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Directive 2005/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 September 2005 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the measures to be taken against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from compression-ignition engines for use in vehicles, and the emission of gaseous pollutants from positive-ignition engines fuelled with natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas for use in vehicles (Text with EEA relevance)

OJ L 275, 20.10.2005, p. 1–163 (ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, SK, SL, FI, SV)
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20.10.2005   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 275/1


DIRECTIVE 2005/55/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL

of 28 September 2005

on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the measures to be taken against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from compression-ignition engines for use in vehicles, and the emission of gaseous pollutants from positive-ignition engines fuelled with natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas for use in vehicles

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 95 thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the Commission,

Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee (1),

Acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 251 of the Treaty (2),

Whereas:

(1)

Council Directive 88/77/EEC of 3 December 1987 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the measures to be taken against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from compression ignition engines for use in vehicles, and the emission of gaseous pollutants from positive ignition engines fuelled with natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas for use in vehicles (3) is one of the separate Directives under the type-approval procedure laid down by Council Directive 70/156/EEC of 6 February 1970 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the type-approval of motor vehicles and their trailers (4). Directive 88/77/EEC has been substantially amended several times to introduce successively more stringent pollutant emission limits. Since further amendments are to be made, it should be recast in the interests of clarity.

(2)

Council Directive 91/542/EEC (5) amending Directive 88/77/EEC, Directive 1999/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 1999 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures to be taken against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from compression ignition engines for use in vehicles, and the emission of gaseous pollutants from positive ignition engines fuelled with natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas for use in vehicles and amending Council Directive 88/77/EEC (6), and Commission Directive 2001/27/EC (7) adapting to technical progress Council Directive 88/77/EEC have introduced provisions which, while being autonomous, are closely linked to the scheme established under Directive 88/77/EEC. Those autonomous provisions should be fully integrated into the recast of Directive 88/77/EEC in the interests of clarity and legal certainty.

(3)

It is necessary that all the Member States adopt the same requirements, in order, in particular, to permit the implementation, for each vehicle type, of the EC type-approval system which is the subject of Directive 70/156/EEC.

(4)

The Commission’s programme on air quality, road transport emissions, fuels and emission abatement technologies, hereinafter ‘the first Auto-Oil programme’, showed that further reductions in pollutant emissions from heavy-duty vehicles were necessary with a view to achieving future air quality standards.

(5)

Reductions in emission limits applicable from the year 2000, corresponding to abatements of 30 % in emissions of carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter were identified by the first Auto-Oil programme as key measures for the achievement of medium-term air quality. A reduction of 30 % in exhaust smoke opacity should additionally contribute to the reduction of particulate matter. Additional reductions in emission limits applicable from the year 2005, corresponding to additional abatements of 30 % in carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen and 80 % in particulate matter should greatly contribute to air quality improvement in the medium to longer term. The additional limit for oxides of nitrogen applicable in the year 2008 should result in a further 43 % reduction in the emission limit for this pollutant.

(6)

Type-approval tests for gaseous and particulate pollutants and smoke opacity are applicable to allow for a more representative evaluation of the emissions performance of engines under test conditions that more closely resemble those encountered by vehicles in-service. Since 2000 conventional compression-ignition engines and those compression-ignition engines fitted with certain types of emission control equipment have been tested over a steady-state test cycle and using a new load response test for smoke opacity. Compression-ignition engines fitted with advanced emission control systems have, in addition, been tested over a new transient test cycle. From 2005, all compression-ignition engines should be tested on all those test cycles. Gas fuelled engines are only tested on the new transient test cycle.

(7)

Under all randomly selected load conditions within a defined operating range, the limit values may not be exceeded by more than an appropriate percentage.

(8)

In laying down new standards and test procedures, it is necessary to take account of the impact on air quality of future traffic growth in the Community. The work undertaken by the Commission in this sphere has shown that the motor industry in the Community has made great strides in the perfection of the technology allowing a considerable reduction in emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants. However, it is still necessary to press for further improvements in emission limits and other technical requirements in the interests of environmental protection and public health. In particular, the results of ongoing research into the characteristics of ultra-fine particulates should be taken into account in any future measures.

(9)

It is necessary that further improvements be made to the quality of motor fuels to enable the efficient and durable performance of emission control systems in service.

(10)

New provisions for on-board diagnostics (OBD) should be introduced from 2005 with a view to facilitating the immediate detection of the deterioration or failure of engine emission control equipment. This should enhance diagnostic and repair capability, significantly improving the sustainable emission performance of in-service heavy-duty vehicles. Since, on the worldwide stage, OBD for heavy-duty diesel engines is in its infancy, it should be introduced in the Community in two stages to allow for system development so that the OBD system does not give false indications. In order to assist the Member States in ensuring that the owners and operators of heavy-duty vehicles meet their obligation to repair faults indicated by the OBD system, the distance covered or the time that has elapsed after a fault has been indicated to the driver should be recorded.

(11)

Compression-ignition engines are inherently durable and have demonstrated that, with proper and effective maintenance, they can retain a high level of emissions performance over the significantly high distances travelled by heavy-duty vehicles in the course of commercial operations. However, future emission standards will push the introduction of emission control systems downstream of the engine, such as deNOx systems, diesel particulate filters and systems that are a combination of both and, perhaps, other systems yet to be defined. It is therefore necessary to establish a useful life requirement on which to base procedures for ensuring the compliance of an engine’s emission control system throughout that reference period. In establishing such a requirement, due account should be taken of the considerable distances covered by heavy-duty vehicles, of the need to incorporate appropriate and timely maintenance and of the possibility of type-approving category N1 vehicles in accordance with either this Directive or Council Directive 70/220/EEC of 20 March 1970 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States on measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles (8).

(12)

Member States should be allowed, by means of tax incentives, to expedite the placing on the market of vehicles that satisfy the requirements adopted at Community level, provided that such incentives comply with the provisions of the Treaty and satisfy certain conditions intended to prevent distortion of the internal market. This Directive does not affect the right of the Member States to include emissions of pollutants and other substances in the basis for calculating road traffic taxes on motor vehicles.

(13)

Since some of those tax incentives are State aids under Article 87(1) of the Treaty, they would have to be notified to the Commission under Article 88(3) of the Treaty for evaluation in accordance with the relevant criteria of compatibility. The notification of such measures in accordance with this Directive should be without prejudice to the obligation to notify under Article 88(3) of the Treaty.

(14)

With the aim of simplifying and accelerating the procedure, the Commission should be entrusted with the task of adopting measures implementing the fundamental provisions laid down in this Directive as well as the measures for adapting the annexes of this Directive to scientific and technical progress.

(15)

The measures necessary for the implementation of this Directive and its adaptation to scientific and technical progress should be adopted in accordance with Council Decision 1999/468/EC of 28 June 1999 laying down the procedures for the exercise of implementing powers conferred on the Commission (9).

(16)

The Commission should keep under review the need to introduce emission limits for pollutants which are as yet unregulated and which arise as a consequence of the wider use of new alternative fuels and new exhaust emission control systems.

(17)

The Commission should submit proposals it may deem appropriate for a further stage for limit values for NOx and particulate emissions as soon as possible.

(18)

Since the objective of this Directive, namely the realisation of the internal market through the introduction of common technical requirements concerning gaseous and particulate emissions for all types of vehicles, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States and can therefore, by reason of the scale of the action, be better achieved at Community level, the Community may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve this objective.

(19)

The obligation to transpose this Directive into national law should be confined to those provisions which represent a substantive change as compared with the earlier Directives. The obligation to transpose the provisions which are unchanged arises under the earlier Directives.

(20)

This Directive should be without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States relating to the time limits for transposition into national law and application of the Directives set out in Annex IX, Part B.

HAVE ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:

Article 1

Definitions

For the purposes of this Directive the following definitions shall apply:

(a)

‘vehicle’ means any vehicle as defined in Article 2 of Directive 70/156/EEC and propelled by a compression-ignition or gas engine, with the exception of vehicles of category M1 with a technically permissible maximum laden mass less than or equal to 3,5 tonnes;

(b)

‘compression-ignition or gas engine’ means the motive propulsion source of a vehicle for which type-approval as a separate technical unit, as defined in Article 2 of Directive 70/156/EEC, may be granted;

(c)

‘enhanced environment-friendly vehicle (EEV)’ means a vehicle propelled by an engine which complies with the permissive emission limit values set out in row C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I.

Article 2

Obligations of the Member States

1.   For types of compression-ignition or gas engines and types of vehicle propelled by compression-ignition or gas engines, where the requirements set out in Annexes I to VIII are not met and in particular where the emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants and opacity of smoke from the engine do not comply with the limit values set out in row A of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I, Member States:

(a)

shall refuse to grant EC type-approval pursuant to Article 4(1) of Directive 70/156/EEC; and

(b)

shall refuse national type-approval.

2.   Except in the case of vehicles and engines intended for export to third countries or replacement engines for in-service vehicles, Member States shall, where the requirements set out in Annexes I to VIII are not met and in particular where the emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants and opacity of smoke from the engine do not comply with the limit values set out in row A of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I:

(a)

consider certificates of conformity which accompany new vehicles or new engines pursuant to Directive 70/156/EEC as no longer valid for the purposes of Article 7(1) of that Directive; and

(b)

prohibit the registration, sale, entry into service or use of new vehicles propelled by a compression-ignition or gas engine and the sale or use of new compression-ignition or gas engines.

3.   Without prejudice to paragraphs 1 and 2, with effect from 1 October 2003 and except in the case of vehicles and engines intended for export to third countries or replacement engines for in-service vehicles, Member States shall, for types of gas engines and types of vehicles propelled by a gas engine which do not comply with the requirements set out in Annexes I to VIII:

(a)

consider certificates of conformity which accompany new vehicles or new engines pursuant to Directive 70/156/EEC as no longer valid for the purposes of Article 7(1) of that Directive; and

(b)

prohibit the registration, sale, entry into service or use of new vehicles and the sale or use of new engines.

4.   If the requirements set out in Annexes I to VIII and in Articles 3 and 4 are satisfied, in particular where the emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants and opacity of smoke from the engine comply with the limit values set out in row B1 or row B2 or with the permissive limit values set out in row C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I, no Member State may, on grounds relating to the gaseous and particulate pollutants and opacity of smoke emissions from an engine:

(a)

refuse to grant EC type-approval pursuant to Article 4(1) of Directive 70/156/EEC or to grant national type-approval for a type of vehicle propelled by a compression-ignition or gas engine;

(b)

prohibit the registration, sale, entry into service or use of new vehicles propelled by a compression-ignition or gas engine;

(c)

refuse to grant EC type-approval for a type of compression-ignition or gas engine;

(d)

prohibit the sale or use of new compression-ignition or gas engines.

5.   With effect from 1 October 2005, for types of compression-ignition or gas engines and types of vehicle propelled by compression-ignition or gas engines which do not meet the requirements set out in Annexes I to VIII and in Articles 3 and 4 and in particular where the emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants and opacity of smoke from the engine do not comply with the limit values set out in row B1 of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I, Member States:

(a)

shall refuse to grant EC type-approval pursuant to Article 4(1) of Directive 70/156/EEC; and

(b)

shall refuse national type-approval.

6.   With effect from 1 October 2006 and except in the case of vehicles and engines intended for export to third countries or replacement engines for in-service vehicles, Member States shall, where the requirements set out in Annexes I to VIII and in Articles 3 and 4 are not met and in particular where the emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants and opacity of smoke from the engine do not comply with the limit values set out in row B1 of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I:

(a)

consider certificates of conformity which accompany new vehicles or new engines pursuant to Directive 70/156/EEC as no longer valid for the purposes of Article 7(1) of that Directive; and

(b)

prohibit the registration, sale, entry into service or use of new vehicles propelled by a compression-ignition or gas engine and the sale or use of new compression-ignition or gas engines.

7.   With effect from 1 October 2008, for types of compression-ignition or gas engines and types of vehicle propelled by compression-ignition or gas engines which do not meet the requirements set out in Annexes I to VIII and in Articles 3 and 4 and in particular where the emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants and opacity of smoke from the engine do not comply with the limit values set out in row B2 of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I, Member States:

(a)

shall refuse to grant EC type-approval pursuant to Article 4(1) of Directive 70/156/EEC; and

(b)

shall refuse national type-approval.

8.   With effect from 1 October 2009 and except in the case of vehicles and engines intended for export to third countries or replacement engines for in-service vehicles, Member States shall, where the requirements set out in Annexes I to VIII and in Articles 3 and 4 are not met and in particular where the emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants and opacity of smoke from the engine do not comply with the limit values set out in row B2 of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I:

(a)

consider certificates of conformity which accompany new vehicles or new engines pursuant to Directive 70/156/EEC as no longer valid for the purposes of Article 7(1) of that Directive; and

(b)

prohibit the registration, sale, entry into service or use of new vehicles propelled by a compression-ignition or gas engine and the sale or use of new compression-ignition or gas engines.

9.   In accordance with paragraph 4 an engine that satisfies the requirements set out in Annexes I to VIII, and, in particular, complies with the limit values set out in row C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I shall be considered as complying with the requirements set out in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3.

In accordance with paragraph 4 an engine that satisfies the requirements set out in Annexes I to VIII and in Articles 3 and 4 and, in particular, complies with the limit values set out in row C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I shall be considered as complying with the requirements set out in paragraphs 1 to 3 and 5 to 8.

10.   For compression-ignition or gas engines that must comply with the limit values set out in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I under the type-approval system, the following shall apply:

under all randomly selected load conditions, belonging to a definite control area and with the exception of specified engine operating conditions which are not subject to such a provision, the emissions sampled during a time duration as small as 30 seconds shall not exceed by more than 100 % the limit values in rows B2 and C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I. The control area to which the percentage not to be exceeded shall apply, the excluded engine operating conditions and other appropriate conditions shall be defined in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 7(1).

Article 3

Durability of emission control systems

1.   From 1 October 2005 for new type-approvals and from 1 October 2006 for all type-approvals, the manufacturer shall demonstrate that a compression-ignition or gas engine type-approved by reference to the limit values set out in row B1 or row B2 or row C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I will comply with those limit values for a useful life of:

(a)

100 000 km or five years, whichever is the sooner, in the case of engines to be fitted to vehicles of category N1 and M2;

(b)

200 000 km or six years, whichever is the sooner, in the case of engines to be fitted to vehicles of category N2, N3 with a maximum technically permissible mass not exceeding 16 tonnes and M3 Class I, Class II and Class A, and Class B with a maximum technically permissible mass not exceeding 7,5 tonnes;

(c)

500 000 km or seven years, whichever is the sooner, in the case of engines to be fitted to vehicles of category N3 with a maximum technically permissible mass exceeding 16 tonnes and M3, Class III and Class B with a maximum technically permissible mass exceeding 7,5 tonnes.

From 1 October 2005, for new types, and from 1 October 2006, for all types, type-approvals granted to vehicles shall also require confirmation of the correct operation of the emission control devices during the normal life of the vehicle under normal conditions of use (conformity of in-service vehicles properly maintained and used).

