duck

Thalassornis leuconotus

White-backed Duck

Oxyura leucocephala

White-headed Duck

Oxyura maccoa

Maccoa Duck

Cygnus olor

Mute Swan

Cygnus cygnus

Whooper Swan

Cygnus columbianus

Bewick's Swan

Anser brachyrhynchus

Pink-footed Goose

Anser fabalis

Bean Goose

Anser albifrons

Greater White-fronted Goose

Anser erythropus

Lesser White-fronted Goose

Anser anser

Greylag Goose

Branta leucopsis

Barnacle Goose

Branta bernicla

Brent Goose

Branta ruficollis

Red-breasted Goose

Alopochen aegyptiacus

Egyptian Goose

Tadorna ferruginea

Ruddy Shelduck

Tadorna cana

South African Shelduck

Tadorna tadorna

Common Shelduck

Plectropterus gambensis

Spur-winged Goose

Sarkidiornis melanotos

Comb Duck

Nettapus auritus

African Pygmy-goose

Anas penelope

Eurasian Wigeon

Anas strepera

Gadwall

Anas crecca

Common Teal

Anas capensis

Cape Teal

Anas platyrhynchos

Mallard

Anas undulata

Yellow-billed Duck

Anas acuta

Northern Pintail

Anas erythrorhyncha

Red-billed Duck

Anas hottentota

Hottentot Teal

Anas querquedula

Garganey

Anas clypeata

Northern Shoveler

Marmaronetta angustirostris

Marbled Teal

Netta rufina

Red-crested Pochard

Netta erythrophthalma

Southern Pochard

Aythya ferina

Common Pochard

Aythya nyroca

Ferruginous Pochard

Aythya fuligula

Tufted Duck

Aythya marila

Greater Scaup

Somateria mollissima

Common Eider

Somateria spectabilis

King Eider

Polysticta stelleri

Steller's Eider

Clangula hyemalis

Long-tailed Duck

Melanitta nigra

Common Scoter

Melanitta fusca

Velvet Scoter

Bucephala clangula

Common Goldeneye

Mergellus albellus

Smew

Mergus serrator

Red-breasted Merganser

Mergus merganser

Goosander

GRUIDAE

Balearica pavonina

Black Crowned Crane

Balearica regulorum

Grey Crowned Crane

Grus leucogeranus

Siberian Crane

Grus virgo

Demoiselle Crane

Grus paradisea

Blue Crane

Grus carunculatus

Wattled Crane

Grus grus

Common Crane

RALLIDAE

Sarothrura elegans

Buff-spotted Flufftail

Sarothrura boehmi

Streaky-breasted Flufftail

Sarothrura ayresi

White-winged Flufftail

Rallus aquaticus

Water Rail

Rallus caerulescens

African Rail

Crecopsis egregia

African Crake

Crex crex

Corncrake

Amaurornis flavirostris

Black Crake

Porzana parva

Little Crake

Porzana pusilla

Baillon's Crake

Porzana porzana

Spotted Crake

Aenigmatolimnas marginalis

Striped Crake

Porphyrio alleni

Allen's Gallinule

Gallinula chloropus

Common Moorhen

Gallinula angulata

Lesser Moorhen

Fulica cristata

Red-knobbed Coot

Fulica atra

Common Coot

DROMADIDAE

Dromas ardeola

Crab Plover

HAEMATOPODIDAE

Haematopus ostralegus

Eurasian Oystercatcher

Haematopus moquini

African Black Oystercatcher

RECURVIROSTRIDAE

Himantopus himantopus

Black-winged Stilt

Recurvirostra avosetta

Pied Avocet

BURHINIDAE

Burhinus senegalensis

Senegal Thick-knee

GLAREOLIDAE

Pluvianus aegyptius

Egyptian Plover

Glareola pratincola

Collared Pratincole

Glareola nordmanni

Black-winged Pratincole

Glareola ocularis

Madagascar Pratincole

Glareola nuchalis

Rock Pratincole

Glareola cinerea

Grey Pratincole

CHARADRIIDAE

Pluvialis apricaria

Eurasian Golden Plover

Pluvialis fulva

Pacific Golden Plover

Pluvialis squatarola

Grey Plover

Charadrius hiaticula

Common Ringed Plover

Charadrius dubius

Little Ringed Plover

Charadrius pecuarius

Kittlitz's Plover

Charadrius tricollaris

Three-banded Plover

Charadrius forbesi

Forbes's Plover

Charadrius pallidus

Chestnut-banded Plover

Charadrius alexandrinus

Kentish Plover

Charadrius marginatus

White-fronted Plover

Charadrius mongolus

Mongolian Plover

Charadrius leschenaultii

Greater Sandplover

Charadrius asiaticus

Caspian Plover

Eudromias morinellus

Eurasian Dotterel

Vanellus vanellus

Northern Lapwing

Vanellus spinosus

Spur-winged Plover

Vanellus albiceps

White-headed Lapwing

Vanellus senegallus

Wattled Lapwing

Vanellus lugubris

Senegal Lapwing

Vanellus melanopterus

Black-winged Lapwing

Vanellus coronatus

Crowned Lapwing

Vanellus superciliosus

Brown-chested Lapwing

Vanellus gregarius

Sociable Plover

Vanellus leucurus

White-tailed Plover

SCOLOPACIDAE

Scolopax rusticola

Eurasian Woodcock

Gallinago stenura

Pintail Snipe

Gallinago media

Great Snipe

Gallinago gallinago

Common Snipe

Lymnocryptes minimus

Jack Snipe

Limosa limosa

Black-tailed Godwit

Limosa lapponica

Bar-tailed Godwit

Numenius phaeopus

Whimbrel

Numenius tenuirostris

Slender-billed Curlew

Numenius arquata

Eurasian Curlew

Tringa erythropus

Spotted Redshank

Tringa totanus

Common Redshank

Tringa stagnatilis

Marsh Sandpiper

Tringa nebularia

Common Greenshank

Tringa ochropus

Green Sandpiper

Tringa glareola

Wood Sandpiper

Tringa cinerea

Terek Sandpiper

Tringa hypoleucos

Common Sandpiper

Arenaria interpres

Ruddy Turnstone

Calidris tenuirostris

Great Knot

Calidris canutus

Red Knot

Calidris alba

Sanderling

Calidris minuta

Little Stint

Calidris temminckii

Temminck's Stint

Calidris maritima

Purple Sandpiper

Calidris alpina

Dunlin

Calidris ferruginea

Curlew Sandpiper

Limicola falcinellus

Broad-billed Sandpiper

Philomachus pugnax

Ruff

Phalaropus lobatus

Red-necked Phalarope

Phalaropus fulicaria

Grey Phalarope

LARIDAE

Larus leucophthalmus

White-eyed Gull

Larus hemprichii

Sooty Gull

Larus canus

Common Gull

Larus audouinii

Audouin's Gull

Larus marinus

Great Black-backed Gull

Larus dominicanus

Kelp Gull

Larus hyperboreus

Glaucous Gull

Larus glaucoides

Iceland Gull

Larus argentatus

Herring Gull

Larus heuglini

Heuglin's Gull

Larus armenicus

Armenian Gull

Larus cachinnans

Yellow-legged Gull

Larus fuscus

Lesser Black-backed Gull

Larus ichthyaetus

Great Black-headed Gull

Larus cirrocephalus

Grey-headed Gull

Larus hartlaubii

Hartlaub's Gull

Larus ridibundus

Common Black-headed Gull

Larus genei

Slender-billed Gull

Larus melanocephalus

Mediterranean Gull

Larus minutus

Little Gull

Xema sabini

Sabine's Gull

Sterna nilotica

Gull-billed Tern

Sterna caspia

Caspian Tern

Sterna maxima

Royal Tern

Sterna bengalensis

Lesser Crested Tern

Sterna bergii

Great Crested Tern

Sterna sandvicensis

Sandwich Tern

Sterna dougallii

Roseate Tern

Sterna vittata

Antarctic Tern

Sterna hirundo

Common Tern

Sterna paradisaea

Arctic Tern

Sterna albifrons

Little Tern

Sterna saundersi

Saunders's Tern

Sterna balaenarum

Damara Tern

Sterna repressa

White-cheeked Tern

Chlidonias hybridus

Whiskered Tern

Chlidonias leucopterus

White-winged Tern

Chlidonias niger

Black Tern

RYNCHOPIDAE

Rynchops flavirostris

African Skimmer


(1)  As adopted at the second session of the Meeting of the Parties, which took place from 25 to 27 September 2002, Bonn, Germany.