2.   The measures for the implementation of paragraph 1 shall be adopted by 28 December 2005 at the latest.

Article 4

On-board diagnostic systems

1.   From 1 October 2005 for new type-approvals of vehicles and from 1 October 2006 for all type-approvals, a compression-ignition engine type-approved by reference to the emission limit values set out in row B1 or row C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I or a vehicle propelled by such an engine shall be fitted with an on-board diagnostic (OBD) system that signals the presence of a fault to the driver if the OBD threshold limits set out in row B1 or row C of the table in paragraph 3 are exceeded.

In the case of exhaust after-treatment systems, the OBD system may monitor for major functional failure any of the following:

(a)

a catalyst, where fitted as a separate unit, whether or not it is part of a deNOx system or a diesel particulate filter;

(b)

a deNOx system, where fitted;

(c)

a diesel particulate filter, where fitted;

(d)

a combined deNOx-diesel particulate filter system.

2.   From 1 October 2008 for new type-approvals and from 1 October 2009 for all type-approvals, a compression-ignition or a gas engine type-approved by reference to the emission limit values set out in row B2 or row C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I, or a vehicle propelled by such an engine shall be fitted with an OBD system that signals the presence of a fault to the driver if the OBD threshold limits set out in row B2 or row C of the table in paragraph 3 are exceeded.

The OBD system shall also include an interface between the engine electronic control unit (EECU) and any other engine or vehicle electrical or electronic systems that provide an input to or receive an output from the EECU and which affect the correct functioning of the emission control system, such as the interface between the EECU and a transmission electronic control unit.

3.   The OBD threshold limits shall be as follows:

Row

Compression-ignition engines

Mass of oxides of nitrogen

(NOx) g/kWh

Mass of particulate

(PT) g/kWh

B1 (2005)

7,0

0,1

B2 (2008)

7,0

0,1

C (EEV)

7,0

0,1

4.   Full and uniform access to OBD information must be provided for the purposes of testing, diagnosis, servicing and repair in keeping with the relevant provisions of Directive 70/220/EEC and provisions regarding replacement components ensuring compatibility with OBD systems.

5.   The measures for the implementation of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall be adopted by 28 December 2005 at the latest.

Article 5

Emission control systems using consumable reagents

In defining the measures necessary to implement Article 4, as provided for by Article 7(1), the Commission shall, if appropriate, include technical measures to minimise the risk of emission control systems using consumable reagents being inadequately maintained in service. In addition, and if appropriate, measures shall be included to ensure that emissions of ammonia due to the use of consumable reagents are minimised.

Article 6

Tax incentives

1.   Member States may make provision for tax incentives only in respect of vehicles which comply with this Directive. Such incentives shall comply with the provisions of the Treaty, as well as with either paragraph 2 or paragraph 3 of this Article.

2.   The incentives shall apply to all new vehicles offered for sale on the market of a Member State which comply in advance with the limit values set out in row B1 or B2 of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I.

They shall be terminated with effect from the mandatory application of the limit values in row B1, as laid down in Article 2(6), or from the mandatory application of the limit values in row B2, as laid down in Article 2(8).

3.   The incentives shall apply to all new vehicles offered for sale on the market of a Member State which comply with the permissive limit values set out in row C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I.

4.   In addition to the conditions referred to in paragraph 1, for each type of vehicle, the incentives shall not exceed the additional cost of the technical solutions introduced to ensure compliance with the limit values set out in row B1 or row B2 or with the permissive limit values set out in row C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I, and of their installation on the vehicle.

5.   Member States shall inform the Commission in sufficient time of plans to institute or change the tax incentives referred to in this Article, so that it can submit its observations.

Article 7

Implementation measures and amendments

1.   The measures necessary for the implementation of Articles 2(10), 3 and 4 of this Directive shall be adopted by the Commission, assisted by the Committee established by Article 13(1) of Directive 70/156/EEC, in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 13(3) of that Directive.

2.   Amendments to this Directive which are necessary to adapt it to scientific and technical progress shall be adopted by the Commission, assisted by the committee established by Article 13(1) of Directive 70/156/EEC, in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 13(3) of that Directive.

Article 8

Review and reports

1.   The Commission shall review the need to introduce new emission limits applicable to heavy-duty vehicles and engines in respect of pollutants that are as yet unregulated. The review shall be based on the wider market introduction of new alternative fuels and on the introduction of new additive-enabled exhaust emission control systems to meet future standards laid down in this Directive. Where appropriate, the Commission shall submit a proposal to the European Parliament and the Council.

2.   The Commission should submit to the European Parliament and the Council legislative proposals on further limits on NOx and particulate emissions for heavy-duty vehicles.

If appropriate, it shall investigate whether setting an additional limit for particulate levels and size is necessary, and, if so, include it in the proposals.

3.   The Commission shall report to the European Parliament and to the Council on the progress in negotiations for a worldwide harmonised duty cycle (WHDC).

4.   The Commission shall submit a report to the European Parliament and to the Council on requirements for the operation of an on-board measurement (OBM) system. On the basis of that report, the Commission shall, where appropriate, submit a proposal for measures to include the technical specifications and corresponding annexes in order to provide for the type-approval of OBM systems which ensure at least equivalent levels of monitoring to OBD systems and which are compatible therewith.

Article 9

Transposition

1.   Member States shall adopt and publish, before 9 November 2006 at the latest, the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive. If the adoption of the implementing measures referred to in Article 7 is delayed beyond 28 December 2005, Member States shall comply with this obligation by the transposition date provided in the Directive containing these implementing measures. They shall forthwith communicate to the Commission the text of those provisions and a correlation table between those provisions and this Directive.

They shall apply those provisions from 9 November 2006 or, if the adoption of the implementing measures referred to in Article 7 is delayed beyond 28 December 2005, from the transposition date specified in the Directive containing these implementing measures.

When Member States adopt those provisions, they shall contain a reference to this Directive or be accompanied by such a reference on the occasion of their official publication. They shall also include a statement that references in existing laws, regulations and administrative provisions to the Directives repealed by this Directive shall be construed as references to this Directive. Member States shall determine how such reference is to be made and how that statement is to be formulated.

2.   Member States shall communicate to the Commission the text of the main provisions of national law which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive.

Article 10

Repeal

The Directives listed in Annex IX, Part A, are repealed with effect from 9 November 2006 without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States relating to the time limits for transposition into national law and application of the Directives set out in Annex IX, Part B.

References to the repealed Directives shall be construed as references to this Directive and shall be read in accordance with the correlation table in Annex X.

Article 11

Entry into force

This Directive shall enter into force on the 20th day following its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

Article 12

Addressees

This Directive is addressed to the Member States.

Done at Strasbourg, 28 September 2005.

For the European Parliament

The President

J. BORRELL FONTELLES

For the Council

The President

D. ALEXANDER


(1)  OJ C 108, 30.4.2004, p. 32.

(2)  Opinion of the European Parliament of 9 March 2004 (OJ C 102 E, 28.4.2004, p. 272) and Council Decision of 19 September 2005.

(3)  OJ L 36, 9.2.1988, p. 33. Directive as last amended by the 2003 Act of Accession.

(4)  OJ L 42, 23.2.1970, p. 1. Directive as last amended by Commission Directive 2005/49/EC (OJ L 194, 26.7.2005, p. 12).

(5)  OJ L 295, 25.10.1991, p. 1.

(6)  OJ L 44, 16.2.2000, p. 1.

(7)  OJ L 107, 18.4.2001, p. 10.

(8)  OJ L 76, 6.4.1970, p. 1. Directive as last amended by Commission Directive 2003/76/EC (OJ L 206, 15.8.2003, p. 29).

(9)  OJ L 184, 17.7.1999, p. 23.


ANNEX I

SCOPE, DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS, APPLICATION FOR EC TYPE-APPROVAL, SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTS AND CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

1.   SCOPE

This Directive applies to the gaseous and particulate pollutants from all motor vehicles equipped with compression-ignition engines and to the gaseous pollutants from all motor vehicles equipped with positive ignition engines fuelled with natural gas or LPG, and to compression-ignition and positive ignition engines as specified in Article 1 with the exception of those vehicles of category N1, N2 and M2 for which type-approval has been granted under Council Directive 70/220/EEC of 20 March 1970 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States on measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles (1).

2.   DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

For the purposes of this Directive:

2.1.   ‘test cycle’ means a sequence of test points each with a defined speed and torque to be followed by the engine under steady state (ESC test) or transient operating conditions (ETC, ELR test);

2.2.   ‘approval of an engine (engine family)’ means the approval of an engine type (engine family) with regard to the level of the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants;

2.3.   ‘diesel engine’ means an engine which works on the compression-ignition principle;

2.4.   ‘gas engine’ means an engine which is fuelled with natural gas (NG) or liquid petroleum gas (LPG);

2.5.   ‘engine type’ means a category of engines which do not differ in such essential respects as engine characteristics as defined in Annex II to this Directive;

2.6.   ‘engine family’ means a manufacturers grouping of engines which, through their design as defined in Annex II, Appendix 2 to this Directive, have similar exhaust emission characteristics; all members of the family must comply with the applicable emission limit values;

2.7.   ‘parent engine’ means an engine selected from an engine family in such a way that its emissions characteristics will be representative for that engine family;

2.8.   ‘gaseous pollutants’ means carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons (assuming a ratio of CH1,85 for diesel, CH2,525 for LPG and CH2,93 for NG (NMHC), and an assumed molecule CH3O0,5 for ethanol-fuelled diesel engines), methane (assuming a ratio of CH4 for NG) and oxides of nitrogen, the last named being expressed in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) equivalent;

2.9.   ‘particulate pollutants’ means any material collected on a specified filter medium after diluting the exhaust with clean filtered air so that the temperature does not exceed 325 K (52 oC);

2.10.   ‘smoke’ means particles suspended in the exhaust stream of a diesel engine which absorb, reflect, or refract light;

2.11.   ‘net power’ means the power in EC kW obtained on the test bench at the end of the crankshaft, or its equivalent, measured in accordance with the EC method of measuring power as set out in Council Directive 80/1269/EEC of 16 December 1980on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the engine power of motor vehicles (2);

2.12.   ‘declared maximum power (Pmax)’ means the maximum power in EC kW (net power) as declared by the manufacturer in his application for type-approval;

2.13.   ‘per cent load’ means the fraction of the maximum available torque at an engine speed;

2.14.   ‘ESC test’ means a test cycle consisting of 13 steady state modes to be applied in accordance with Section 6.2 of this Annex;

2.15.   ‘ELR test’ means a test cycle consisting of a sequence of load steps at constant engine speeds to be applied in accordance with Section 6.2 of this Annex;

2.16.   ‘ETC test’ means a test cycle consisting of 1 800 second-by-second transient modes to be applied in accordance with Section 6.2 of this Annex;

2.17.   ‘engine operating speed range’ means the engine speed range, most frequently used during engine field operation, which lies between the low and high speeds, as set out in Annex III to this Directive;

2.18.   ‘low speed (nlo)’ means the lowest engine speed where 50 % of the declared maximum power occurs;

2.19.   ‘high speed (nhi)’ means the highest engine speed where 70 % of the declared maximum power occurs;

2.20.   ‘engine speeds A, B and C’ means the test speeds within the engine operating speed range to be used for the ESC test and the ELR test, as set out in Annex III, Appendix 1 to this Directive;

2.21.   ‘control area’ means the area between the engine speeds A and C and between 25 to 100 per cent load;

2.22.   ‘reference speed (nref)’ means the 100 per cent speed value to be used for denormalising the relative speed values of the ETC test, as set out in Annex III, Appendix 2 to this Directive;

2.23.   ‘opacimeter’ means an instrument designed to measure the opacity of smoke particles by means of the light extinction principle;

2.24.   ‘NG gas range’ means one of the H or L range as defined in European Standard EN 437, dated November 1993;

2.25.   ‘self adaptability’ means any engine device allowing the air/fuel ratio to be kept constant;

2.26.   ‘recalibration’ means a fine tuning of an NG engine in order to provide the same performance (power, fuel consumption) in a different range of natural gas;

2.27.   ‘Wobbe Index (lower Wl; or upper Wu)’ means the ratio of the corresponding calorific value of a gas per unit volume and the square root of its relative density under the same reference conditions:

Formula

2.28.   ‘λ-shift factor (Sλ)’ means an expression that describes the required flexibility of the engine management system regarding a change of the excess-air ratio λ if the engine is fuelled with a gas composition different from pure methane (see Annex VII for the calculation of Sλ);

2.29.   ‘defeat device’ means a device which measures, senses or responds to operating variables (e.g. vehicle speed, engine speed, gear used, temperature, intake pressure or any other parameter) for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying or deactivating the operation of any component or function of the emission control system such that the effectiveness of the emission control system is reduced under conditions encountered during normal vehicle use unless the use of such a device is substantially included in the applied emission certification test procedures.

Image

2.30.   ‘auxiliary control device’ means a system, function or control strategy installed to an engine or on a vehicle, that is used to protect the engine and/or its ancillary equipment against operating conditions that could result in damage or failure, or is used to facilitate engine starting. An auxiliary control device may also be a strategy or measure that has been satisfactorily demonstrated not to be a defeat device;

2.31.   ‘irrational emission control strategy’ means any strategy or measure that, when the vehicle is operated under normal conditions of use, reduces the effectiveness of the emission control system to a level below that expected on the applicable emission test procedures.