ANNEX 3

ACTION PLAN (1)

1.   Field of application

1.1.   The Action Plan is applicable to the populations of migratory waterbirds listed in Table 1 to this Annex (hereafter referred to as Table 1).

1.2.   Table 1 forms an integral part of this Annex. Any reference to this Action Plan includes a reference to Table 1.

2.   Species conservation

2.1.   Legal measures

2.1.1.   Parties with populations listed in column A of Table 1 shall provide protection to those populations listed in accordance with Article III (2)(a) of this Agreement. Such Parties shall in particular and subject to paragraph 2.1.3:

(a)

prohibit the taking of birds and eggs of those populations occurring in their territory;

(b)

prohibit deliberate disturbance in so far as such disturbance would be significant for the conservation of the population concerned;

and

(c)

prohibit the possession or utilisation of, and trade in, birds or eggs of those populations which have been taken in contravention of the prohibitions laid down pursuant to subparagraph (a) above, as well as the possession or utilisation of, and trade in, any readily recognisable parts or derivatives of such birds and their eggs.

By way of exception for those populations listed in Categories 2 and 3 in Column A only and which are marked by an asterisk, hunting may continue on a sustainable use basis where hunting of such populations is a long-established cultural practice. This sustainable use shall be conducted within the framework of special provisions of a species action plan at the appropriate international level.

2.1.2.   Parties with populations listed in Table 1 shall regulate the taking of birds and eggs of all populations listed in column B of Table 1. The object of such legal measures shall be to maintain or contribute to the restoration of those populations to a favourable conservation status and to ensure, on the basis of the best available knowledge of population dynamics, that any taking or other use is sustainable. Such legal measures, subject to paragraph 2.1.3, shall in particular:

(a)

prohibit the taking of birds belonging to the populations concerned during their various stages of reproduction and rearing and during their return to their breeding grounds if the taking has an unfavourable impact on the conservation status of the population concerned;

(b)

regulate the modes of taking;

(c)

establish limits on taking, where appropriate, and provide adequate controls to ensure that these limits are observed;

and

(d)

prohibit the possession or utilisation of, and trade in, birds and eggs of the populations which have been taken in contravention of any prohibition laid down pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph, as well as the possession or utilisation of, and trade in, any parts of such birds and their eggs.

2.1.3.   Parties may grant exemptions to the prohibitions laid down in paragraphs 2.1.1 and 2.1.2, irrespective of the provisions of Article III(5) of the Convention, where there is no other satisfactory solution, for the following purposes:

(a)

to prevent serious damage to crops, water and fisheries;

(b)

in the interests of air safety or other overriding public interests;

(c)

for the purpose of research and education, of re-establishment and for the breeding necessary for these purposes;

(d)

to permit under strictly supervised conditions, on a selective basis and to a limited extent, the taking and keeping or other judicious use of certain birds in small numbers;

and

(e)

for the purpose of enhancing the propagation or survival of the populations concerned.

Such exemptions shall be precise as to content and limited in space and time and shall not operate to the detriment of the populations listed in Table 1. Parties shall as soon as possible inform the Agreement secretariat of any exemptions granted pursuant to this provision.

2.2.   Single species action plans

2.2.1.   Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing and implementing international single species action plans for populations listed in Category 1 of Column A of Table 1 as a priority and for those populations listed with an asterisk in Column A of Table 1. The Agreement secretariat shall coordinate the development, harmonisation and implementation of such plans.

2.2.2.   Parties shall prepare and implement national single species action plans for the populations listed in Column A of Table 1 with a view to improving their overall conservation status. This action plan shall include special provisions for those populations marked with an asterisk. When appropriate, the problem of accidental killing of birds by hunters as a result of incorrect identification of the species should be considered.

2.3.   Emergency measures

Parties shall, in close cooperation with each other whenever possible and relevant, develop and implement emergency measures for populations listed in Table 1, when exceptionally unfavourable or endangering conditions occur anywhere in the Agreement Area.

2.4.   Re-establishments

Parties shall exercise the greatest care when re-establishing populations listed in Table 1 into parts of their traditional range where they no longer exist. They shall endeavour to develop and follow a detailed re-establishment plan based on appropriate scientific studies. Re-establishment plans should constitute an integral part of national and, where appropriate, international single species action plans. A re-establishment plan should include assessment of the impact on the environment and shall be made widely available. Parties shall inform the Agreement secretariat, in advance, of all re-establishment programme for populations listed in Table 1.

2.5.   Introductions

2.5.1.   Parties shall, if they consider it necessary, prohibit the introduction of non-native species of animals and plants which may be detrimental to the populations listed in Table 1.

2.5.2.   Parties shall, if they consider it necessary, require the taking of appropriate precautions to avoid the accidental escape of captive birds belonging to non-native species.

2.5.3.   Parties shall take measures to the extent feasible and appropriate, including taking, to ensure that when non-native species or hybrids thereof have already been introduced into their territory, those species or their hybrids do not pose a potential hazard to the populations listed in Table 1.

3.   Habitat conservation

3.1.   Habitat inventories

3.1.1.   Parties, in liaison where appropriate with competent international organisations, shall undertake and publish national inventories of the habitats within their territory which are important to the populations listed in Table 1.

3.1.2.   Parties shall endeavour, as a matter of priority, to identify all sites of international or national importance for populations listed in Table 1.

3.2.   Conservation of areas

3.2.1.   Parties shall endeavour to continue establishing protected areas to conserve habitats important for the populations listed in Table 1, and to develop and implement management plans for these areas.

3.2.2.   Parties shall endeavour to give special protection to those wetlands which meet internationally accepted criteria of international importance.

3.2.3.   Parties shall endeavour to make wise and sustainable use of all of the wetlands in their territory. In particular they shall endeavour to avoid degradation and loss of habitats that support populations listed in Table 1 through the introduction of appropriate regulations or standards and control measures. In particular, they shall endeavour to:

(a)

ensure, where practicable, that adequate statutory controls are in place, relating to the use of agricultural chemicals, pest control procedures and the disposal of waste water, which are in accordance with international norms, for the purpose of minimising their adverse impacts on the populations listed in Table 1;

and

(b)

prepare and distribute information materials, in the appropriate languages, describing such regulations, standards and control measures in force and their benefits to people and wildlife.

3.2.4.   Parties shall endeavour to develop strategies, according to an ecosystem approach, for the conservation of the habitats of all populations listed in Table 1, including the habitats of those populations that are dispersed.

3.3.   Rehabilitation and restoration

Parties shall endeavour to rehabilitate or restore, where feasible and appropriate, areas which were previously important for the populations listed in Table 1.

4.   Management of human activities

4.1.   Hunting

4.1.1.   Parties shall cooperate to ensure that their hunting legislation implements the principle of sustainable use as envisaged in this Action Plan, taking into account the full geographical range of the waterbird populations concerned and their life history characteristics.

4.1.2.   The Agreement secretariat shall be kept informed by the Parties of their legislation relating to the hunting of populations listed in Table 1.

4.1.3.   Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing a reliable and harmonised system for the collection of harvest data in order to assess the annual harvest of populations listed in Table 1. They shall provide the Agreement secretariat with estimates of the total annual take for each population, when available.