2.32.   Symbols and abbreviations

2.32.1.   Symbols for test parameters

Symbol

Unit

Term

AP

m2

Cross sectional area of the isokinetic sampling probe

AT

m2

Cross sectional area of the exhaust pipe

CEE

Ethane efficiency

CEM

Methane efficiency

C1

Carbon 1 equivalent hydrocarbon

conc

ppm/vol. %

Subscript denoting concentration

D0

m3/s

Intercept of PDP calibration function

DF

Dilution factor

D

Bessel function constant

E

Bessel function constant

EZ

g/kWh

Interpolated NOx emission of the control point

fa

Laboratory atmospheric factor

fc

s-1

Bessel filter cut-off frequency

FFH

Fuel specific factor for the calculation of wet concentration for dry concentration

FS

Stoichiometric factor

GAIRW

kg/h

Intake air mass flow rate on wet basis

GAIRD

kg/h

Intake air mass flow rate on dry basis

GDILW

kg/h

Dilution air mass flow rate on wet basis

GEDFW

kg/h

Equivalent diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis

GEXHW

kg/h

Exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis

GFUEL

kg/h

Fuel mass flow rate

GTOTW

kg/h

Diluted exhaust gas mass flow rate on wet basis

H

MJ/m3

Calorific value

HREF

g/kg

Reference value of absolute humidity (10,71g/kg)

Ha

g/kg

Absolute humidity of the intake air

Hd

g/kg

Absolute humidity of the dilution air

HTCRAT

mol/mol

Hydrogen-to-Carbon ratio

i

Subscript denoting an individual mode

K

Bessel constant

k

m-1

Light absorption coefficient

KH,D

Humidity correction factor for NOx for diesel engines

KH,G

Humidity correction factor for NOx for gas engines

KV

 

CFV calibration function

KW,a

Dry to wet correction factor for the intake air

KW,d

Dry to wet correction factor for the dilution air

KW,e

Dry to wet correction factor for the diluted exhaust gas

KW,r

Dry to wet correction factor for the raw exhaust gas

L

%

Percent torque related to the maximum torque for the test engine

La

m

Effective optical path length

m

 

Slope of PDP calibration function

mass

g/h or g

Subscript denoting emissions mass flow (rate)

MDIL

kg

Mass of the dilution air sample passed through the particulate sampling filters

Md

mg

Particulate sample mass of the dilution air collected

Mf

mg

Particulate sample mass collected

Mf,p

mg

Particulate sample mass collected on primary filter

Mf,b

mg

Particulate sample mass collected on back-up filter

MSAM

 

Mass of the diluted exhaust sample passed through the particulate sampling filters

MSEC

kg

Mass of secondary dilution air

MTOTW

kg

Total CVS mass over the cycle on wet basis

MTOTW,i

kg

Instantaneous CVS mass on wet basis

N

%

Opacity

NP

Total revolutions of PDP over the cycle

NP,i

Revolutions of PDP during a time interval

n

min-1

Engine speed

np

s-1

PDP speed

nhi

min-1

High engine speed

nlo

min-1

Low engine speed

nref

min-1

Reference engine speed for ETC test

pa

kPa

Saturation vapour pressure of the engine intake air

pA

kPa

Absolute pressure

pB

kPa

Total atmospheric pressure

pd

kPa

Saturation vapour pressure of the dilution air

ps

kPa

Dry atmospheric pressure

p1

kPa

Pressure depression at pump inlet

P(a)

kW

Power absorbed by auxiliaries to be fitted for test

P(b)

kW

Power absorbed by auxiliaries to be removed for test

P(n)

kW

Net power non-corrected

P(m)

kW

Power measured on test bed

Ω

Bessel constant

Qs

m3/s

CVS volume flow rate

q

Dilution ratio

r

Ratio of cross sectional areas of isokinetic probe and exhaust pipe

Ra

%

Relative humidity of the intake air

Rd

%

Relative humidity of the dilution air

Rf

FID response factor

ρ

kg/m3

Density

S

kW

Dynamometer setting

Si

m-1

Instantaneous smoke value

Sλ

 

λ-shift factor

T

K

Absolute temperature

Ta

K

Absolute temperature of the intake air

t

s

Measuring time

te

s

Electrical response time

tF

s

Filter response time for Bessel function

tp

s

Physical response time

Δt

s

Time interval between successive smoke data (= 1/sampling rate)

Δti

s

Time interval for instantaneous CFV flow

τ

%

Smoke transmittance

V0

m3/rev

PDP volume flow rate at actual conditions

W

Wobbe index

Wact

kWh

Actual cycle work of ETC

Wref

kWh

Reference cycle work of ETC

WF

Weighting factor

WFE

Effective weighting factor

X0

m3/rev

Calibration function of PDP volume flow rate

Yi

m-1

1 s Bessel averaged smoke value

2.32.2.   Symbols for chemical components

CH4

Methane

C2H6

Ethane

C2H5OH

Ethanol

C3H8

Propane

CO

Carbon monoxide

DOP

Di-octylphtalate

CO2

Carbon dioxide

HC

Hydrocarbons

NMHC

Non-methane hydrocarbons

NOx

Oxides of nitrogen

NO

Nitric oxide

NO2

Nitrogen dioxide

PT

Particulates.

2.32.3.   Abbreviations

CFV

Critical flow venturi

CLD

Chemiluminescent detector

ELR

European load response test

ESC

European steady state cycle

ETC

European transient cycle

FID

Flame ionisation detector

GC

Gas chromatograph

HCLD

Heated chemiluminescent detector

HFID

Heated flame ionisation detector

LPG

Liquefied petroleum gas

NDIR

Non-dispersive infrared analyser

NG

Natural gas

NMC

Non-methane cutter

3.   APPLICATION FOR EC TYPE-APPROVAL

3.1.   Application for EC type-approval for a type of engine or engine family as a separate technical unit

3.1.1.   The application for approval of an engine type or engine family with regard to the level of the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants for diesel engines and with regard to the level of the emission of gaseous pollutants for gas engines shall be submitted by the engine manufacturer or by a duly accredited representative.

3.1.2.   It shall be accompanied by the undermentioned documents in triplicate and the following particulars:

3.1.2.1.   A description of the engine type or engine family, if applicable, comprising the particulars referred to in Annex II to this Directive which conform to the requirements of Articles 3 and 4 of Directive 70/156/EEC of 6 February 1970 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the type-approval of motor vehicles and their trailers (3).

3.1.3.   An engine conforming to the ‘engine type’ or ‘parent engine’ characteristics described in Annex II shall be submitted to the technical service responsible for conducting the approval tests defined in Section 6.

3.2.   Application for EC type-approval for a vehicle type in respect of its engine

3.2.1.   The application for approval of a vehicle with regard to emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants by its diesel engine or engine family and with regard to the level of the emission of gaseous pollutants by its gas engine or engine family shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or a duly accredited representative.

3.2.2.   It shall be accompanied by the undermentioned documents in triplicate and the following particulars:

3.2.2.1.   A description of the vehicle type, of the engine-related vehicle parts and of the engine type or engine family, if applicable, comprising the particulars referred to in Annex II, along with the documentation required in application of Article 3 of Directive 70/156/EEC.

3.3.   Application for EC type-approval for a vehicle type with an approved engine

3.3.1.   The application for approval of a vehicle with regard to emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants by its approved diesel engine or engine family and with regard to the level of the emission of gaseous pollutants by its approved gas engine or engine family shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or a duly accredited representative.

3.3.2.   It shall be accompanied by the undermentioned documents in triplicate and the following particulars:

3.3.2.1.   a description of the vehicle type and of engine-related vehicle parts comprising the particulars referred to in Annex II, as applicable, and a copy of the EC Type-Approval Certificate (Annex VI) for the engine or engine family, if applicable, as a separate technical unit which is installed in the vehicle type, along with the documentation required in application of Article 3 of Directive 70/156/EEC.

4.   EC TYPE-APPROVAL

4.1.   Granting of a universal fuel EC type-approval

A universal fuel EC type-approval is granted subject to the following requirements.

4.1.1.   In the case of diesel fuel the parent engine meets the requirements of this Directive on the reference fuel specified in Annex IV.

4.1.2.   In the case of natural gas the parent engine should demonstrate its capability to adapt to any fuel composition that may occur across the market. In the case of natural gas there are generally two types of fuel, high calorific fuel (H-gas) and low calorific fuel (L-gas), but with a significant spread within both ranges; they differ significantly in their energy content expressed by the Wobbe Index and in their λ-shift factor (Sλ). The formulae for the calculation of the Wobbe index and Sλ are given in Sections 2.27 and 2.28. Natural gases with a λ-shift factor between 0,89 and 1,08 (0,89 ≤ Sλ ≤ 1,08) are considered to belong to H-range, while natural gases with a λ-shift factor between 1,08 and 1,19 (1,08 ≤ Sλ ≤ 1,19) are considered to belong to L-range. The composition of the reference fuels reflects the extreme variations of Sλ.

The parent engine shall meet the requirements of this Directive on the reference fuels GR (fuel 1) and G25 (fuel 2), as specified in Annex IV, without any readjustment to the fuelling between the two tests. However, one adaptation run over one ETC cycle without measurement is permitted after the change of the fuel. Before testing, the parent engine shall be run-in using the procedure given in paragraph 3 of Appendix 2 to Annex III.

4.1.2.1.   On the manufacturer's request the engine may be tested on a third fuel (fuel 3) if the λ-shift factor (Sλ) lies between 0,89 (i.e. the lower range of GR) and 1,19 (i.e. the upper range of G25) for example when fuel 3 is a market fuel. The results of this test may be used as a basis for the evaluation of the conformity of the production.

4.1.3.   In the case of an engine fuelled with natural gas which is self-adaptive for the range of H-gases on the one hand and the range of L-gases on the other hand, and which switches between the H-range and the L-range by means of a switch, the parent engine shall be tested on the relevant reference fuel as specified in Annex IV for each range, at each position of the switch. The fuels are GR (fuel 1) and G23 (fuel 3) for the H-range of gases and G25 (fuel 2) and G23 (fuel 3) for the L-range of gases. The parent engine shall meet the requirements of this Directive at both positions of the switch without any readjustment to the fuelling between the two tests at each position of the switch. However, one adaptation run over one ETC cycle without measurement is permitted after the change of the fuel. Before testing the parent engine shall be run-in using the procedure given in paragraph 3 of Appendix 2 to Annex III.

4.1.3.1.   At the manufacturer's request the engine may be tested on a third fuel instead of G23 (fuel 3) if the λ-shift factor (Sλ) lies between 0,89 (i.e. the lower range of GR) and 1,19 (i.e. the upper range of G25), for example when fuel 3 is a market fuel. The results of this test may be used as a basis for the evaluation of the conformity of the production.

4.1.4.   In the case of natural gas engines, the ratio of the emission results ‘r’ shall be determined for each pollutant as follows:

Formula

or,

Formula

and,

Formula

4.1.5.   In the case of LPG the parent engine should demonstrate its capability to adapt to any fuel composition that may occur across the market. In the case of LPG there are variations in C3/C4 composition. These variations are reflected in the reference fuels. The parent engine should meet the emission requirements on the reference fuels A and B as specified in Annex IV without any readjustment to the fuelling between the two tests. However, one adaptation run over one ETC cycle without measurement is permitted after the change of the fuel. Before testing, the parent engine shall be run-in using the procedure defined in paragraph 3 of Appendix 2 to Annex III.

4.1.5.1.   The ratio of emission results ‘r’ shall be determined for each pollutant as follows:

Formula

4.2.   Granting of a fuel range restricted EC type-approval

Fuel range restricted EC type-approval is granted subject to the following requirements:

4.2.1.   Exhaust emissions approval of an engine running on natural gas and laid out for operation on either the range of H-gases or on the range of L-gases

The parent engine shall be tested on the relevant reference fuel, as specified in Annex IV, for the relevant range. The fuels are GR (fuel 1) and G23 (fuel 3) for the H-range of gases and G25 (fuel 2) and G23 (fuel 3) for the L-range of gases. The parent engine shall meet the requirements of this Directive without any readjustment to the fuelling between the two tests. However, one adaptation run over one ETC cycle without measurement is permitted after the change of the fuel. Before testing the parent engine shall be run-in using the procedure defined in paragraph 3 of Appendix 2 to Annex III.

4.2.1.1.   At the manufacturer's request the engine may be tested on a third fuel instead of G23 (fuel 3) if the λ-shift factor (Sλ) lies between 0,89 (i.e. the lower range of GR) and 1,19 (i.e. the upper range of G25), for example when fuel 3 is a market fuel. The results of this test may be used as a basis for the evaluation of the conformity of the production.

4.2.1.2.   The ratio of emission results ‘r’ shall be determined for each pollutant as follows:

Formula

or,

Formula

and,

Formula

4.2.1.3.   On delivery to the customer the engine shall bear a label (see paragraph 5.1.5) stating for which range of gases the engine is approved.

4.2.2.   Exhaust emissions approval of an engine running on natural gas or LPG and laid out for operation on one specific fuel composition

4.2.2.1.   The parent engine shall meet the emission requirements on the reference fuels GR and G25 in the case of natural gas, or the reference fuels A and B in the case of LPG, as specified in Annex IV. Between the tests fine-tuning of the fuelling system is allowed. This fine-tuning will consist of a recalibration of the fuelling database, without any alteration to either the basic control strategy or the basic structure of the database. If necessary the exchange of parts that are directly related to the amount of fuel flow (such as injector nozzles) is allowed.

4.2.2.2.   At the manufacturer's request the engine may be tested on the reference fuels GR and G23, or on the reference fuels G25 and G23, in which case the type-approval is only valid for the H-range or the L-range of gases respectively.

4.2.2.3.   On delivery to the customer the engine shall bear a label (see paragraph 5.1.5) stating for which fuel composition the engine has been calibrated.

4.3.   Exhaust emissions approval of a member of a family

4.3.1.   With the exception of the case mentioned in paragraph 4.3.2, the approval of a parent engine shall be extended to all family members without further testing, for any fuel composition within the range for which the parent engine has been approved (in the case of engines described in paragraph 4.2.2) or the same range of fuels (in the case of engines described in either paragraphs 4.1 or 4.2) for which the parent engine has been approved.

4.3.2.   Secondary test engine

In case of an application for type-approval of an engine, or a vehicle in respect of its engine, that engine belonging to an engine family, if the technical service determines that, with regard to the selected parent engine the submitted application does not fully represent the engine family defined in Annex I, Appendix 1, an alternative and if necessary an additional reference test engine may be selected by the technical service and tested.

4.4.   Type-approval certificate

A certificate conforming to the model specified in Annex VI shall be issued for approval referred to under Sections 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3.

5.   ENGINE MARKINGS

5.1.   The engine approved as a technical unit must bear:

5.1.1.   the trademark or trade name of the manufacturer of the engine;

5.1.2.   the manufacturer's commercial description;

5.1.3.   the EC type-approval number preceded by the distinctive letter(s) or number(s) of the country granting EC type-approval (4);

5.1.4.   in case of an NG engine one of the following markings to be placed after the EC type approval number:

H in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for the H-range of gases;

L in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for the L-range of gases;

HL in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for both the H-range and L-range of gases;

Ht in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for a specific gas composition in the H-range of gases and transformable to another specific gas in the H-range of gases by fine tuning of the engine fuelling;

Lt in case of the engine being approved and calibrated for a specific gas composition in the L-range of gases and transformable to another specific gas in the L-range of gases after fine tuning of the engine fuelling;

HLt in the case of the engine being approved and calibrated for a specific gas composition in either the H-range or the L-range of gases and transformable to another specific gas in either the H-range or the L-range of gases by fine tuning of the engine fuelling.

5.1.5.   Labels

In the case of NG and LPG fuelled engines with a fuel range restricted type approval, the following labels are applicable:

5.1.5.1.   Content

The following information must be given:

In the case of paragraph 4.2.1.3, the label shall state

‘ONLY FOR USE WITH NATURAL GAS RANGE H’. If applicable, ‘H’ is replaced by ‘L’.

In the case of paragraph 4.2.2.3, the label shall state

‘ONLY FOR USE WITH NATURAL GAS SPECIFICATION …’ or ‘ONLY FOR USE WITH LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS SPECIFICATION …’, as applicable. All the information in the appropriate table(s) in Annex IV shall be given with the individual constituents and limits specified by the engine manufacturer.

The letters and figures must be at least 4 mm in height.

Note:

If lack of space prevents such labelling, a simplified code may be used. In this event, explanatory notes containing all the above information must be easily accessible to any person filling the fuel tank or performing maintenance or repair on the engine and its accessories, as well as to the authorities concerned. The site and content of these explanatory notes will be determined by agreement between the manufacturer and the approval authority.