4.1.4.   Parties shall endeavour to phase out the use of lead shot for hunting in wetlands by the year 2000.

4.1.5.   Parties shall develop and implement measures to reduce, and as far as possible eliminate, the use of poisoned baits.

4.1.6.   Parties shall develop and implement measures to reduce, and as far as possible eliminate, illegal taking.

4.1.7.   Where appropriate, Parties shall encourage hunters, at local, national and international levels, to form clubs or organisations to coordinate their activities and to help ensure sustainability.

4.1.8.   Parties shall, where appropriate, promote the requirement of a proficiency test for hunters, including among other things, bird identification.

4.2.   Eco-tourism

4.2.1.   Parties shall encourage, where appropriate but not in the case of core zones of protected areas, the elaboration of cooperative programmes between all concerned to develop sensitive and appropriate eco-tourism at wetlands holding concentrations of populations listed in Table 1.

4.2.2.   Parties, in cooperation with competent international organisations, shall endeavour to evaluate the costs, benefits and other consequences that can result from eco-tourism at selected wetlands with concentrations of populations listed in Table 1. They shall communicate the results of any such evaluations to the Agreement secretariat.

4.3.   Other human activities

4.3.1.   Parties shall assess the impact of proposed projects which are likely to lead to conflicts between populations listed in Table 1 that are in the areas referred to in paragraph 3.2 and human interests, and shall make the results of the assessment publicly available.

4.3.2.   Parties shall endeavour to gather information on the damage, in particular to crops and to fisheries, caused by populations listed in Table 1, and report the results to the Agreement secretariat.

4.3.3.   Parties shall cooperate with a view to identifying appropriate techniques to minimise damage, or to mitigate the effects of damage, in particular to crops and to fisheries, caused by populations listed in Table 1, drawing on the experience gained elsewhere in the world.

4.3.4.   Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing single species action plans for populations which cause significant damage, in particular to crops and to fisheries. The Agreement secretariat shall coordinate the development and harmonisation of such plans.

4.3.5.   Parties shall, as far as possible, promote high environmental standards in the planning and construction of structures to minimise their impact on populations listed in Table 1. They should consider steps to minimise the impact of structures already in existence where it becomes evident that they constitute a negative impact for the populations concerned.

4.3.6.   In cases where human disturbance threatens the conservation status of waterbird populations listed in Table 1, Parties should endeavour to take measures to limit the level of threat. Special attention should be given to problem of human disturbance at breeding colonies of colonially-nesting waterbirds, especially when they are situated in the areas which are popular for outdoor recreation. Appropriate measures might include, inter alia, the establishment of disturbance-free zones in protected areas where public access is not permitted.

5.   Research and monitoring

5.1.   Parties shall endeavour to carry out survey work in poorly known areas, which may hold important concentrations of the populations listed in Table 1. The results of such surveys shall be disseminated widely.

5.2.   Parties shall endeavour to monitor the populations listed in Table 1. The results of such monitoring shall be published or sent to appropriate international organisations, to enable reviews of population status and trends.

5.3.   Parties shall cooperate to improve the measurement of bird population trends as a criterion for describing the status of such populations.

5.4.   Parties shall cooperate with a view to determining the migration routes of all populations listed in Table 1, using available knowledge of breeding and non-breeding season distributions and census results, and by participating in coordinated ringing programmes.

5.5.   Parties shall endeavour to initiate and support joint research projects into the ecology and population dynamics of populations listed in Table 1 and their habitats, in order to determine their specific requirements as well as the techniques which are the most appropriate for their conservation and management.

5.6.   Parties shall endeavour to undertake studies on the effects of wetland loss and degradation and disturbance on the carrying capacity of wetlands used by the populations listed in Table 1 and on the migration patterns of such populations.

5.7.   Parties shall endeavour to undertake studies on the impact of hunting and trade on the populations listed in Table 1 and on the importance of these forms of utilisation to the local and national economy.

5.8.   Parties shall endeavour to cooperate with relevant international organisations and to support research and monitoring projects.

6.   Education and information

6.1.   Parties shall, where necessary, arrange for training programmes to ensure that personnel responsible for the implementation of this Action Plan have an adequate knowledge to implement it effectively.

6.2.   Parties shall cooperate with each other and the Agreement secretariat with a view to developing training programmes and exchanging resource materials.

6.3.   Parties shall endeavour to develop programmes, information materials and mechanisms to improve the level of awareness of the general public with regard to the objectives, provisions and contents of this Action Plan. In this regard, particular attention shall be given to those people living in and around important wetlands, to users of these wetlands (hunters, fishermen, tourists, etc.) and to local authorities and other decision makers.

6.4.   Parties shall endeavour to undertake specific public awareness campaigns for the conservation of the populations listed in Table 1.

7.   Implementation

7.1.   When implementing this Action Plan, Parties shall, when appropriate, give priority to those populations listed in Column A of Table 1.

7.2.   Where, in the case of populations listed in Table 1, more than one population of the same species occurs on the territory of a Party, that Party shall apply conservation measures appropriate to the population or populations that have the poorest conservation status.

7.3.   The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with the Technical Committee and with the assistance of experts from Range States, shall coordinate the development of conservation guidelines in accordance with Article IV(4) of this Agreement to assist the Parties in the implementation of this Action Plan. The Agreement secretariat shall ensure, where possible, coherence with guidelines approved under other international instruments. These conservation guidelines shall aim at introducing the principle of sustainable use. They shall cover, inter alia:

(a)

single species action plans;

(b)

emergency measures;

(c)

preparation of site inventories and habitat management methods;

(d)

hunting practices;

(e)

trade in waterbirds;

(f)

tourism;

(g)

reducing crop damage;

and

(h)

a waterbird monitoring protocol.

7.4.   The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with the Technical Committee and the Parties, shall prepare a series of international reviews necessary for the implementation of this Action Plan, including:

(a)

reports on the status and trends of populations;

(b)

gaps in information from surveys;

(c)

the networks of sites used by each population, including reviews of the protection status of each site as well as of the management measures taken in each case;

(d)

pertinent hunting and trade legislation in each country relating to the species listed in Annex 2 to this Agreement;

(e)

the stage of preparation and implementation of single species action plans;

(f)

re-establishment projects;

and

(g)

the status of introduced non-native waterbird species and hybrids thereof.

7.5.   The Agreement secretariat shall endeavour to ensure that the reviews mentioned in paragraph 7.4 are updated at intervals of not more than three years.

7.6.   The Technical Committee shall assess the guidelines and reviews prepared under paragraphs 7.3 and 7.4, and shall formulate draft recommendations and resolutions relating to their development, content and implementation for consideration at sessions of the Meeting of the Parties.

7.7.   The Agreement secretariat shall regularly undertake a review of potential mechanisms for providing additional resources (funds and technical assistance) for the implementation of this Action Plan, and shall make a report to each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties.

TABLE 1

STATUS OF THE POPULATIONS OF MIGRATORY WATERBIRDS (1)

Key to classification

The following key to Table 1 is a basis for implementation of the Action Plan:

Column A

Category 1:

(a)

Species which are included in Appendix I to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory species of Wild Animals;

(b)

Species which are listed as threatened in Threatened Birds of the World (BirdLife International 2000);

or

(c)

Populations, which number less than around 10 000 individuals.

Category 2:

Populations numbering between around 10 000 and around 25 000 individuals.

Category 3:

Populations numbering between around 25 000 and around 100 000 individuals and considered to be at risk as a result of:

(a)

Concentration onto a small number of sites at any stage of their annual cycle;

(b)

Dependence on a habitat type, which is under severe threat;

(c)

Showing significant long-term decline;

or

(d)

Showing extreme fluctuations in population size or trend.

For species listed in categories 2 and 3 above, see paragraph 2.1.1 of the Action Plan contained in Annex 3 to the Agreement.

Column B

Category 1:

Populations numbering between around 25 000 and around 100 000 individuals and which do not fulfil the conditions in respect of column A, as described above.

Category 2:

Populations numbering more than around 100 000 individuals and considered to be in need of special attention as a result of:

(a)

Concentration onto a small number of sites at any stage of their annual cycle;

(b)

Dependence on a habitat type, which is under severe threat;

(c)

Showing significant long-term decline;

or

(d)

Showing extreme fluctuations in population size or trend.

Column C

Category 1:

Populations numbering more than around 100 000 individuals which could significantly benefit from international cooperation and which do not fulfil the conditions in respect of either column A or column B, above.

Review of Table 1

The Table shall be:

(a)

Reviewed regularly by the Technical Committee in accordance with Article VII(3)(b) of the Agreement;

and

(b)

Amended as necessary by the Meeting of the Parties, in accordance with Article VI(9)(d) of the Agreement, in light of the conclusions of such reviews.

Definition of geographical terms used in range descriptions

North Africa

Algeria, Egypt, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Tunisia.

West Africa

Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.

Eastern Africa

Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania.

North-east Africa

Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan.

Southern Africa

Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Central Africa

Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe.

Sub-Saharan Africa

All African States south of the Sahara.

Tropical Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa excluding Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland.

Western Palearctic

As defined in Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (Cramp & Simmons 1977).

North-west Europe

Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Western Europe

North-west Europe with Portugal and Spain.

North-east Europe

The northern part of the Russian Federation west of the Urals.

Eastern Europe

Belarus, the Russian Federation west of the Urals, Ukraine.

Central Europe

Austria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Poland, the Russian Federation around the Gulf of Finland and Kaliningrad, Slovakia, Switzerland.

North Atlantic

Faroes, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, the north-west coast of the Russian Federation, Svalbard, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

East Atlantic

Atlantic seaboard of Europe and North Africa from northern Norway to Morocco.

Western Siberia

The Russian Federation east of the Urals to the Yenisey River and south to the Kazakhstan border.

Central Siberia

The Russian Federation from the Yenisey River to the eastern boundary of the Taimyr Peninsula and south to the Altai Mountains.

West Mediterranean

Algeria, France, Italy, Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Tunisia.

East Mediterranean

Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Lebanon, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Slovenia, the Syrian Arab Republic, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Yugoslavia.

Black Sea

Armenia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, the Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine.

Caspian

Azerbaijan, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

South-west Asia

Bahrain, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, eastern Turkey, Turkmenistan, the United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Yemen.

Western Asia

Western parts of the Russian Federation east of the Urals and the Caspian countries.

Central Asia

Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Southern Asia

Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.

Key to abbreviations and symbols

bre

:

breeding

N

:

Northern

S

:

Southern

NE

:

North-eastern

SE

:

South-eastern

win

:

wintering

E

:

Eastern

W

:

Western

NW

:

North-western

SW

:

South-western

()

Population status unknown. Conservation status estimated.

*

By way of exception for those populations marked by an asterisk, hunting may continue on a sustainable use basis where hunting of such populations is a long-established cultural practice (see paragraph 2.1.1 of Annex 3 to the Agreement).

Notes

1.

The population data used to compile Table 1 as far as possible correspond to the number of individuals in the potential breeding stock in the Agreement area. The status is based on the best available published population estimates.

2.

Suffixes (bre) or (win) in population listings are solely aids to population identification. They do not indicate seasonal restrictions to actions in respect of these populations under the Agreement and Action Plan.

3.

The brief descriptions used to identify the populations are based on the descriptions used in the third edition of Waterbird Population Estimates.

4.

Slash signs (/) are used to separate breeding areas from wintering areas.

5.

Where a species' population is listed in Table 1 with multiple categorisation, the obligations of the Action Plan relate to the strictest category listed.

 

A

B

C

SPHENISCIDAE

Spheniscus demersus

Southern Africa

1b

2a 2c

 

GAVIIDAE

Gavia stellata

North-west Europe (win)

 

2c

 

Caspian, Black Sea and east Mediterranean (win)

 

(1)

 

Gavia arctica arctica

Northern Europe and western Siberia/Europe

 

2c

 

Gavia arctica suschkini

Central Siberia/Caspian

 

 

(1)

Gavia immer

Europe (win)

1c

 

 

Gavia adamsii

Northern Europe (win)

1c

 

 

PODICIPEDIDAE

Tachybaptus ruficollis ruficollis

Europe and north-west Africa

 

 

1

Podiceps cristatus cristatus

North-west and western Europe

 

 

1

Black Sea and Mediterranean (win)

 

 

1

Caspian and south-west Asia (win)

2

 

 

Podiceps grisegena grisegena

North-west Europe (win)

 

1

 

Black Sea and Mediterranean (win)

 

(1)

 

Caspian (win)

2

 

 

Podiceps cristatus infuscatus

Eastern Africa (Ethiopia to northern Zambia)

1c

 

 

Southern Africa

1c

 

 

Podiceps auritus auritus

North-west Europe (large-billed)

1c

 

 

North-east Europe (small-billed)

 

1

 

Caspian and southern Asia (win)

2

 

 

Podiceps nigricollis nigricollis

Europe/southern and western Europe and north Africa

 

 

1

Western Asia/south-west and southern Asia

 

1

 

Podiceps nigricollis gurneyi

Southern Africa

2

 

 

PELECANIDAE

Pelecanus onocrotalus

Southern Africa

2

 

 

Western Africa

 

1

 

Eastern Africa

 

 

1

Europe and western Asia (bre)

1a 3c

 

 

Pelecanus rufescens

Tropical Africa and south-west Arabia

 

1

 

Pelecanus crispus

Black Sea and Mediterranean (win)

1a 1c

 

 

South-west Asia and south Asia (win)

1a 2

 

 

SULIDAE

Sula (Morus) capensis

Southern Africa

1b

2a 2c

 

PHALACROCORACIDAE

Phalacrocorax coronatus

Coastal south-west Africa

1c

 

 

Phalacrocorax pygmeus

Black Sea and Mediterranean

 

1

 

South-west Asia

 

1

 

Phalacrocorax neglectus

Coastal south-west Africa

1b 1c

 

 

Phalacrocorax carbo carbo

North-west Europe

 

 

1

Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis

Northern and central Europe

 

 

1

Black Sea and Mediterranean

 

 

1

Western and south-westAsia

 

 

(1)

Phalacrocorax carbo lucidus

Coastal west Africa

 

1

 

Central and eastern Africa

 

 

1

Coastal southern Africa

2

 

 

Phalacrocorax nigrogularis

Gulf and Arabian Sea

1b

2a 2c

 

Phalacrocorax capensis

Coastal southern Africa

 

2a 2c

 

ARDEIDAE

Egretta ardesiaca

Sub-Saharan Africa

3c

 

 

Egretta vinaceigula

South-central Africa

1b 1c

 

 

Egretta garzetta garzetta

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

(1)

Europe, Black Sea and Mediterranean/west and central Africa

 

 

1

Western Asia/south-west Asia, north-east and eastern Africa

 

(1)

 

Egretta gularis gularis

West Africa

 

(1)

 

Egretta gularis schistacea

North-east Africa and Red Sea

 

(1)

 

South-west Asia and south Asia

2

 

 

Egretta dimorpha

Coastal Eastern Africa

2

 

 

Ardea cinerea cinerea

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

1

Europe and north Africa (bre)

 

 

1

West and South-west Asia (bre)

 

 

(1)

Ardea melanocephala

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

(1)

Ardea purpurea purpurea

Tropical Africa

 

1

 

Western Europe and westMediterranean/west Africa

2

 

 

Eastern Europe and South-west Asia/Sub-Saharan Africa

 

(2c)

 

Casmerodius albus albus

Western, central and south-east Europe/Black Sea and Mediterranean

2

 

 

Western Asia/south-west Asia

 

(1)

 

Casmerodius albus melanorhynchos

Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar

 

 

(1)

Mesophoyx intermedia brachyrhyncha

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

1

 

Bubulcus ibis ibis

Southern Africa

 

 

1

Tropical Africa

 