5.1.5.2.   Properties

Labels must be durable for the useful life of the engine. Labels must be clearly legible and their letters and figures must be indelible. Additionally, labels must be attached in such a manner that their fixing is durable for the useful life of the engine, and the labels cannot be removed without destroying or defacing them.

5.1.5.3.   Placing

Labels must be secured to an engine part necessary for normal engine operation and not normally requiring replacement during engine life. Additionally, these labels must be located so as to be readily visible to the average person after the engine has been completed with all the auxiliaries necessary for engine operation.

5.2.   In case of an application for EC type-approval for a vehicle type in respect of its engine, the marking specified in Section 5.1.5 shall also be placed close to fuel filling aperture.

5.3.   In case of an application for EC type-approval for a vehicle type with an approved engine, the marking specified in Section 5.1.5 shall also be placed close to the fuel filling aperture.

6.   SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTS

6.1.   General

6.1.1.   Emission control equipment

6.1.1.1.   The components liable to affect the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from diesel engines and the emission of gaseous pollutants from gas engines shall be so designed, constructed, assembled and installed as to enable the engine, in normal use, to comply with the provisions of this Directive.

6.1.2.   Functions of emission control equipment

6.1.2.1.   The use of a defeat device and/or an irrational emission control strategy is forbidden.

6.1.2.2.   An auxiliary control device may be installed to an engine, or on a vehicle, provided that the device:

operates only outside the conditions specified in paragraph 6.1.2.4, or

is activated only temporarily under the conditions specified in paragraph 6.1.2.4 for such purposes as engine damage protection, air-handling device protection, smoke management, cold start or warming-up, or

is activated only by on-board signals for purposes such as operational safety and limp-home strategies.

6.1.2.3.   An engine control device, function, system or measure that operates during the conditions specified in Section 6.1.2.4 and which results in the use of a different or modified engine control strategy to that normally employed during the applicable emission test cycles will be permitted if, in complying with the requirements of Sections 6.1.3 and/or 6.1.4, it is fully demonstrated that the measure does not reduce the effectiveness of the emission control system. In all other cases, such devices shall be considered to be a defeat device.

6.1.2.4.   For the purposes of point 6.1.2.2, the defined conditions of use under steady state and transient conditions are:

an altitude not exceeding 1 000 metres (or equivalent atmospheric pressure of 90 kPa),

an ambient temperature within the range 283 to 303 K (10 to 30 °C),

engine coolant temperature within the range 343 to 368 K (70 to 95 °C).

6.1.3.   Special requirements for electronic emission control systems

6.1.3.1.   Documentation requirements

The manufacturer shall provide a documentation package that gives access to the basic design of the system and the means by which it controls its output variables, whether that control is direct or indirect.

The documentation shall be made available in two parts:

(a)

the formal documentation package, which shall be supplied to the technical service at the time of submission of the type-approval application, shall include a full description of the system. This documentation may be brief, provided that it exhibits evidence that all outputs permitted by a matrix obtained from the range of control of the individual unit inputs have been identified. This information shall be attached to the documentation required in Annex I, Section 3;

(b)

additional material that shows the parameters that are modified by any auxiliary control device and the boundary conditions under which the device operates. The additional material shall include a description of the fuel system control logic, timing strategies and switch points during all modes of operation.

The additional material shall also contain a justification for the use of any auxiliary control device and include additional material and test data to demonstrate the effect on exhaust emissions of any auxiliary control device installed to the engine or on the vehicle.

This additional material shall remain strictly confidential and be retained by the manufacturer, but be made open for inspection at the time of type-approval or at any time during the validity of the type-approval.

6.1.4.   To verify whether any strategy or measure should be considered a defeat device or an irrational emission control strategy according to the definitions given in Sections 2.29 and 2.31, the type-approval authority and/or the technical service may additionally request a NOx screening test using the ETC which may be carried out in combination with either the type-approval test or the procedures for checking the conformity of production.

6.1.4.1.   As an alternative to the requirements of Appendix 4 to Annex III the emissions of NOx during the ETC screening test may be sampled using the raw exhaust gas and the technical prescriptions of ISO DIS 16183, dated 15 October 2000, shall be followed.

6.1.4.2.   In verifying whether any strategy or measure should be considered a defeat device or an irrational emission control strategy according to the definitions given in Sections 2.29 and 2.31, an additional margin of 10 %, related to the appropriate NOx limit value, shall be accepted.

6.1.5.   Transitional provisions for extension of type-approval

6.1.5.1.   This section shall only be applicable to new compression-ignition engines and new vehicles propelled by a compression-ignition engine that have been type-approved to the requirements of row A of the tables in Section 6.2.1.

6.1.5.2.   As an alternative to Sections 6.1.3 and 6.1.4, the manufacturer may present to the technical service the results of a NOx screening test using the ETC on the engine conforming to the characteristics of the parent engine described in Annex II, and taking into account the provisions of Sections 6.1.4.1 and 6.1.4.2. The manufacturer shall also provide a written statement that the engine does not employ any defeat device or irrational emission control strategy as defined in Section 2 of this Annex.

6.1.5.3.   The manufacturer shall also provide a written statement that the results of the NOx screening test and the declaration for the parent engine, as referred to in Section 6.1.4, are also applicable to all engine types within the engine family described in Annex II.

6.2.   Specifications concerning the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants and smoke

For type approval to row A of the tables in Section 6.2.1, the emissions shall be determined on the ESC and ELR tests with conventional diesel engines including those fitted with electronic fuel injection equipment, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and/or oxidation catalysts. Diesel engines fitted with advanced exhaust aftertreatment systems including the NOx catalysts and/or particulate traps, shall additionally be tested on the ETC test.

For type approval testing to either row B1 or B2 or row C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 the emissions shall be determined on the ESC, ELR and ETC tests.

For gas engines, the gaseous emissions shall be determined on the ETC test.

The ESC and ELR test procedures are described in Annex III, Appendix 1, the ETC test procedure in Annex III, Appendices 2 and 3.

The emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate pollutants, if applicable, and smoke, if applicable, by the engine submitted for testing shall be measured by the methods described in Annex III, Appendix 4. Annex V describes the recommended analytical systems for the gaseous pollutants, the recommended particulate sampling systems, and the recommended smoke measurement system.

Other systems or analysers may be approved by the Technical Service if it is found that they yield equivalent results on the respective test cycle. The determination of system equivalency shall be based upon a 7 sample pair (or larger) correlation study between the system under consideration and one of the reference systems of this Directive. For particulate emissions only the full flow dilution system is recognised as the reference system. ‘Results’ refer to the specific cycle emissions value. The correlation testing shall be performed at the same laboratory, test cell, and on the same engine, and is preferred to be run concurrently. The equivalency criterion is defined as a ± 5 % agreement of the sample pair averages. For introduction of a new system into the Directive the determination of equivalency shall be based upon the calculation of repeatability and reproducibility, as described in ISO 5725.

6.2.1.   Limit values

The specific mass of the carbon monoxide, of the total hydrocarbons, of the oxides of nitrogen and of the particulates, as determined on the ESC test, and of the smoke opacity, as determined on the ELR test, shall not exceed the amounts shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Limit values — ESC and ELR tests

Row

Mass of carbon monoxide

(CO) g/kWh

Mass of hydrocarbons

(HC) g/kWh

Mass of nitrogen oxides

(NOx) g/kWh

Mass of particulates

(PT) g/kWh

Smoke

m–1

A (2000)

2,1

0,66

5,0

0,10

0,13 (5)

0,8

B1 (2005)

1,5

0,46

3,5

0,02

0,5

B2 (2008)

1,5

0,46

2,0

0,02

0,5

C (EEV)

1,5

0,25

2,0

0,02

0,15

For diesel engines that are additionally tested on the ETC test, and specifically for gas engines, the specific masses of the carbon monoxide, of the non-methane hydrocarbons, of the methane (where applicable), of the oxides of nitrogen and of the particulates (where applicable) shall not exceed the amounts shown in Table 2.

Table 2

Limit values — ETC tests

Row

Mass of carbon monoxide

(CO) g/kWh

Mass of non-methane hydrocarbons

(NMHC) g/kWh

Mass of methane

(CH4) (6) g/kWh

Mass of nitrogen oxides

(NOx) g/kWh

Mass of particulates

(PT) (7) g/kWh

A (2000)

5,45

0,78

1,6

5,0

0,16

0,21 (8)

B1 (2005)

4,0

0,55

1,1

3,5

0,03

B2 (2008)

4,0

0,55

1,1

2,0

0,03

C (EEV)

3,0

0,40

0,65

2,0

0,02

6.2.2.   Hydrocarbon measurement for diesel and gas fuelled engines

6.2.2.1.   A manufacturer may choose to measure the mass of total hydrocarbons (THC) on the ETC test instead of measuring the mass of non-methane hydrocarbons. In this case, the limit for the mass of total hydrocarbons is the same as shown in Table 2 for the mass of non-methane hydrocarbons.

6.2.3.   Specific requirements for diesel engines

6.2.3.1.   The specific mass of the oxides of nitrogen measured at the random check points within the control area of the ESC test must not exceed by more than 10 per cent the values interpolated from the adjacent test modes (reference Annex III, Appendix 1, Sections 4.6.2 and 4.6.3).

6.2.3.2.   The smoke value on the random test speed of the ELR must not exceed the highest smoke value of the two adjacent test speeds by more than 20 per cent, or by more than 5 per cent of the limit value, whichever is greater.

7.   INSTALLATION ON THE VEHICLE

7.1.   The engine installation on the vehicle shall comply with the following characteristics in respect to the type-approval of the engine:

7.1.1.   intake depression shall not exceed that specified for the type-approved engine in Annex VI;

7.1.2.   exhaust back pressure shall not exceed that specified for the type-approved engine in Annex VI;

7.1.3.   the exhaust system volume shall not differ by more than 40 % of that specified for the type-approved engine in Annex VI;

7.1.4.   power absorbed by the auxiliaries needed for operating the engine shall not exceed that specified for the type-approved engine in Annex VI.

8.   ENGINE FAMILY

8.1.   Parameters defining the engine family

The engine family, as determined by the engine manufacturer, may be defined by basic characteristics which must be common to engines within the family. In some cases there may be interaction of parameters. These effects must also be taken into consideration to ensure that only engines with similar exhaust emission characteristics are included within an engine family.

In order that engines may be considered to belong to the same engine family, the following list of basic parameters must be common:

8.1.1.   Combustion cycle:

2 cycle

4 cycle

8.1.2.   Cooling medium:

air

water

oil

8.1.3.   For gas engines and engines with aftertreatment:

number of cylinders

(other diesel engines with fewer cylinders than the parent engine may be considered to belong to the same engine family provided the fuelling system meters fuel for each individual cylinder)

8.1.4.   Individual cylinder displacement:

engines to be within a total spread of 15 %

8.1.5.   Method of air aspiration:

naturally aspirated

pressure charged

pressure charged with charge air cooler

8.1.6.   Combustion chamber type/design:

pre-chamber

swirl chamber

open chamber

8.1.7.   Valve and porting — configuration, size and number:

cylinder head

cylinder wall

crankcase

8.1.8.   Fuel injection system (diesel engines):

pump-line-injector

in-line pump

distributor pump

single element

unit injector

8.1.9.   Fuelling system (gas engines):

mixing unit

gas induction/injection (single point, multi-point)

liquid injection (single point, multi-point)

8.1.10.   Ignition system (gas engines)

8.1.11.   Miscellaneous features:

exhaust gas recirculation

water injection/emulsion

secondary air injection

charge cooling system

8.1.12.   Exhaust aftertreatment:

3-way-catalyst

oxidation catalyst

reduction catalyst

thermal reactor

particulate trap

8.2.   Choice of the parent engine

8.2.1.   Diesel engines

The parent engine of the family shall be selected using the primary criteria of the highest fuel delivery per stroke at the declared maximum torque speed. In the event that two or more engines share this primary criteria, the parent engine shall be selected using the secondary criteria of highest fuel delivery per stroke at rated speed. Under certain circumstances, the approval authority may conclude that the worst case emission rate of the family can best be characterised by testing a second engine. Thus, the approval authority may select an additional engine for test based upon features which indicate that it may have the highest emission level of the engines within that family.

If engines within the family incorporate other variable features which could be considered to affect exhaust emissions, these features shall also be identified and taken into account in the selection of the parent engine.

8.2.2.   Gas engines

The parent engine of the family shall be selected using the primary criteria of the largest displacement. In the event that two or more engines share this primary criteria, the parent engine shall be selected using the secondary criteria in the following order:

the highest fuel delivery per stroke at the speed of declared rated power;

the most advanced spark timing;

the lowest EGR rate;

no air pump or lowest actual air flow pump.

Under certain circumstances, the approval authority may conclude that the worst case emission rate of the family can best be characterised by testing a second engine. Thus, the approval authority may select an additional engine for test based upon features which indicate that it may have the highest emission level of the engines within that family.

9.   PRODUCTION CONFORMITY

9.1.   Measures to ensure production conformity must be taken in accordance with the provisions of Article 10 of Directive 70/156/EEC. Production conformity is checked on the basis of the description in the type-approval certificates set out in Annex VI to this Directive.

Sections 2.4.2 and 2.4.3 of Annex X to Directive 70/156/EEC are applicable where the competent authorities are not satisfied with the auditing procedure of the manufacturer.

9.1.1.   If emissions of pollutants are to be measured and an engine type-approval has had one or several extensions, the tests will be carried out on the engine(s) described in the information package relating to the relevant extension.

9.1.1.1.   Conformity of the engine subjected to a pollutant test:

After submission of the engine to the authorities, the manufacturer shall not carry out any adjustment to the engines selected.

9.1.1.1.1.   Three engines are randomly taken in the series. Engines that are subject to testing only on the ESC and ELR tests or only on the ETC test for type approval to row A of the tables in Section 6.2.1 are subject to those applicable tests for the checking of production conformity. With the agreement of the authority, all other engines type approved to row A, B1 or B2, or C of the tables in Section 6.2.1 are subjected to testing either on the ESC and ELR cycles or on the ETC cycle for the checking of the production conformity. The limit values are given in Section 6.2.1 of this Annex.

9.1.1.1.2.   The tests are carried out according to Appendix 1 to this Annex, where the competent authority is satisfied with the production standard deviation given by the manufacturer, in accordance with Annex X to Directive 70/156/EEC, which applies to motor vehicles and their trailers.

The tests are carried out according to Appendix 2 to this Annex, where the competent authority is not satisfied with the production standard deviation given by the manufacturer, in accordance with Annex X to Directive 70/156/EEC, which applies to motor vehicles and their trailers.

At the manufacturer's request, the tests may be carried out in accordance with Appendix 3 to this Annex.

9.1.1.1.3.   On the basis of a test of the engine by sampling, the production of a series is regarded as conforming where a pass decision is reached for all the pollutants and non-conforming where a fail decision is reached for one pollutant, in accordance with the test criteria applied in the appropriate Appendix.

When a pass decision has been reached for one pollutant, this decision may not be changed by any additional tests made in order to reach a decision for the other pollutants.

If no pass decision is reached for all the pollutants and if no fail decision is reached for one pollutant, a test is carried out on another engine (see Figure 2).

If no decision is reached, the manufacturer may at any time decide to stop testing. In that case a fail decision is recorded.

9.1.1.2.   The tests will be carried out on newly manufactured engines. Gas fuelled engines shall be run-in using the procedure defined in paragraph 3 of Appendix 2 to Annex III.

9.1.1.2.1.   However, at the request of the manufacturer, the tests may be carried out on diesel or gas engines which have been run-in more than the period referred to in Section 9.1.1.2, up to a maximum of 100 hours. In this case, the running-in procedure will be conducted by the manufacturer who shall undertake not to make any adjustments to those engines.

9.1.1.2.2.   When the manufacturer asks to conduct a running-in procedure in accordance with Section 9.1.1.2.1, it may be carried out on:

all the engines that are tested, or

the first engine tested, with the determination of an evolution coefficient as follows:

the pollutant emissions will be measured at zero and at ‘x’ hours on the first engine tested,

the evolution coefficient of the emissions between zero and ‘x’ hours will be calculated for each pollutant:

emissions ‘x’ hours/emissions zero hours

It may be less than one.

The subsequent test engines will not be subjected to the running-in procedure, but their zero hour emissions will be modified by the evolution coefficient.

In this case, the values to be taken will be:

the values at ‘x’ hours for the first engine,

the values at zero hour multiplied by the evolution coefficient for the other engines.

9.1.1.2.3.   For diesel and LPG fuelled engines, all these tests may be conducted with commercial fuel. However, at the manufacturer's request, the reference fuels described in Annex IV may be used. This implies tests, as described in Section 4 of this Annex, with at least two of the reference fuels for each gas engine.

9.1.1.2.4.   For NG fuelled engines, all these tests may be conducted with commercial fuel in the following way:

for H marked engines with a commercial fuel within the H-range (0,89 ≤ Sλ ≤ 1,00),

for L marked engines with a commercial fuel within the L-range (1,00 ≤ Sλ ≤ 1,19),

for HL marked engines with a commercial fuel within the extreme range of the λ-shift factor (0,89 ≤ Sλ ≤ 1,19).

However, at the manufacturer's request, the reference fuels described in Annex IV may be used. This implies tests, as described in Section 4 of this Annex.

9.1.1.2.5.   In the case of dispute caused by the non-compliance of gas fuelled engines when using a commercial fuel, the tests shall be performed with a reference fuel on which the parent engine has been tested, or with the possible additional fuel 3 as referred to in paragraphs 4.1.3.1 and 4.2.1.1 on which the parent engine may have been tested. Then, the result has to be converted by a calculation applying the relevant factor(s) ‘r’, ‘ra’ or ‘rb’ as described in paragraphs 4.1.4, 4.1.5.1 and 4.2.1.2. If r, ra or rb are less than 1 no correction shall take place. The measured results and the calculated results must demonstrate that the engine meets the limit values with all relevant fuels (fuels 1, 2 and, if applicable, fuel 3 in the case of natural gas engines and fuels A and B in the case of LPG engines).

9.1.1.2.6.   Tests for conformity of production of a gas fuelled engine laid out for operation on one specific fuel composition shall be performed on the fuel for which the engine has been calibrated.

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(1)  OJ L 76, 6.4.1970, p. 1. Directive as last amended by Commission Directive 2003/76/EC (OJ L 206, 15.8.2003, p. 29).

(2)  OJ L 375, 31.12.1980, p. 46. Directive as last amended by Commission Directive 1999/99/EC (OJ L 334, 28.12.1999, p. 32).

(3)  OJ L 42, 23.2.1970, p. 1. Directive as last amended by Commission Directive 2004/104/EC (OJ L 337, 13.11.2004, p. 13).

(4)  1 = Germany, 2 = France, 3 = Italy, 4 = Netherlands, 5 = Sweden, 6 = Belgium, 7 = Hungary, 8 = Czech Republic, 9 = Spain, 11 = United Kingdom, 12 = Austria, 13 = Luxembourg, 17 = Finland, 18 = Denmark, 20 = Poland, 21 = Portugal, 23 = Greece, 24 = Ireland, 26 = Slovenia, 27 = Slovakia, 29 = Estonia, 32 = Latvia, 36 = Lithuania, 49 = Cyprus, 50 = Malta.

(5)  For engines having a swept volume of less than 0,75 dm3 per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3 000 min -1.

(6)  For NG engines only.

(7)  Not applicable for gas fuelled engines at stage A and stages B1 and B2.

(8)  For engines having a swept volume of less than 0,75 dm3 per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3 000 min-1.

Appendix 1

PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION CONFORMITY TESTING WHEN STANDARD DEVIATION IS SATISFACTORY

1.

This Appendix describes the procedure to be used to verify production conformity for the emissions of pollutants when the manufacturer's production standard deviation is satisfactory.

2.

With a minimum sample size of three engines the sampling procedure is set so that the probability of a lot passing a test with 40 % of the engines defective is 0,95 (producer's risk = 5 %) while the probability of a lot being accepted with 65 % of the engines defective is 0,10 (consumer's risk = 10 %).

3.

The following procedure is used for each of the pollutants given in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I (see Figure 2):

 

Let:

 

L

=

the natural logarithm of the limit value for the pollutant;

χi

=

the natural logarithm of the measurement for the i-th engine of the sample;

s

=

an estimate of the production standard deviation (after taking the natural logarithm of the measurements);

n

=

the current sample number.

4.

For each sample the sum of the standardised deviations to the limit is calculated using the following formula:

Formula

5.

Then:

if the test statistic result is greater than the pass decision number for the sample size given in Table 3, a pass decision is reached for the pollutant;

if the test statistic result is less than the fail decision number for the sample size given in Table 3, a fail decision is reached for the pollutant;

otherwise, an additional engine is tested according to Section 9.1.1.1 of Annex I and the calculation procedure is applied to the sample increased by one more unit.

Table 3

Pass and fail decision numbers of Appendix 1 sampling plan

Minimum sample size: 3

Cumulative number of engines tested (sample size)

Pass decision number An

Fail decision number Bn

3

3,327

– 4,724

4

3,261

– 4,790

5

3,195

– 4,856

6

3,129

– 4,922

7

3,063

– 4,988

8

2,997

– 5,054

9

2,931

– 5,120

10

2,865

– 5,185

11

2,799

– 5,251

12

2,733

– 5,317

13

2,667

– 5,383

14

2,601

– 5,449

15

2,535

– 5,515

16

2,469

– 5,581

17

2,403

– 5,647

18

2,337

– 5,713

19

2,271

– 5,779

20

2,205

– 5,845

21

2,139

– 5,911

22

2,073

– 5,977

23

2,007

– 6,043

24

1,941

– 6,109

25

1,875

– 6,175

26

1,809

– 6,241

27

1,743

– 6,307

28

1,677

– 6,373

29

1,611

– 6,439

30

1,545

– 6,505

31

1,479

– 6,571

32

– 2,112

– 2,112

Appendix 2

PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION CONFORMITY TESTING WHEN STANDARD DEVIATION IS UNSATISFACTORY OR UNAVAILABLE

1.

This Appendix describes the procedure to be used to verify production conformity for the emissions of pollutants when the manufacturer's production standard deviation is either unsatisfactory or unavailable.

2.

With a minimum sample size of three engines the sampling procedure is set so that the probability of a lot passing a test with 40 % of the engines defective is 0,95 (producer's risk = 5 %) while the probability of a lot being accepted with 65 % of the engines defective is 0,10 (consumer's risk = 10 %).

3.

The values of the pollutants given in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I are considered to be log normally distributed and should be transformed by taking their natural logarithms. Let m0 and m denote the minimum and maximum sample size respectively (m0 = 3 and m = 32) and let n denote the current sample number.

4.

If the natural logarithms of the values measured in the series are χ1, χ2, … χi and L is the natural logarithm of the limit value for the pollutant, then, define

Formula

and

Formula Formula

5.

Table 4 shows values of the pass (An) and fail (Bn) decision numbers against current sample number. The test statistic result is the ratio:

Formula

and shall be used to determine whether the series has passed or failed as follows:

for m0 ≤ n < m:

pass the series if Formula,

fail the series if Formula,

take another measurement if Formula.

6.

Remarks

The following recursive formulae are useful for calculating successive values of the test statistic:

Formula Formula Formula

Table 4

Pass and fail decision numbers of Appendix 2 sampling plan

Minimum sample size: 3

Cumulative number of engines tested (sample size)

Pass decision number An

Fail decision number Bn

3

- 0,80381

16,64743

4

- 0,76339

7,68627

5

- 0,72982

4,67136

6

- 0,69962

3,25573

7

- 0,67129

2,45431

8

- 0,64406

1,94369

9

- 0,61750

1,59105

10

- 0,59135

1,33295

11

- 0,56542

1,13566

12

- 0,53960

0,97970

13

- 0,51379

0,85307

14

- 0,48791

0,74801

15

- 0,46191

0,65928

16

- 0,43573

0,58321

17

- 0,40933

0,51718

18

- 0,38266

0,45922

19

- 0,35570

0,40788

20

- 0,32840

0,36203

21

- 0,30072

0,32078

22

- 0,27263

0,28343

23

- 0,24410

0,24943

24

- 0,21509

0,21831

25

- 0,18557

0,18970

26

- 0,15550

0,16328

27

- 0,12483

0,13880

28

- 0,09354

0,11603

29

- 0,06159

0,09480

30

- 0,02892

0,07493

31

- 0,00449

0,05629

32

- 0,03876

0,03876

Appendix 3

PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION CONFORMITY TESTING AT MANUFACTURER'S REQUEST

1.

This Appendix describes the procedure to be used to verify, at the manufacturer's request, production conformity for the emissions of pollutants.

2.

With a minimum sample size of three engines the sampling procedure is set so that the probability of a lot passing a test with 30 % of the engines defective is 0,90 (producer's risk = 10 %) while the probability of a lot being accepted with 65 % of the engines defective is 0,10 (consumer's risk = 10 %).

3.

The following procedure is used for each of the pollutants given in Section 6.2.1 of Annex I (see Figure 2):

 

Let:

 

L

=

the limit value for the pollutant,

xi

=

the value of the measurement for the i-th engine of the sample,

n

=

the current sample number.

4.

Calculate for the sample the test statistic quantifying the number of non-conforming engines, i.e. xi ≥ L.

5.

Then:

if the test statistic is less than or equal to the pass decision number for the sample size given in Table 5, a pass decision is reached for the pollutant;

if the test statistic is greater than or equal to the fail decision number for the sample size given in Table 5, a fail decision is reached for the pollutant;

otherwise, an additional engine is tested according to Section 9.1.1.1 of Annex I and the calculation procedure is applied to the sample increased by one more unit.

In Table 5 the pass and fail decision numbers are calculated by means of the International Standard ISO 8422/1991.

Table 5

Pass and fail decision numbers of Appendix 3 sampling plan

Minimum sample size: 3

Cumulative number of engines tested (sample size)

Pass decision number

Fail decision number

3

3

4

0

4

5

0

4

6

1

5

7

1

5

8

2

6

9

2

6

10

3

7

11

3

7

12

4

8

13

4

8

14

5

9

15

5

9

16

6

10

17

6

10

18

7

11

19

8

9


ANNEX II

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(1)  Delete as appropriate.

Appendix 1

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(1)  In the case of non-conventional engines and systems, particulars equivalent to those referred to here shall be supplied by the manufacturer.

(2)  Strike out what does not apply.

(3)  Specify the tolerance.

(4)  Strike out what does not apply.

(5)  OJ L 375, 31.12.1980, p. 46. Directive as last amended by Commission Directive 1999/99/EC (OJ L 334, 28.12.1999, p. 32).

(6)  Strike out what does not apply.

(7)  Specify the tolerance.

(8)  Strike out what does not apply.

(9)  Specify the tolerance.

(10)  In the case of systems laid-out in a different manner, supply equivalent information (for paragraph 3.2).

(11)  Directive 1999/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 1999 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures to be taken against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from compression ignition engines for use in vehicles, and the emission of gaseous pollutants from positive ignition engines fuelled with natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas for use in vehicles (OJ L 44, 16.2.2000, p. 1).

(12)  Strike out what does not apply.

(13)  Specify the tolerance.

(14)  Strike out what does not apply.

(15)  Specify the tolerance.

(16)  ESC test.

(17)  ETC test only.

(18)  Specify the tolerance; to be within ± 3 % of the values declared by the manufacturer.

(19)  ESC test.

(20)  ETC test only.

Appendix 2

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGINE FAMILY

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(1)  If not applicable, mark n.a.

Appendix 3

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(1)  To be submitted for each engine of the family.

(2)  Strike out what does not apply.

(3)  Specify the tolerance.

(4)  Strike out what does not apply.

(5)  Strike out what does not apply.

(6)  Specify the tolerance.

(7)  In the case of systems laid-out in a different manner, supply equivalent information (for paragraph 3.2).

(8)  Strike out what does not apply.

(9)  Specify the tolerance.

(10)  Strike out what does not apply.

(11)  Specify the tolerance.

(12)  Strike out what does not apply.

(13)  Specify the tolerance.

Appendix 4

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGINE-RELATED VEHICLE PARTS

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(1)  ESC test.

(2)  ETC test only.


ANNEX III

TEST PROCEDURE

1.   INTRODUCTION

1.1.

This Annex describes the methods of determining emissions of gaseous components, particulates and smoke from the engines to be tested. Three test cycles are described that shall be applied according to the provisions of Annex I, Section 6.2:

the ESC which consists of a steady state 13-mode cycle,

the ELR which consists of transient load steps at different speeds, which are integral parts of one test procedure, and are run concurrently,

the ETC which consists of a second-by-second sequence of transient modes.

1.2.

The test shall be carried out with the engine mounted on a test bench and connected to a dynamometer.

1.3.   Measurement principle

The emissions to be measured from the exhaust of the engine include the gaseous components (carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons for diesel engines on the ESC test only; non-methane hydrocarbons for diesel and gas engines on the ETC test only; methane for gas engines on the ETC test only and oxides of nitrogen), the particulates (diesel engines only) and smoke (diesel engines on the ELR test only). Additionally, carbon dioxide is often used as a tracer gas for determining the dilution ratio of partial and full flow dilution systems. Good engineering practice recommends the general measurement of carbon dioxide as an excellent tool for the detection of measurement problems during the test run.

1.3.1.   ESC test

During a prescribed sequence of warmed-up engine operating conditions the amounts of the above exhaust emissions shall be examined continuously by taking a sample from the raw exhaust gas. The test cycle consists of a number of speed and power modes which cover the typical operating range of diesel engines. During each mode the concentration of each gaseous pollutant, exhaust flow and power output shall be determined, and the measured values weighted. The particulate sample shall be diluted with conditioned ambient air. One sample over the complete test procedure shall be taken, and collected on suitable filters. The grams of each pollutant emitted per kilowatt hour shall be calculated as described in Appendix 1 to this Annex. Additionally, NOx shall be measured at three test points within the control area selected by the Technical Service (1) and the measured values compared to the values calculated from those modes of the test cycle enveloping the selected test points. The NOx control check ensures the effectiveness of the emission control of the engine within the typical engine operating range.