 

1

South-west Europe and north-west Africa

 

 

1

East Mediterranean and south-west Asia

2

 

 

Ardeola ralloides ralloides

Medit., Black Sea and north Africa/Sub-Saharan Africa

3c

 

 

West and south-west Asia/Sub-Saharan Africa

 

(1)

 

Ardeola ralloides paludivaga

Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar

 

 

(1)

Ardeola idea

Madagascar and Aldabra/central and eastern Africa

1b 1c

 

 

Ardeola rufiventris

Tropical eastern and southern Africa

 

(1)

 

Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax

Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar

 

(1)

 

Europe and north-west Africa/Mediterranean and Africa

 

2c

 

Western Asia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

(1)

 

Ixobrychus minutus minutus

Europe and north Africa/Sub-Saharan Africa

 

2c

 

West and south-west Asia/Sub-Saharan Africa

 

(1)

 

Ixobrychus minutus payesii

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

(1)

 

Ixobrychus sturmii

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

(1)

 

Botaurus stellaris stellaris

Europe (bre)

3c

 

 

South-west Asia (win)

2

 

 

Botaurus stellaris capensis

Southern Africa

1c

 

 

CICONIIDAE

Mycteria ibis

Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Madagascar)

 

1

 

Anastomus lamelligerus lamelligerus

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

1

Ciconia nigra

Southern Africa

1c

 

 

South-west Europe/westAfrica

1c

 

 

Central and eastern Europe/Sub-Saharan Africa

2

 

 

Ciconia abdimii

Sub-Saharan Africa and south-west Arabia

 

(2c)

 

Ciconia episcopus microscelis

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

(1)

 

Ciconia ciconia ciconia

Southern Africa

1c

 

 

Iberia and north-west Africa/Sub-Saharan Africa

3b

 

 

Central and eastern Europe/Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

1

Western Asia/south-west Asia

2

 

 

Leptoptilos crumeniferus

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

1

BALAENICIPITIDAE

Balaeniceps rex

Central tropical Africa

1c

 

 

THRESKIORNITHIDAE

Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus

Sub-Saharan Africa (bre)

 

 

1

Black Sea and Mediterranean/west Africa

3c

 

 

South-west Asia/eastern Africa

 

(1)

 

Geronticus eremita

Morocco

1a 1b 1c

 

 

South-west Asia

1a 1b 1c

 

 

Threskiornis aethiopicus aethiopicus

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

1

Iraq and Iran

1c

 

 

Platalea leucorodia leucorodia

West Europe/west Mediterranean and west Africa

1c

 

 

Cent. and south-east Europe/Mediterranean and tropical Africa

2

 

 

Platalea leucorodia archeri

Red Sea and Somalia

1c

 

 

Platalea leucorodia balsaci

Coastal west Africa (Mauritania)

1c

 

 

Platalea leucorodia major

Western Asia/south-west and south Asia

2

 

 

Platalea alba

Sub-Saharan Africa

2*

 

 

PHOENICOPTERIDAE

Phoenicopterus ruber roseus

West Africa

3a

 

 

Eastern Africa

3a

 

 

Southern Africa (to Madagascar)

3a

 

 

West Mediterranean

 

2a

 

East Mediterranean, south-west and south Asia

 

2a

 

Phoenicopterus minor

West Africa

2

 

 

Eastern Africa

 

2a 2c

 

Southern Africa (to Madagascar)

3a

 

 

ANATIDAE

Dendrocygna bicolor

West Africa (Senegal to Chad)

 

 

(1)

Eastern and southern Africa

 

 

(1)

Dendrocygna viduata

West Africa (Senegal to Chad)

 

 

1

Eastern and southern Africa

 

 

1

Thalassornis leuconotus leuconotus

West Africa

1c

 

 

Eastern and southern Africa

2*

 

 

Oxyura leucocephala

West Mediterranean (Spain and Morocco)

1a 1b 1c

 

 

Algeria and Tunisia

1a 1b 1c

 

 

East Mediterranean, Turkey and south-west Asia

1a 1b 1c

 

 

Oxyura maccoa

Eastern Africa

1c

 

 

Southern Africa

1c

 

 

Cygnus olor

North-west mainland and central Europe

 

 

1

Black Sea

 

1

 

West and central Asia/Caspian

 

2a 2d

 

Cygnus Cygnus

Iceland/United Kingdom and Ireland

2

 

 

North-west mainland Europe

 

1

 

Northern Europe and western Siberia/Black Sea and East Mediterranean

2

 

 

West and central Siberia/Caspian

2

 

 

Cygnus columbianus bewickii

Western Siberia and north-east Europe/north-west Europe

3c

 

 

Northern Siberia/Caspian

1c

 

 

Anser brachyrhynchus

East Greenland and Iceland/United Kingdom

 

2a

 

Svalbard/north-west Europe

 

1

 

Anser fabalis fabalis

North-east Europe/north-west Europe

 

1

 

Anser fabalis rossicus

West and central Siberia/north-east and south-west Europe

 

 

(1)

Anser fabalis johanseni

West and central Siberia/Turkmenistan to western China

 

 

(1)

Anser albifrons albifrons

North-west Siberia and north-east Europe/north-west Europe

 

 

1

Western Siberia/central Europe

3c*

 

 

Western Siberia/Black Sea and Turkey

 

 

1

Northern Siberia/Caspian and Iraq

2

 

 

Anser albifrons flavirostris

Greenland/Ireland and United Kingdom

3a*

 

 

Anser erythropus

Northern Europe and western Siberia/Black Sea and Caspian

1a 1b 2

 

 

Anser anser anser

Iceland/United Kingdom and Ireland

 

1

 

North-west Europe/south-west Europe

 

 

1

Central Europe/north Africa

 

1

 

Anser anser rubrirostris

Black Sea and Turkey

 

1

 

Western Siberia/Caspian and Iraq

 

 

1

Branta leucopsis

East Greenland/Scotland and Ireland

 

1

 

Svalbard/south-west Scotland

2

 

 

Russia/Germany and Netherlands

 

 

1

Branta bernicla bernicla

Western Siberia/western Europe

 

2b 2c

 

Branta bernicla hrota

Svalbard/Denmark and United Kingdom

1c

 

 

Canada and Greenland/Ireland

2

 

 

Branta ruficollis

Northern Siberia/Black Sea and Caspian

1a 1b 3a

 

 

Alopochen aegyptiacus

West Africa

2

 

 

Eastern and southern Africa

 

 

1

Tadorna ferruginea

North-west Africa

1c

 

 

East Mediterranean and Black Sea/north-east Africa

2

 

 

Western Asia and Caspian/Iran and Iraq

 

1

 

Tadorna cana

Southern Africa

 

1

 

Tadorna tadorna

North-west Europe

 

2a

 

Black Sea and Mediterranean

3c

 

 

Western Asia/Caspian and Middle East

 

1

 

Plectropterus gambensis gambensis

West Africa

 

 

1

Eastern Africa (Sudan to Zambia)

 

 

1

Plectropterus gambensis niger

Southern Africa

 

1

 

Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos

West Africa

 

1

 

Southern and eastern Africa

 

 

1

Nettapus auritus

West Africa

1c

 

 

Southern and eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Anas capensis

Eastern Africa (Rift Valley)

1c

 

 

Lake Chad basin2

1c

 

 

Southern Africa (north to Angola and Zambia)

 

 

1

Anas strepera strepera

North-west Europe

 

1

 

North-east Europe/Black Sea and Mediterranean

 

2c

 

Western Siberia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

 

(1)

Anas penelope

Western Siberia and north-east Europe/north-west Europe

 

 

1

Western Siberia and north-east Europe/Black Sea and Mediterranean

 

2c

 

Western Siberia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

2c

 

Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos

North-west Europe

 

 

1

Northern Europe/West Mediterranean

 

 

1

Eastern Europe/Black Sea and East Mediterranean

 

2c

 

Western Siberia/south-west Asia

 

 

(1)

Anas undulata undulata

Southern Africa

 

 

1

Anas clypeata

North-west and central Europe (win)

 

1

 

Western Siberia, north-east and eastern Europe/southern Europe and west Africa

 

2c

 

Western Siberia/south-west Asia, north-east and eastern Africa

 

2c

 

Anas erythrorhyncha

Southern Africa

 

 

1

Eastern Africa

 

 

1

Madagascar

2

 

 

Anas acuta

North-west Europe

 

1

 

Western Siberia, north-east and eastern Europe/southern Europe and west Africa

 

2c

 

Western Siberia/south-west Asia and eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Anas querquedula

Western Siberia and Europe/west Africa

 

2c

 

Western Siberia/south-west Asia, north-east and eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Anas crecca crecca

North-west Europe

 

 

1

Western Siberia and north-east Europe/Black Sea and Mediterranean

 

 

1

Western Siberia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

2c

 

Anas hottentota

Lake Chad Basin

1c

 

 

Eastern Africa (south to northern Zambia)

 

1

 

Southern Africa (north to southern Zambia)

 

1

 

Marmaronetta angustirostris

West Mediterranean/West Mediterranean and west Africa

1a 1b 1c

 

 

East Mediterranean

1a 1b 1c

 

 

South-west Asia

1a 1b 2

 

 

Netta rufina

South-west and central Europe/West Mediterranean

 

1

 

Black Sea and east Mediterranean

3c

 

 

Western and central Asia/south-west Asia

 

 

1

Netta erythrophthalma brunnea

Southern and eastern Africa

 

 

1

Aythya ferina

North-east Europe/north-west Europe

 

 

1

Central and north-east Europe/Black Sea and Mediterranean

 

 

1

Western Siberia/south-west Asia

 

2c

 

Aythya nyroca

West Mediterranean/north and west Africa

1a 1c

 

 

Eastern Europe/east Mediterranean and Sahelian Africa

1a 3c

 

 

Western Asia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

1a 3c

 

 

Aythya fuligula

North-west Europe (win)

 

 

1

Central Europe, Black Sea and Mediterranean (win)

 

 

1

Western Siberia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

 

(1)

Aythya marila marila

Northern Europe/western Europe

 

 

1

Western Siberia/Black Sea and Caspian

 

 

1

Somateria mollissima mollissima

Baltic, Denmark and Netherlands

 

 

1

Norway and Russia

 

 

1

Somateria mollissima borealis

Svalbard and Franz Joseph (bre)

 

1

 

Somateria spectabilis

East Greenland, north-east Europe and western Siberia

 

 

1

Polysticta stelleri

Western Siberia/north-east Europe

1a

1

 

Clangula hyemalis

Iceland and Greenland

 

 

1

Western Siberia/northern Europe

 

 

1

Melanitta nigra nigra

Western Siberia and northern Europe/western Europe and north-west Africa

 

2a

 

Melanitta fusca fusca

Western Siberia and northern Europe/north-west Europe

 

2a

 

Black Sea and Caspian

1c

 

 

Bucephala clangula clangula

North-west and central Europe (win)

 

 

1

North-east Europe/Adriatic

 

1

 

Western Siberia and north-east Europe/Black Sea

2

 

 

Western Siberia/Caspian

2

 

 

Mergellus albellus

North-west and central Europe (win)

3a

 

 

North-east Europe/Black Sea and east Mediterranean

 

1

 

Western Siberia/south-west Asia

3c

 

 

Mergus serrator serrator

North-west and central Europe (win)

 

 

1

North-east Europe/Black Sea and Mediterranean

 

1

 

Western Siberia/south-west and central Asia

1c

 

 

Mergus merganser merganser

North-west and central Europe (win)

 

 

1

North-east Europe/Black Sea

1c

 

 

Western Siberia/Caspian

2

 

 

GRUIDAE

Balearica pavonina pavonina

West Africa (Senegal to Chad)

2

 

 

Balearica pavonina ceciliae

Eastern Africa (Sudan to Uganda)

3c

 

 

Balearica regulorum regulorum

Southern Africa (north to Angola and southern Zimbabwe)

1c

 

 

Balearica regulorum gibbericeps

Eastern Africa (Kenya to Mozambique)

3c

 

 

Grus leucogeranus

Iran (win)

1a 1b 1c

 

 

Grus virgo

Black Sea (Ukraine)/north-east Africa

1c

 

 

Turkey (bre)

1c

 

 

Kalmykia/north-east Africa

 

1

 

Grus paradisea

Extreme southern Africa

1b 2

 

 

Grus carunculatus

Central and southern Africa

1b 1c

 

 

Grus grus

North-west Europe/Iberia and Morocco

 

1

 

North-east and central Europe/north Africa

 

1

 

Eastern Europe/Turkey, Middle East and north-east Africa

3c

 

 

Turkey and Georgia (bre)

1c

 

 

Western Siberia/south Asia

 

(1)

 

RALLIDAE

Sarothrura elegans elegans

NE, Eastern and southern Africa

 

 

(1)

Sarothrura elegans reichenovi

S West Africa to central Africa

 

 

(1)

Sarothrura boehmi

Central Africa

1c

 

 

Sarothrura ayresi

Ethiopia and southern Africa

1a 1b 1c

 

 

Rallus aquaticus aquaticus

Europe and north Africa

 

 

1

Rallus aquaticus korejewi

Western Siberia/south-west Asia

 

 

(1)

Rallus caerulescens

Southern and eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Crecopsis egregia

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

(1)

Crex crex

Europe and western Asia/Sub-Saharan Africa

1b

2c

 

Amaurornis flavirostris

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

1

Porzana parva parva

Western Eurasia/Africa

 

2c

 

Porzana pusilla intermedia

Europe (bre)

2

 

 

Porzana porzana

Europe/Africa

 

2c

 

Aenigmatolimnas marginalis

Sub-Saharan Africa

(2)

 

 

Porphyrio alleni

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

(1)

Gallinula chloropus chloropus

Europe and north Africa

 

 

1

West and south-west Asia

 

 

(1)

Gallinula angulata

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

(1)

Fulica cristata

Sub-Saharan Africa

 

 

1

Spain and Morocco

1c

 

 

Fulica atra atra

North-west Europe (win)

 

 

1

Black Sea and Mediterranean (win)

 

 

1

South-west Asia (win)

 

 

(1)

DROMADIDAE

Dromas ardeola

North-west Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf

3a

 

 

HAEMATOPODIDAE

Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus

Europe/southern and western Europe and north-west Africa

 

 

1

Haematopus ostralegus longipes

South-east Europe and western Asia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

 

(1)

Haematopus moquini

Coastal southern Africa

1c

 

 

RECURVIROSTRIDAE

Himantopus himantopus himantopus

Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding south)

 

 

(1)

Southern Africa (meridionalis)

2

 

 

South-west Europe and north-west Africa/west Africa

 

1

 

Central Europe and east Mediterranean/north-central Africa

 

1

 

Western, central and south-west Asia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

(1)

 

Recurvirostra avosetta

Southern Africa

2

 

 

Eastern Africa

 

(1)

 

Western Europe and north-west Africa (bre)

 

1

 

South-east Europe, Black Sea and Turkey (bre)

(3c)

 

 

West and south-west Asia/eastern Africa

2

 

 

BURHINIDAE

Burhinus senegalensis senegalensis

West Africa

(2)

 

 

Burhinus senegalensis inornatus

North-east and eastern Africa

(2)

 

 

GLAREOLIDAE

Pluvianus aegyptius aegyptius

West Africa

 

(1)

 

Eastern Africa

(2)

 

 

Glareola pratincola pratincola

Western Europe and north-west Africa/west Africa

2

 

 

Black Sea and eastern Mediterranean/eastern Sahel zone

2

 

 

South-west Asia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

(1)

 

Glareola nordmanni

South-east Europe and western Asia/southern Africa

3b 3c

 