1.3.2.   ELR test

During a prescribed load response test, the smoke of a warmed-up engine shall be determined by means of an opacimeter. The test consists of loading the engine at constant speed from 10 % to 100 % load at three different engine speeds. Additionally, a fourth load step selected by the Technical Service (1) shall be run, and the value compared to the values of the previous load steps. The smoke peak shall be determined using an averaging algorithm, as described in Appendix 1 to this Annex.

1.3.3.   ETC test

During a prescribed transient cycle of warmed-up engine operating conditions, which is based closely on road-type-specific driving patterns of heavy-duty engines installed in trucks and buses, the above pollutants shall be examined after diluting the total exhaust gas with conditioned ambient air. Using the engine torque and speed feedback signals of the engine dynamometer, the power shall be integrated with respect to time of the cycle resulting in the work produced by the engine over the cycle. The concentration of NOx and HC shall be determined over the cycle by integration of the analyser signal. The concentration of CO, CO2, and NMHC may be determined by integration of the analyser signal or by bag sampling. For particulates, a proportional sample shall be collected on suitable filters. The diluted exhaust gas flow rate shall be determined over the cycle to calculate the mass emission values of the pollutants. The mass emission values shall be related to the engine work to get the grams of each pollutant emitted per kilowatt hour, as described in Appendix 2 to this Annex.

2.   TEST CONDITIONS

2.1.   Engine test conditions

2.1.1.

The absolute temperature (Ta) of the engine air at the inlet to the engine expressed in Kelvin, and the dry atmospheric pressure (ps), expressed in kPa shall be measured and the parameter F shall be determined according to the following provisions:

(a)

for diesel engines:

 

Naturally aspirated and mechanically supercharged engines:

Formula

 

Turbocharged engines with or without cooling of the intake air:

Formula

(b)

for gas engines:

Formula

2.1.2.   Test validity

For a test to be recognised as valid, the parameter F shall be such that:

Formula

2.2.   Engines with charge air cooling

The charge air temperature shall be recorded and shall be, at the speed of the declared maximum power and full load, within ± 5 K of the maximum charge air temperature specified in Annex II, Appendix 1, Section 1.16.3. The temperature of the cooling medium shall be at least 293 K (20 °C).

If a test shop system or external blower is used, the charge air temperature shall be within ± 5 K of the maximum charge air temperature specified in Annex II, Appendix 1, Section 1.16.3 at the speed of the declared maximum power and full load. The setting of the charge air cooler for meeting the above conditions shall be used for the whole test cycle.

2.3.   Engine air intake system

An engine air intake system shall be used presenting an air intake restriction within ± 100 Pa of the upper limit of the engine operating at the speed at the declared maximum power and full load.

2.4.   Engine exhaust system

An exhaust system shall be used presenting an exhaust back pressure within ± 1 000 Pa of the upper limit of the engine operating at the speed of declared maximum power and full load and a volume within ± 40 % of that specified by the manufacturer. A test shop system may be used, provided it represents actual engine operating conditions. The exhaust system shall conform to the requirements for exhaust gas sampling, as set out in Annex III, Appendix 4, Section 3.4 and in Annex V, Section 2.2.1, EP and Section 2.3.1, EP.

If the engine is equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment device, the exhaust pipe must have the same diameter as found in-use for at least 4 pipe diameters upstream to the inlet of the beginning of the expansion section containing the aftertreatment device. The distance from the exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger outlet to the exhaust aftertreatment device shall be the same as in the vehicle configuration or within the distance specifications of the manufacturer. The exhaust backpressure or restriction shall follow the same criteria as above, and may be set with a valve. The aftertreatment container may be removed during dummy tests and during engine mapping, and replaced with an equivalent container having an inactive catalyst support.

2.5.   Cooling system

An engine cooling system with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating temperatures prescribed by the manufacturer shall be used.

2.6.   Lubricating oil

Specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test shall be recorded and presented with the results of the test, as specified in Annex II, Appendix 1, Section 7.1.

2.7.   Fuel

The fuel shall be the reference fuel specified in Annex IV.

The fuel temperature and measuring point shall be specified by the manufacturer within the limits given in Annex II, Appendix 1, Section 1.16.5. The fuel temperature shall not be lower than 306 K (33 °C). If not specified, it shall be 311 K ± 5 K (38 °C ± 5 °C) at the inlet to the fuel supply.

For NG and LPG fuelled engines, the fuel temperature and measuring point shall be within the limits given in Annex II, Appendix 1, Section 1.16.5 or in Annex II, Appendix 3, Section 1.16.5 in cases where the engine is not a parent engine.

2.8.   Testing of exhaust aftertreatment systems

If the engine is equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment system, the emissions measured on the test cycle(s) shall be representative of the emissions in the field. If this cannot be achieved with one single test cycle (e.g. for particulate filters with periodic regeneration), several test cycles shall be conducted and the test results averaged and/or weighted. The exact procedure shall be agreed by the engine manufacturer and the Technical Service based upon good engineering judgement.


(1)  The test points shall be selected using approved statistical methods of randomisation.

Appendix 1

ESC AND ELR TEST CYCLES

1.   ENGINE AND DYNAMOMETER SETTINGS

1.1.   Determination of engine speeds A, B and C

The engine speeds A, B and C shall be declared by the manufacturer in accordance with the following provisions:

The high speed nhi shall be determined by calculating 70 % of the declared maximum net power P(n), as determined in Annex II, Appendix 1, Section 8.2. The highest engine speed where this power value occurs on the power curve is defined as nhi.

The low speed nlo shall be determined by calculating 50 % of the declared maximum net power P(n), as determined in Annex II, Appendix 1, Section 8.2. The lowest engine speed where this power value occurs on the power curve is defined as nlo.

The engine speeds A, B and C shall be calculated as follows:

Formula

Formula

Formula

The engine speeds A, B and C may be verified by either of the following methods:

(a)

additional test points shall be measured during engine power approval according to Directive 80/1269/EEC for an accurate determination of nhi and nlo. The maximum power, nhi and nlo shall be determined from the power curve, and engine speeds A, B and C shall be calculated according to the above provisions;

b)

the engine shall be mapped along the full load curve, from maximum no load speed to idle speed, using at least 5 measurement points per 1 000 rpm intervals and measurement points within ± 50 rpm of the speed at declared maximum power. The maximum power, nhi and nlo shall be determined from this mapping curve, and engine speeds A, B and C shall be calculated according to the above provisions.

If the measured engine speeds A, B and C are within ± 3 % of the engine speeds as declared by the manufacturer, the declared engine speeds shall be used for the emissions test. If the tolerance is exceeded for any of the engine speeds, the measured engine speeds shall be used for the emissions test.

1.2.   Determination of dynamometer settings

The torque curve at full load shall be determined by experimentation to calculate the torque values for the specified test modes under net conditions, as specified in Annex II, Appendix 1, Section 8.2. The power absorbed by engine-driven equipment, if applicable, shall be taken into account. The dynamometer setting for each test mode shall be calculated using the formula:

Formula if tested under net conditions

Formula if not tested under net conditions

where:

s

=

dynamometer setting, kW

P(n)

=

net engine power as indicated in Annex II, Appendix 1, Section 8.2, kW

L

=

per cent load as indicated in Section 2.7.1, %

P(a)

=

power absorbed by auxiliaries to be fitted as indicated in Annex II, Appendix 1, Section 6.1

P(b)

=

power absorbed by auxiliaries to be removed as indicated in Annex II, Appendix 1, Section 6.2

2.   ESC TEST RUN

At the manufacturers request, a dummy test may be run for conditioning of the engine and exhaust system before the measurement cycle.

2.1.   Preparation of the sampling filters

At least one hour before the test, each filter (pair) shall be placed in a closed, but unsealed petri dish and placed in a weighing chamber for stabilisation. At the end of the stabilisation period, each filter (pair) shall be weighed and the tare weight shall be recorded. The filter (pair) shall then be stored in a closed Petri dish or sealed filter holder until needed for testing. If the filter (pair) is not used within eight hours of its removal from the weighing chamber, it must be conditioned and reweighed before use.

2.2.   Installation of the measuring equipment

The instrumentation and sample probes shall be installed as required. When using a full flow dilution system for exhaust gas dilution, the tailpipe shall be connected to the system.

2.3.   Starting the dilution system and the engine

The dilution system and the engine shall be started and warmed up until all temperatures and pressures have stabilised at maximum power according to the recommendation of the manufacturer and good engineering practice.

2.4.   Starting the particulate sampling system

The particulate sampling system shall be started and running on by-pass. The particulate background level of the dilution air may be determined by passing dilution air through the particulate filters. If filtered dilution air is used, one measurement may be done prior to or after the test. If the dilution air is not filtered, measurements at the beginning and at the end of the cycle, may be done, and the values averaged.

2.5.   Adjustment of the dilution ratio

The dilution air shall be set such that the temperature of the diluted exhaust gas measured immediately prior to the primary filter shall not exceed 325 K (52 °C) at any mode. The dilution ratio (q) shall not be less than 4.

For systems that use CO2 or NOx concentration measurement for dilution ratio control, the CO2 or NOx content of the dilution air must be measured at the beginning and at the end of each test. The pre- and post-test background CO2 or NOx concentration measurements of the dilution air must be within 100 ppm or 5 ppm of each other, respectively.

2.6.   Checking the analysers

The emission analysers shall be set at zero and spanned.

2.7.   Test cycle

2.7.1.   The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer operation on the test engine

Mode number

Engine speed

Percent load

Weighting factor

Mode length

1

idle

0,15

4 minutes

2

A

100

0,08

2 minutes

3

B

50

0,10

2 minutes

4

B

75

0,10

2 minutes

5

A

50

0,05

2 minutes

6

A

75

0,05

2 minutes

7

A

25

0,05

2 minutes

8

B

100

0,09

2 minutes

9

B

25

0,10

2 minutes

10

C

100

0,08

2 minutes

11

C

25

0,05

2 minutes

12

C

75

0,05

2 minutes

13

C

50

0,05

2 minutes

2.7.2.   Test sequence

The test sequence shall be started. The test shall be performed in the order of the mode numbers as set out in Section 2.7.1.

The engine must be operated for the prescribed time in each mode, completing engine speed and load changes in the first 20 seconds. The specified speed shall be held to within ± 50 rpm and the specified torque shall be held to within ± 2 % of the maximum torque at the test speed.

At the manufacturers request, the test sequence may be repeated a sufficient number of times for sampling more particulate mass on the filter. The manufacturer shall supply a detailed description of the data evaluation and calculation procedures. The gaseous emissions shall only be determined on the first cycle.

2.7.3.   Analyser response

The output of the analysers shall be recorded on a strip chart recorder or measured with an equivalent data acquisition system with the exhaust gas flowing through the analysers throughout the test cycle.

2.7.4.   Particulate sampling

One pair of filters (primary and back-up filters, see Annex III, Appendix 4) shall be used for the complete test procedure. The modal weighting factors specified in the test cycle procedure shall be taken into account by taking a sample proportional to the exhaust mass flow during each individual mode of the cycle. This can be achieved by adjusting sample flow rate, sampling time, and/or dilution ratio, accordingly, so that the criterion for the effective weighting factors in Section 5.6 is met.

The sampling time per mode must be at least 4 seconds per 0,01 weighting factor. Sampling must be conducted as late as possible within each mode. Particulate sampling shall be completed no earlier than 5 seconds before the end of each mode.

2.7.5.   Engine conditions

The engine speed and load, intake air temperature and depression, exhaust temperature and backpressure, fuel flow and air or exhaust flow, charge air temperature, fuel temperature and humidity shall be recorded during each mode, with the speed and load requirements (see Section 2.7.2) being met during the time of particulate sampling, but in any case during the last minute of each mode.

Any additional data required for calculation shall be recorded (see Sections 4 and 5).

2.7.6.   NOx check within the control area

The NOx check within the control area shall be performed immediately upon completion of mode 13.

The engine shall be conditioned at mode 13 for a period of three minutes before the start of the measurements. Three measurements shall be made at different locations within the control area, selected by the Technical Service (1). The time for each measurement shall be 2 minutes.

The measurement procedure is identical to the NOx measurement on the 13-mode cycle, and shall be carried out in accordance with Sections 2.7.3, 2.7.5, and 4.1 of this Appendix, and Annex III, Appendix 4, Section 3.

The calculation shall be carried out in accordance with Section 4.

2.7.7.   Rechecking the analysers

After the emission test a zero gas and the same span gas shall be used for rechecking. The test will be considered acceptable if the difference between the pre-test and post-test results is less than 2 % of the span gas value.

3.   ELR TEST RUN

3.1.   Installation of the measuring equipment

The opacimeter and sample probes, if applicable, shall be installed after the exhaust silencer or any aftertreatment device, if fitted, according to the general installation procedures specified by the instrument manufacturer. Additionally, the requirements of Section 10 of ISO IDS 11614 shall be observed, where appropriate.

Prior to any zero and full scale checks, the opacimeter shall be warmed up and stabilised according to the instrument manufacturer's recommendations. If the opacimeter is equipped with a purge air system to prevent sooting of the meter optics, this system shall also be activated and adjusted according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

3.2.   Checking of the opacimeter

The zero and full scale checks shall be made in the opacity readout mode, since the opacity scale offers two truly definable calibration points, namely 0 % opacity and 100 % opacity. The light absorption coefficient is then correctly calculated based upon the measured opacity and the LA, as submitted by the opacimeter manufacturer, when the instrument is returned to the k readout mode for testing.

With no blockage of the opacimeter light beam, the readout shall be adjusted to 0,0 % ± 1,0 % opacity. With the light being prevented from reaching the receiver, the readout shall be adjusted to 100,0 % ± 1,0 % opacity.

3.3.   Test cycle

3.3.1.   Conditioning of the engine

Warming up of the engine and the system shall be at maximum power in order to stabilise the engine parameters according to the recommendation of the manufacturer. The preconditioning phase should also protect the actual measurement against the influence of deposits in the exhaust system from a former test.

When the engine is stabilised, the cycle shall be started within 20 ± 2 s after the preconditioning phase. At the manufacturers request, a dummy test may be run for additional conditioning before the measurement cycle.

3.3.2.   Test sequence

The test consists of a sequence of three load steps at each of the three engine speeds A (cycle 1), B (cycle 2) and C (cycle 3) determined in accordance with Annex III, Section 1.1, followed by cycle 4 at a speed within the control area and a load between 10 % and 100 %, selected by the Technical Service (2). The following sequence shall be followed in dynamometer operation on the test engine, as shown in Figure 3.

Image

(a)

The engine shall be operated at engine speed A and 10 per cent load for 20 ± 2 s. The specified speed shall be held to within ± 20 rpm and the specified torque shall be held to within ± 2 % of the maximum torque at the test speed.

(b)

At the end of the previous segment, the speed control lever shall be moved rapidly to, and held in, the wide open position for 10 ± 1 s. The necessary dynamometer load shall be applied to keep the engine speed within ± 150 rpm during the first 3 s, and within ± 20 rpm during the rest of the segment.

(c)

The sequence described in (a) and (b) shall be repeated two times.

(d)

Upon completion of the third load step, the engine shall be adjusted to engine speed B and 10 per cent load within 20 ± 2 s.

(e)

The sequence (a) to (c) shall be run with the engine operating at engine speed B.

(f)

Upon completion of the third load step, the engine shall be adjusted to engine speed C and 10 per cent load within 20 ± 2 s.

(g)

The sequence (a) to (c) shall be run with the engine operating at engine speed C.

(h)

Upon completion of the third load step, the engine shall be adjusted to the selected engine speed and any load above 10 per cent within 20 ± 2 s.

(i)

The sequence (a) to (c) shall be run with the engine operating at the selected engine speed.

3.4.   Cycle validation

The relative standard deviations of the mean smoke values at each test speed (SVA, SVB, SVC, as calculated in accordance with Section 6.3.3 of this Appendix from the three successive load steps at each test speed) shall be lower than 15 % of the mean value, or 10 % of the limit value shown in Table 1 of Annex I, whichever is greater. If the difference is greater, the sequence shall be repeated until three successive load steps meet the validation criteria.

3.5.   Rechecking of the opacimeter

The post-test opacimeter zero drift value shall not exceed ± 5,0 % of the limit value shown in Table 1 of Annex I.

4.   CALCULATION OF THE GASEOUS EMISSIONS

4.1.   Data evaluation

For the evaluation of the gaseous emissions, the chart reading of the last 30 seconds of each mode shall be averaged, and the average concentrations (conc) of HC, CO and NOx during each mode shall be determined from the average chart readings and the corresponding calibration data. A different type of recording can be used if it ensures an equivalent data acquisition.

For the NOx check within the control area, the above requirements apply for NOx, only.

The exhaust gas flow GEXHW or the diluted exhaust gas flow GTOTW, if used optionally, shall be determined in accordance with Annex III, Appendix 4, Section 2.3.

4.2.   Dry/wet correction

The measured concentration shall be converted to a wet basis according to the following formulae, if not already measured on a wet basis.

Formula

For the raw exhaust gas:

Formula

and,

Formula

For the diluted exhaust gas:

Formula

or,

Formula

For the dilution air

For the intake air (if different from the dilution air)

Formula

Formula

Formula

Formula

Formula

Formula

where:

Ha, Hd

=

g water per kg dry air

Rd, Ra

=

relative humidity of the dilution/intake air, %

pd, pa

=

saturation vapour pressure of the dilution/intake air, kPa

pB

=

total barometric pressure, kPa

4.3.   NOx correction for humidity and temperature

As the NOx emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NOx concentration shall be corrected for ambient air temperature and humidity with the factors given in the following formulae:

Formula

with:

A

=

0,309 GFUEL/GAIRD - 0,0266

B

=

- 0,209 GFUEL/GAIRD + 0,00954

Ta

=

temperature of the air, K

Ha

=

humidity of the intake air, g water per kg dry air

Ha

=

Formula

in which

Ra

=

relative humidity of the intake air, %

pa

=

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air, kPa

pB

=

total barometric pressure, kPa

4.4.   Calculation of the emission mass flow rates

The emission mass flow rates (g/h) for each mode shall be calculated as follows, assuming the exhaust gas density to be 1,293 kg/m3 at 273 K (0 C) and 101,3 kPa:

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

where NOx conc, COconc, HCconc  (3) are the average concentrations (ppm) in the raw exhaust gas, as determined in Section 4.1.

If, optionally, the gaseous emissions are determined with a full flow dilution system, the following formulae shall be applied:

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

where NOx conc, COconc, HCconc  (3) are the average background corrected concentrations (ppm) of each mode in the diluted exhaust gas, as determined in Annex III, Appendix 2, Section 4.3.1.1.

4.5.   Calculation of the specific emissions

The emissions (g/kWh) shall be calculated for all individual components in the following way:

Formula

Formula

Formula

The weighting factors (WF) used in the above calculation are according to Section 2.7.1.

4.6.   Calculation of the area control values

For the three control points selected according to Section 2.7.6, the NOx emission shall be measured and calculated according to Section 4.6.1 and also determined by interpolation from the modes of the test cycle closest to the respective control point according to Section 4.6.2. The measured values are then compared to the interpolated values according to Section 4.6.3.

4.6.1.   Calculation of the specific emission

The NOx emission for each of the control points (Z) shall be calculated as follows:

Formula

Formula

4.6.2.   Determination of the emission value from the test cycle

The NOx emission for each of the control points shall be interpolated from the four closest modes of the test cycle that envelop the selected control point Z as shown in Figure 4. For these modes (R, S, T, U), the following definitions apply:

Speed(R)

=

Speed(T) = nRT

Speed(S)

=

Speed(U) = nSU

Per cent load(R)

=

Per cent load(S)

Per cent load(T)

=

Per cent load(U).

The NOx emission of the selected control point Z shall be calculated as follows:

Formula

and:

Formula

Formula

Formula

Formula

where,

ER, ES, ET, EU

=

specific NOx emission of the enveloping modes calculated in accordance with Section 4.6.1.

MR, MS, MT, MU

=

engine torque of the enveloping modes

Image

4.6.3.   Comparison of NOx emission values

The measured specific NOx emission of the control point Z (NOx,Z) is compared to the interpolated value (EZ) as follows:

Formula

5.   CALCULATION OF THE PARTICULATE EMISSION

5.1.   Data evaluation

For the evaluation of the particulates, the total sample masses (MSAM,i) through the filters shall be recorded for each mode.

The filters shall be returned to the weighing chamber and conditioned for at least one hour, but not more than 80 hours, and then weighed. The gross weight of the filters shall be recorded and the tare weight (see Section 1 of this Appendix) subtracted. The particulate mass Mf is the sum of the particulate masses collected on the primary and back-up filters.

If background correction is to be applied, the dilution air mass (MDIL) through the filters and the particulate mass (Md) shall be recorded. If more than one measurement was made, the quotient Md/MDIL must be calculated for each single measurement and the values averaged.

5.2.   Partial flow dilution system

The final reported test results of the particulate emission shall be determined through the following steps. Since various types of dilution rate control may be used, different calculation methods for GEDFW apply. All calculations shall be based upon the average values of the individual modes during the sampling period.

5.2.1.   Isokinetic systems

Formula

Formula

where r corresponds to the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the isokinetic probe and the exhaust pipe:

Formula

5.2.2.   Systems with measurement of CO2 or NOx concentration

Formula

Formula

where:

concE

=

wet concentration of the tracer gas in the raw exhaust

concD

=

wet concentration of the tracer gas in the diluted exhaust

concA

=

wet concentration of the tracer gas in the dilution air

Concentrations measured on a dry basis shall be converted to a wet basis according to Section 4.2 of this Appendix.

5.2.3.   Systems with CO2 measurement and carbon balance method (4)

Formula

where:

CO2D

=

CO2 concentration of the diluted exhaust

CO2A

=

CO2 concentration of the dilution air

(concentrations in vol % on wet basis)

This equation is based upon the carbon balance assumption (carbon atoms supplied to the engine are emitted as CO2) and determined through the following steps:

Formula

and

Formula

5.2.4.   Systems with flow measurement

Formula

Formula

5.3.   Full flow dilution system

The reported test results of the particulate emission shall be determined through the following steps. All calculations shall be based upon the average values of the individual modes during the sampling period.

Formula

5.4.   Calculation of the particulate mass flow rate

The particulate mass flow rate shall be calculated as follows:

Formula

where

Formula

= Formula

MSAM=

Formula

i=

Formula

determined over the test cycle by summation of the average values of the individual modes during the sampling period.

The particulate mass flow rate may be background corrected as follows:

Formula

If more than one measurement is made, Formula shall be replaced with Formula .

Formula for the individual modes

or,

Formula for the individual modes.

5.5.   Calculation of the specific emission

The particulate emission shall be calculated in the following way:

Formula

5.6.   Effective weighting factor

The effective weighting factor WFE,i for each mode shall be calculated in the following way:

Formula

The value of the effective weighting factors shall be within ± 0,003 (± 0,005 for the idle mode) of the weighting factors listed in Section 2.7.1.

6.   CALCULATION OF THE SMOKE VALUES

6.1.   Bessel algorithm

The Bessel algorithm shall be used to compute the 1 s average values from the instantaneous smoke readings, converted in accordance with Section 6.3.1. The algorithm emulates a low pass second order filter, and its use requires iterative calculations to determine the coefficients. These coefficients are a function of the response time of the opacimeter system and the sampling rate. Therefore, Section 6.1.1 must be repeated whenever the system response time and/or sampling rate changes.

6.1.1.   Calculation of filter response time and Bessel constants

The required Bessel response time (tF) is a function of the physical and electrical response times of the opacimeter system, as specified in Annex III, Appendix 4, Section 5.2.4, and shall be calculated by the following equation:

Formula

where:

tp

=

physical response time, s

te

=

electrical response time, s

The calculations for estimating the filter cut-off frequency (fc) are based on a step input 0 to 1 in ≤ 0,01 s (see Annex VII). The response time is defined as the time between when the Bessel output reaches 10 % (t10) and when it reaches 90 % (t90) of this step function. This must be obtained by iterating on fc until t90-t10≈tF. The first iteration for fc is given by the following formula:

Formula

The Bessel constants E and K shall be calculated by the following equations:

Formula

Formula

where:

D

=

0,618034

Δt

=

Formula

Ω

=

Formula

6.1.2.   Calculation of the Bessel algorithm

Using the values of E and K, the 1 s Bessel averaged response to a step input Si shall be calculated as follows:

Formula

where:

Si-2

=

Si-1 = 0

Si

=

1

Yi-2

=

Yi-1 = 0

The times t10 and t90 shall be interpolated. The difference in time between t90 and t10 defines the response time tF for that value of fc. If this response time is not close enough to the required response time, iteration shall be continued until the actual response time is within 1 % of the required response as follows:

Formula

6.2.   Data evaluation

The smoke measurement values shall be sampled with a minimum rate of 20 Hz.

6.3.   Determination of smoke

6.3.1.   Data conversion

Since the basic measurement unit of all opacimeters is transmittance, the smoke values shall be converted from transmittance (τ) to the light absorption coefficient (k) as follows:

Formula

and

Formula

where:

k

=

light absorption coefficient, m-1

LA

=

effective optical path length, as submitted by instrument manufacturer, m

N

=

opacity, %

τ

=

transmittance, %

The conversion shall be applied, before any further data processing is made.

6.3.2.   Calculation of Bessel averaged smoke

The proper cut-off frequency fc is the one that produces the required filter response time tF. Once this frequency has been determined through the iterative process of Section 6.1.1, the proper Bessel algorithm constants E and K shall be calculated. The Bessel algorithm shall then be applied to the instantaneous smoke trace (k-value), as described in Section 6.1.2:

Formula

The Bessel algorithm is recursive in nature. Thus, it needs some initial input values of Si-1 and Si-2 and initial output values Yi-1 and Yi-2 to get the algorithm started. These may be assumed to be 0.

For each load step of the three speeds A, B and C, the maximum 1s value Ymax shall be selected from the individual Yi values of each smoke trace.

6.3.3.   Final result

The mean smoke values (SV) from each cycle (test speed) shall be calculated as follows:

For test speed A:

SVA = (Ymax1,A + Ymax2,A + Ymax3,A) / 3

For test speed B:

SVB = (Ymax1,B + Ymax2,B + Ymax3,B) / 3

For test speed C:

SVC = (Ymax1,C + Ymax2,C + Ymax3,C) / 3

where:

Ymax1, Ymax2, Ymax3

=

highest 1 s Bessel averaged smoke value at each of the three load steps

The final value shall be calculated as follows:

SV = (0,43 x SVA) + (0,56 x SVB) + (0,01 x SVC)


(1)  The test points shall be selected using approved statistical methods of randomisation.

(2)  The test points shall be selected using approved statistical methods of randomisation.

(3)  Based on C1 equivalent.

(4)  The value is only valid for the reference fuel specified in Annex IV.

Appendix 2

ETC TEST CYCLE

1.   ENGINE MAPPING PROCEDURE

1.1.   Determination of the mapping speed range

For generating the ETC on the test cell, the engine needs to be mapped prior to the test cycle for determining the speed vs torque curve. The minimum and maximum mapping speeds are defined as follows:

Minimum mapping speed

=

idle speed

Maximum mapping speed

=

nhi × 1,02 or speed where full load torque drops off to zero, whichever is lower

1.2.   Performing the engine power map

The engine shall be warmed up at maximum power in order to stabilise the engine parameters according to the recommendation of the manufacturer and good engineering practice. When the engine is stabilised, the engine map shall be performed as follows:

(a)

the engine shall be unloaded and operated at idle speed;

(b)

the engine shall be operated at full load setting of the injection pump at minimum mapping speed;

(c)

the engine speed shall be increased at an average rate of 8 ± 1 min-1 /s from minimum to maximum mapping speed. Engine speed and torque points shall be recorded at a sample rate of a least one point per second.

1.3.   Mapping curve generation

All data points recorded under Section 1.2 shall be connected using linear interpolation between points. The resulting torque curve is the mapping curve and shall be used to convert the normalised torque values of the engine cycle into actual torque values for the test cycle, as described in Section 2.

1.4.   Alternate mapping

If a manufacturer believes that the above mapping techniques are unsafe or unrepresentative for any given engine, alternate mapping techniques may be used. These alternate techniques must satisfy the intent of the specified mapping procedures to determine the maximum available torque at all engine speeds achieved during the test cycles. Deviations from the mapping techniques specified in this section for reasons of safety or representativeness shall be approved by the Technical Service along with the justification for their use. In no case, however, shall descending continual sweeps of engine speed be used for governed or turbocharged engines.

1.5.   Replicate tests

An engine need not be mapped before each and every test cycle. An engine shall be remapped prior to a test cycle if:

an unreasonable amount of time has transpired since the last map, as determined by engineering judgement,

or

physical changes or recalibrations have been made to the engine which may potentially affect engine performance.

2.   GENERATION OF THE REFERENCE TEST CYCLE

The transient test cycle is described in Appendix 3 to this Annex. The normalised values for torque and speed shall be changed to the actual values, as follows, resulting in the reference cycle.

2.1.   Actual speed

The speed shall be unnormalised using the following equation:

Formula

The reference speed (nref) corresponds to the 100 % speed values specified in the engine dynamometer schedule of Appendix 3. It is defined as follows (see Figure 1 of Annex I):

Formula

where nhi and nlo are either specified according to Annex I, Section 2 or determined according to Annex III, Appendix 1, Section 1.1.

2.2.   Actual torque

The torque is normalised to the maximum torque at the respective speed. The torque values of the reference cycle shall be unnormalised, using the mapping curve determined according to Section 1.3, as follows:

Actual torque = (% torque × max. torque/100)

for the respective actual speed as determined in Section 2.1.

The negative torque values of the motoring points (‘m’) shall take on, for purposes of reference cycle generation, unnormalised values determined in either of the following ways:

negative 40 % of the positive torque available at the associated speed point,

mapping of the negative torque required to motor the engine from minimum to maximum mapping speed,

determination of the negative torque required to motor the engine at idle and reference speeds and linear interpolation between these two points.