 

Glareola ocularis

Madagascar/east Africa

(2)

 

 

Glareola nuchalis nuchalis

Eastern and central Africa

 

(1)

 

Glareola nuchalis liberiae

West Africa

(2)

 

 

Glareola cinerea cinerea

south-eastern west Africa and central Africa

(2)

 

 

CHARADRIIDAE

Pluvialis apricaria apricaria

United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, Germany and Baltic (bre)

3c*

 

 

Pluvialis apricaria altifrons

Iceland and Faroes/east Atlantic coast

 

 

1

Northern Europe/western Europe and north-west Africa

 

 

1

Northern Siberia/Caspian and Asia Minor

 

(1)

 

Pluvialis fulva

North-central Siberia/South and south-west Asia, north east Africa

 

(1)

 

Pluvialis squatarola

Western Siberia and Canada/western Europe and west Africa

 

 

1

Central and eastern Siberia/south-west Asia, Eastern and southern Africa

 

1

 

Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula

Northern Europe/Europe and north Africa

 

1

 

Charadrius hiaticula psammodroma

Canada, Greenland and Iceland/west and southern Africa

 

(2c)

 

Charadrius hiaticula tundrae

North-east Europe and Siberia/south-west Asia, east and southern Africa

 

 

(1)

Charadrius dubius curonicus

Europe and north-west Africa/west Africa

 

 

1

West and south-west Asia/eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Charadrius pecuarius pecuarius

Southern and eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

West Africa

 

(1)

 

Charadrius tricollaris tricollaris

Southern and eastern Africa

 

 

1

Charadrius forbesi

Western and central Africa

 

(1)

 

Charadrius pallidus pallidus

Southern Africa

2

 

 

Charadrius pallidus venustus

Eastern Africa

1c

 

 

Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus

West Europe and west Mediterranean/west Africa

3c

 

 

Black Sea and East Mediterranean/eastern Sahel

3c

 

 

South-west and central Asia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

(1)

 

Charadrius marginatus mechowi

Southern and eastern Africa

2

 

 

West to west-central Africa

2

 

 

Charadrius mongolus pamirensis

West-central Asia/south-west Asia and eastern Africa

 

(1)

 

Charadrius leschenaultii columbinus

Turkey and south west Asia/east Mediterranean and Red Sea

1c

 

 

Charadrius leschenaultii crassirostris

Caspian and south-west Asia/Arabia and north-east Africa

 

(1)

 

Charadrius leschenaultii leschenaultii

Central Asia/eastern and southern Africa

 

(1)

 

Charadrius asiaticus

South-east Europe and western Asia/eastern and south-central Africa

3c

 

 

Eudromias morinellus

Europe/north-west Africa

(3c)

 

 

Asia/Middle East

 

(1)

 

Vanellus vanellus

Europe/Europe and north Africa

 

2c

 

Western Asia/south-west Asia

 

 

(1)

Vanellus spinosus

Black Sea and Mediterranean (bre)

 

1

 

Vanellus albiceps

West and central Africa

 

(1)

 

Vanellus senegallus senegallus

West Africa

 

(1)

 

Vanellus senegallus solitaneus

South-west Africa

 

(1)

 

Vanellus senegallus lateralis

Eastern and south-east Africa

 

1

 

Vanellus lugubris

Southern west Africa

2

 

 

Central and eastern Africa

3c

 

 

Vanellus melanopterus minor

Southern Africa

1c

 

 

Vanellus coronatus coronatus

Eastern and southern Africa

 

 

1

Central Africa

(2)

 

 

Vanellus coronatus xerophilus

South-west Africa

 

(1)

 

Vanellus superciliosus

West and central Africa

(2)

 

 

Vanellus gregarius

SE Europe and western Asia/north-east Africa

1a 1b 1c

 

 

Central Asian republics/north-west India

1a 1b 1c

 

 

Vanellus leucurus

SW Asia/SW Asia and north-east Africa

2

 

 

Central Asian Republics/South Asia

 

(1)

 

SCOLOPACIDAE

Scolopax rusticola

Europe/south and west Europe and north Africa

 

 

1

Western Siberia/south-west Asia (Caspian)

 

 

(1)

Gallinago stenura

Northern Siberia/south Asia and sastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Gallinago media

Scandinavia/probably west Africa

 

1

 

Western Siberia and north-east Europe/south-east Africa

 

2c

 

Gallinago gallinago gallinago

Europe/southern and western Europe and north-west Africa

 

2c

 

Western Siberia/south-west Asia and Africa

 

 

1

Gallinago gallinago faeroeensis

Iceland, Faroes and northern Scotland/Ireland

 

 

1

Lymnocryptes minimus

Northern Europe/southern and western Europe and west Africa

 

2b

 

Western Siberia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

(1)

 

Limosa limosa limosa

Western Europe/north-west and west Africa

 

2c

 

Eastern Europe/central and eastern Africa

 

2c

 

West-central Asia/south-west Asia and eastern Africa

 

(1)

 

Limosa limosa islandica

Iceland/western Europe

3a*

 

 

Limosa lapponica lapponica

Northern Europe/western Europe

 

2a

 

Limosa lapponica taymyrensis

Western Siberia/west and south-west Africa

 

2a 2c

 

Limosa lapponica menzbieri

Central Siberia/south and south-west Asia and eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Numenius phaeopus phaeopus

Northern Europe/west Africa

 

 

(1)

West Siberia/southern and eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Numenius phaeopus islandicus

Iceland, Faroes and Scotland/west Africa

 

 

1

Numenius phaeopus alboaxillaris

South-west Asia/eastern Africa

1c

 

 

Numenius tenuirostris

Central Siberia/Mediterranean and south-west Asia

1a 1b 1c

 

 

Numenius arquata arquata

Europe/Europe, north and west Africa

 

 

1

Numenius arquata orientalis

Western Siberia/south-west Asia, eastern and southern Africa

3c

 

 

Numenius arquata suschkini

South-east Europe and south-west Asia (bre)

2

 

 

Tringa erythropus

Northern Europe/southern Europe, north and west Africa

 

 

(1)

Western Siberia/south-west Asia, north-east and eastern Africa

 

(1)

 

Tringa totanus totanus

North-west Europe/western Europe, north-west and west Africa

 

2c

 

Central and eastern Europe/east Mediterranean and Africa

 

2c

 

Tringa totanus britannica

United Kingdom and Ireland/United Kingdom, Ireland, France

 

2c

 

Tringa totanus ussuriensis

Western Asia/south-west Asia, north-east and eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Tringa totanus robusta

Iceland and Faroes/western Europe

 

 

1

Tringa stagnatilis

Eastern Europe/west and central Africa

 

(1)

 

Western Asia/south-west Asia, eastern and southern Africa

 

(1)

 

Tringa nebularia

Northern Europe/south-west Europe, north-west and west Africa

 

 

1

Western Siberia/south-west Asia, eastern and southern Africa

 

 

(1)

Tringa ochropus

Northern Europe/siouthern and western Europe, West Africa

 

 

1

Western Siberia/south-west Asia, north-east and eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Tringa glareola

North-west Europe/west Africa

 

2c

 

North-east Europe and western Siberia/eastern and southern Africa

 

 

(1)

Tringa cinerea

North-east Europe and western Siberia/south-west Asia, eastern and southern Africa

 

 

1

Tringa hypoleucos

West and central Europe/west Africa

 

 

1

Eastern Europe and western Siberia/central, eastern and southern Africa

 

 

(1)

Arenaria interpres interpres

North-east Canada and Greenland/western Europe and north-west Africa

 

1

 

Northern Europe/west Africa

 

1

 

West and central Siberia/south-west Asia, eastern and southern Africa

 

 

(1)

Calidris tenuirostris

Eastern Siberia/south-west Asia and western southern Asia

1c

 

 

Calidris canutus canutus

Northern Siberia/west and southern Africa

 

2a 2c

 

Calidris canutus islandica

North-east Canada and Greenland/western Europe

 

2a 2c

 

Calidris alba

East Atlantic Europe, west and southern Africa (win)

 

 

1

South-west Asia, eastern and southern Africa (win)

 

 

1

Calidris minuta

Northern Europe/southern Europe, north and west Africa

 

(2c)

 

Western Siberia/south-west Asia, eastern and southern Africa

 

 

(1)

Calidris temminckii

Fennoscandia/north and west Africa

 

(1)

 

North-east Europe and western Siberia/south-west Asia and eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Calidris maritima maritima

North and west Europe (excluding Iceland) (win)

 

1

 

Calidris alpina alpina

North-east Europe and north-west Siberia/western Europe and north-west Africa

 

 

1

Calidris alpina centralis

Central Siberia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

 

(1)

Calidris alpina schinzii

Iceland and Greenland/north-west and west Africa

 

 

1

Britain and Ireland/south-west Europe and north-west Africa

2

 

 

Baltic/south-west Europe and north-west Africa

1c

 

 

Calidris alpina arctica

North-east Greenland/west Africa

3a

 

 

Calidris ferruginea

Western Siberia/west Africa

 

 

1

Central Siberia/south-west Asia, eastern and southern Africa

 

 

1

Limicola falcinellus falcinellus

Northern Europe/south-west Asia and Africa

3c

 

 

Philomachus pugnax

Northern Europe and western Siberia/west Africa

 

2c

 

Northern Siberia/south-west Asia, eastern and southern Africa

 

(2c)

 

Phalaropus lobatus

Western Eurasia/Arabian Sea

 

 

1

Phalaropus fulicaria

Canada and Greenland/Atlantic coast of Africa

 

 

(1)

LARIDAE

Larus leucophthalmus

Red Sea and nearby coasts

1a 2

 

 

Larus hemprichii

Red Sea, Gulf, Arabia and eastern Africa

 

2a

 

Larus canus canus

North-west and central Europe/Atlantic coast and Mediterranean

 

2c

 

Larus canus heinei

North-east Europe and western Siberia/Black Sea and Caspian

 

(1)

 

Larus audouinii

Mediterranean/north and west coasts of Africa

1a 3a

 

 

Larus marinus

Northern and western Europe

 

 

1

Larus dominicanus vetula

Coastal southern Africa

 

1

 

Larus hyperboreus hyperboreus

Svalbard and northern Russia (bre)

 

 

(1)

Larus hyperboreus leuceretes

Canada, Greenland and Iceland (bre)

 

 

(1)

Larus glaucoides glaucoides

Greenland/Iceland and north-west Europe

 

 

1

Larus argentatus argentatus

North and north-west Europe

 

 

1

Larus argentatus argenteus

Iceland and western Europe

 

 

1

Larus heuglini

North-east Europe and western Siberia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

 

(1)

Larus (heuglini) barabensis

South-west Siberia/south-west Asia

 

 

(1)

Larus armenicus

Armenia, eastern Turkey and north-west Iran

3a

 

 

Larus cachinnans cachinnans

Black Sea and western Asia/south-west Asia, north-east Africa

 

 

1

Larus cachinnans michahellis

Mediterranean, Iberia and Morocco

 

 

1

Larus fuscus fuscus

North-east Europe/Black Sea, south-west Asia and eastern Africa

 

(2c)

 

Larus fuscus graellsii

Western Europe/Mediterranean and west Africa

 

 

1

Larus ichthyaetus

Black Sea and Caspian/south-west Asia

3a

 

 

Larus cirrocephalus poiocephalus

West Africa

 

(1)

 

Central and eastern Africa

 

 

(1)

Coastal southern Africa (excluding Madagascar)

 

(1)

 

Larus hartlaubii

Coastal south-west Africa

 

1

 

Larus ridibundus

Western Europe/western Europe, west Mediterranean, West Africa

 

 

1

East Europe/Black Sea and east Mediterranean

 

 

1

West Asia/south-west Asia and north-east Africa

 

 

(1)

Larus genei

West Africa (bre)

2

 

 

Black Sea and Mediterranean (bre)

 

2a

 

West, south-west and south Asia (bre)

 

2a

 

Larus melanocephalus

West Europe, Mediterranean and north-west Africa

 

2a

 

Larus minutus

Central and eastern Europe/south-west Europe and west Mediterranean

 

1

 

Western Asia/east Mediterranean, Black Sea and Caspian

 

(1)

 

Xema sabini sabini

Canada and Greenland/south-east Atlantic

 

 

(1)

Sterna nilotica nilotica

Western Europe/west Africa

2

 

 

Black Sea and east Mediterranean/eastern Africa

3c

 

 

West and central Asia/south-west Asia

2

 

 

Sterna caspia caspia

Southern Africa (bre)

1c

 

 

West Africa (bre)

 

1

 

Europe (bre)

1c

 

 

Caspian (bre)

2

 

 

Sterna maxima albidorsalis

West Africa (bre)

 

2a

 

Sterna bengalensis bengalensis

Gulf/southern Asia

 

2a

 

Sterna bengalensis par

Red Sea/eastern Africa

3a

 

 

Sterna bengalensis emigrata

Southern Mediterranean/north-west and west Africa coasts

1c

 

 

Sterna bergii bergii

Southern Africa (Angola – Mozambique)

2

 

 

Sterna bergii enigma

Madagascar and Mozambique/southern Africa

1c

 

 

Sterna bergii thalassina

Eastern Africa and Seychelles

1c

 

 

Sterna bergii velox

Red Sea and north-east Africa

3a

 

 

Sterna sandvicensis sandvicensis

Western Europe/west Africa

 

2a

 

Black Sea and Mediterranean (bre)

3a 3c

 

 

West and central Asia/south-west and south Asia

 

2a

 

Sterna dougallii dougallii

Southern Africa

1c

 

 

East Africa

3a

 

 

Europe (bre)

1c

 

 

Sterna dougallii arideensis

Madagascar, Seychelles and Mascarenes

2

 

 

Sterna dougallii bangsi

North Arabian Sea (Oman)

1c

 

 

Sterna vittata vittata

Prince Edward, Marion, Crozet and Kerguelen/South Africa

1c

 

 

Sterna vittata tristanensis

Tristan da Cunha and Gough/South Africa

1c

 

 

Sterna hirundo hirundo

Southern and western Europe (bre)

 

 

1

Northern and eastern Europe (bre)

 

 

1

Western Asia (bre)

 

 

(1)

Sterna paradisaea

Western Eurasia (bre)

 

 

1

Sterna albifrons albifrons

Eastern Atlantic (bre)

3b

 

 

Black Sea and east Mediterranean (bre)

3c

 

 

Caspian (bre)

2

 

 

Sterna albifrons guineae

West Africa (bre)

1c

 

 

Sterna saundersi

Western southern Asia, Red Sea, Gulf and eastern Africa

 

(1)

 

Sterna balaenarum

Namibia and South Africa/Atlantic coast to Ghana

2

 

 

Sterna repressa

Western southern Asia, Red Sea, Gulf and eastern Africa

 

2c

 

Chlidonias hybridus hybridus

Western Europe and north-west Africa (bre)

3c

 

 

Black Sea and east Mediterranean (bre)

 

 

(1)

Caspian (bre)

 

(1)

 

Chlidonias hybridus sclateri

Eastern Africa (Kenya and Tanzania)

1c

 

 

Southern Africa (Malawi and Zambia to South Africa)

(2)

 

 

Chlidonias leucopterus

Eastern Europe and western Asia/Africa

 

 

(1)

Chlidonias niger niger

Europe and western Asia/Atlantic coast of Africa

 

2c

 

RYNCHOPIDAE

Rynchops flavirostris

Coastal west Africa and central Africa

2

 

 

Eastern and southern Africa

2

 

 


(1)  As adopted at the second session of the Meeting of the Parties, which took place from 25 to 27 September 2002, Bonn, Germany.


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