2.3.   Example of the unnormalisation procedure

As an example, the following test point shall be unnormalised:

% speed

=

43

% torque

=

82

Given the following values:

reference speed

=

2 200 min-1

idle speed

=

600 min-1

results in,

actual speed = (43 × (2 200 - 600)/100) + 600 = 1 288 min-1

actual torque = (82 × 700/100) = 574 Nm

where the maximum torque observed from the mapping curve at 1 288 min-1 is 700 Nm.

3.   EMISSIONS TEST RUN

At the manufacturers request, a dummy test may be run for conditioning of the engine and exhaust system before the measurement cycle.

NG and LPG fuelled engines shall be run-in using the ETC test. The engine shall be run over a minimum of two ETC cycles and until the CO emission measured over one ETC cycle does not exceed by more than 10 % the CO emission measured over the previous ETC cycle.

3.1.   Preparation of the sampling filters (diesel engines only)

At least one hour before the test, each filter (pair) shall be placed in a closed, but unsealed Petri dish and placed in a weighing chamber for stabilisation. At the end of the stabilisation period, each filter (pair) shall be weighed and the tare weight shall be recorded. The filter (pair) shall then be stored in a closed Petri dish or sealed filter holder until needed for testing. If the filter (pair) is not used within eight hours of its removal from the weighing chamber, it must be conditioned and reweighed before use.

3.2.   Installation of the measuring equipment

The instrumentation and sample probes shall be installed as required. The tailpipe shall be connected to the full flow dilution system.

3.3.   Starting the dilution system and the engine

The dilution system and the engine shall be started and warmed up until all temperatures and pressures have stabilised at maximum power according to the recommendation of the manufacturer and good engineering practice.

3.4.   Starting the particulate sampling system (diesel engines only)

The particulate sampling system shall be started and running on by-pass. The particulate background level of the dilution air may be determined by passing dilution air through the particulate filters. If filtered dilution air is used, one measurement may be done prior to or after the test. If the dilution air is not filtered, measurements at the beginning and at the end of the cycle, may be done, and the values averaged.

3.5.   Adjustment of the full flow dilution system

The total diluted exhaust gas flow shall be set to eliminate water condensation in the system, and to obtain a maximum filter face temperature of 325 K (52 °C) or less (see Annex V, Section 2.3.1, DT).

3.6.   Checking the analysers

The emission analysers shall be set at zero and spanned. If sample bags are used, they shall be evacuated.

3.7.   Engine starting procedure

The stabilised engine shall be started according to the manufacturer's recommended starting procedure in the owner's manual, using either a production starter motor or the dynamometer. Optionally, the test may start directly from the engine preconditioning phase without shutting the engine off, when the engine has reached the idle speed.

3.8.   Test cycle

3.8.1.   Test sequence

The test sequence shall be started, if the engine has reached idle speed. The test shall be performed according to the reference cycle as set out in Section 2 of this Appendix. Engine speed and torque command set points shall be issued at 5 Hz (10 Hz recommended) or greater. Feedback engine speed and torque shall be recorded at least once every second during the test cycle, and the signals may be electronically filtered.

3.8.2.   Analyser response

At the start of the engine or test sequence, if the cycle is started directly from the preconditioning, the measuring equipment shall be started, simultaneously:

start collecting or analysing dilution air;

start collecting or analysing diluted exhaust gas;

start measuring the amount of diluted exhaust gas (CVS) and the required temperatures and pressures;

start recording the feedback data of speed and torque of the dynamometer.

HC and NOx shall be measured continuously in the dilution tunnel with a frequency of 2 Hz. The average concentrations shall be determined by integrating the analyser signals over the test cycle. The system response time shall be no greater than 20 s, and shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and sampling time/test cycle offsets, if necessary. CO, CO2, NMHC and CH4 shall be determined by integration or by analysing the concentrations in the sample bag, collected over the cycle. The concentrations of the gaseous pollutants in the dilution air shall be determined by integration or by collecting into the background bag. All other values shall be recorded with a minimum of one measurement per second (1 Hz).

3.8.3.   Particulate sampling (diesel engines only)

At the start of the engine or test sequence, if the cycle is started directly from the preconditioning, the particulate sampling system shall be switched from by-pass to collecting particulates.

If no flow compensation is used, the sample pump(s) shall be adjusted so that the flow rate through the particulate sample probe or transfer tube is maintained at a value within ± 5 % of the set flow rate. If flow compensation (i.e. proportional control of sample flow) is used, it must be demonstrated that the ratio of main tunnel flow to particulate sample flow does not change by more than ± 5 % of its set value (except for the first 10 seconds of sampling).

Note: For double dilution operation, sample flow is the net difference between the flow rate through the sample filters and the secondary dilution air flow rate.

The average temperature and pressure at the gas meter(s) or flow instrumentation inlet shall be recorded. If the set flow rate cannot be maintained over the complete cycle (within ± 5 %) because of high particulate loading on the filter, the test shall be voided. The test shall be rerun using a lower flow rate and/or a larger diameter filter.

3.8.4.   Engine stalling

If the engine stalls anywhere during the test cycle, the engine shall be preconditioned and restarted, and the test repeated. If a malfunction occurs in any of the required test equipment during the test cycle, the test shall be voided.

3.8.5.   Operations after test

At the completion of the test, the measurement of the diluted exhaust gas volume, the gas flow into the collecting bags and the particulate sample pump shall be stopped. For an integrating analyser system, sampling shall continue until system response times have elapsed.

The concentrations of the collecting bags, if used, shall be analysed as soon as possible and in any case not later than 20 minutes after the end of the test cycle.

After the emission test, a zero gas and the same span gas shall be used for re-checking the analysers. The test will be considered acceptable if the difference between the pre-test and post-test results is less than 2 % of the span gas value.

For diesel engines only, the particulate filters shall be returned to the weighing chamber no later than one hour after completion of the test and shall be conditioned in a closed, but unsealed Petri dish for at least one hour, but not more than 80 hours before weighing.

3.9.   Verification of the test run

3.9.1.   Data shift

To minimise the biasing effect of the time lag between the feedback and reference cycle values, the entire engine speed and torque feedback signal sequence may be advanced or delayed in time with respect to the reference speed and torque sequence. If the feedback signals are shifted, both speed and torque must be shifted the same amount in the same direction.

3.9.2.   Calculation of the cycle work

The actual cycle work Wact (kWh) shall be calculated using each pair of engine feedback speed and torque values recorded. This shall be done after any feedback data shift has occurred, if this option is selected. The actual cycle work Wact is used for comparison to the reference cycle work Wref and for calculating the brake specific emissions (see Sections 4.4 and 5.2). The same methodology shall be used for integrating both reference and actual engine power. If values are to be determined between adjacent reference or adjacent measured values, linear interpolation shall be used.

In integrating the reference and actual cycle work, all negative torque values shall be set equal to zero and included. If integration is performed at a frequency of less than 5 Hertz, and if, during a given time segment, the torque value changes from positive to negative or negative to positive, the negative portion shall be computed and set equal to zero. The positive portion shall be included in the integrated value.

Wact shall be between - 15 % and + 5 % of Wref

3.9.3.   Validation statistics of the test cycle

Linear regressions of the feedback values on the reference values shall be performed for speed, torque and power. This shall be done after any feedback data shift has occurred, if this option is selected. The method of least squares shall be used, with the best fit equation having the form:

Formula

where:

y

=

feedback (actual) value of speed (min-1), torque (Nm), or power (kW)

m

=

slope of the regression line

x

=

reference value of speed (min-1), torque (Nm), or power (kW)

b

=

y intercept of the regression line

The standard error of estimate (SE) of y on x and the coefficient of determination (r2) shall be calculated for each regression line.

It is recommended that this analysis be performed at 1 Hertz. All negative reference torque values and the associated feedback values shall be deleted from the calculation of cycle torque and power validation statistics. For a test to be considered valid, the criteria of Table 6 must be met.

Table 6

Regression line tolerances

 

Speed

Torque

Power

Standard error of estimate (SE) of Y on X

Max 100 min–1

Max 13 % (15 %) (1) of power map maximum engine torque

Max 8 % (15 %) (1) of power map maximum engine power

Slope of the regression line, m

0,95 to 1,03

0,83–1,03

0,89–1,03 (0,83–1,03) (1)

Coefficient of determination, r2

min 0,9700 (min 0,9500) (1)

min 0,8800 (min 0,7500) (1)

min 0,9100 (min 0,7500) (1)

Y intercept of the regression line, b

± 50 min-1

± 20 Nm or ± 2 % (± 20 Nm or ± 3 %) (1) of max torque whichever is greater

± 4 kW or ± 2 % (± 4 kW or ± 3 %) (1) of max power whichever is greater

Point deletions from the regression analyses are permitted where noted in Table 7.

Table 7

Permitted point deletions from regression analysis

Conditions

Points to be deleted

Full load and torque feedback < torque reference

Torque and/or power

No load, not an idle point, and torque feedback > torque reference

Torque and/or power

No load/closed throttle, idle point and speed > reference idle speed

Speed and/or power

4.   CALCULATION OF THE GASEOUS EMISSIONS

4.1.   Determination of the diluted exhaust gas flow

The total diluted exhaust gas flow over the cycle (kg/test) shall be calculated from the measurement values over the cycle and the corresponding calibration data of the flow measurement device (V0 for PDP or KV for CFV, as determined in Annex III, Appendix 5, Section 2). The following formulae shall be applied, if the temperature of the diluted exhaust is kept constant over the cycle by using a heat exchanger (± 6 K for a PDP-CVS, ± 11 K for a CFV-CVS, see Annex V, Section 2.3).

For the PDP-CVS system:

MTOTW = 1,293 × V0 × Np × (pB – p1) × 273 / (101,3 × T)

where:

MTOTW

=

mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis over the cycle, kg

V0

=

volume of gas pumped per revolution under test conditions, m3/rev

NP

=

total revolutions of pump per test

pB

=

atmospheric pressure in the test cell, kPa

p1

=

pressure depression below atmospheric at pump inlet, kPa

T

=

average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas at pump inlet over the cycle, K

For the CFV-CVS system:

MTOTW = 1,293 × t × Kv × pA / T0,5

where:

MTOTW

=

mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis over the cycle, kg

t

=

cycle time, s

Kv

=

calibration coefficient of the critical flow venturi for standard conditions

pA

=

absolute pressure at venturi inlet, kPa

T

=

absolute temperature at venturi inlet, K

If a system with flow compensation is used (i.e. without heat exchanger), the instantaneous mass emissions shall be calculated and integrated over the cycle. In this case, the instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas shall be calculated as follows:

For the PDP-CVS system:

MTOTW,i = 1,293 × V0 × Np,i × (pB – p1) × 273 / (101,3 × T)

where:

MTOTW,i

=

instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis, kg

Np,i

=

total revolutions of pump per time interval

For the CFV-CVS system:

MTOTW,i = 1,293 × Δti × Kv × pA / T0,5

where:

MTOTW,i

=

instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas on wet basis, kg

Δti

=

time interval, s

If the total sample mass of particulates (MSAM) and gaseous pollutants exceeds 0,5 % of the total CVS flow (MTOTW), the CVS flow shall be corrected for MSAM or the particulate sample flow shall be returned to the CVS prior to the flow measuring device (PDP or CFV).

4.2.   NOx correction for humidity

As the NOx emission depends on ambient air conditions, the NOx concentration shall be corrected for ambient air humidity with the factors given in the following formulae:

(a)

for diesel engines:

Formula

(b)

for gas engines:

Formula

where:

Ha

=

humidity of the intake air water per kg dry air

in which:

Formula

Ra

=

relative humidity of the intake air, %

pa

=

saturation vapour pressure of the intake air, kPa

pB

=

total barometric pressure, kPa

4.3.   Calculation of the emission mass flow

4.3.1.   Systems with constant mass flow

For systems with heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants (g/test) shall be determined from the following equations:

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

where:

NOx conc, COconc, HCconc  (2), NMHCconc

=

average background corrected concentrations over the cycle from integration (mandatory for NOx and HC) or bag measurement, ppm

MTOTW

=

total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle as determined in Section 4.1, kg

KH,D

=

humidity correction factor for diesel engines as determined in Section 4.2

KH,G

=

humidity correction factor for gas engines as determined in Section 4.2

Concentrations measured on a dry basis shall be converted to a wet basis in accordance with Annex III, Appendix 1, Section 4.2.

The determination of NMHCconc depends on the method used (see Annex III, Appendix 4, Section 3.3.4). In both cases, the CH4 concentration shall be determined and subtracted from the HC concentration as follows:

(a)

GC method

Formula

(b)

NMC method

Formula

where:

HC(wCutter)

=

HC concentration with the sample gas flowing through the NMC

HC(w/oCutter)

=

HC concentration with the sample gas bypassing the NMC

CEM

=

methane efficiency as determined per Annex III, Appendix 5, Section 1.8.4.1

CEE

=

ethane efficiency as determined per Annex III, Appendix 5, Section 1.8.4.2

4.3.1.1.   Determination of the background corrected concentrations

The average background concentration of the gaseous pollutants in the dilution air shall be subtracted from measured concentrations to get the net concentrations of the pollutants. The average values of the background concentrations can be determined by the sample bag method or by continuous measurement with integration. The following formula shall be used.

Formula

where:

conc

=

concentration of the respective pollutant in the diluted exhaust gas, corrected by the amount of the respective pollutant contained in the dilution air, ppm

conce

=

concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm

concd

=

concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the dilution air, ppm

DF

=

dilution factor

The dilution factor shall be calculated as follows:

(a)

for diesel and LPG fuelled gas engines

Formula

(b)

for NG-fuelled gas engines

Formula

where:

CO2, conce

=

concentration of CO2 in the diluted exhaust gas, % vol

HCconce

=

concentration of HC in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm C1

NMHCconce

=

concentration of NMHC in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm C1

COconce

=

concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm

FS

=

stoichiometric factor

Concentrations measured on dry basis shall be converted to a wet basis in accordance with Annex III, Appendix 1, Section 4.2.

The stoichiometric factor shall be calculated as follows:

Formula

where:

x, y

=

fuel composition CxHy

Alternatively, if the fuel composition is not known, the following stoichiometric factors may be used:

FS (diesel)

=

13,4

FS (LPG)

=

11,6

FS (NG)

=

9,5

4.3.2.   Systems with flow compensation

For systems without heat exchanger, the mass of the pollutants (g/test) shall be determined by calculating the instantaneous mass emissions and integrating the instantaneous values over the cycle. Also, the background correction shall be applied directly to the instantaneous concentration value. The following formulae shall be applied:

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

 

Formula

where:

conce

=

concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the diluted exhaust gas, ppm

concd

=

concentration of the respective pollutant measured in the dilution air, ppm

MTOTW,i

=

instantaneous mass of the diluted exhaust gas (see Section 4.1), kg

MTOTW

=

total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle (see Section 4.1), kg

KH,D

=

humidity correction factor for diesel engines as determined in Section 4.2

KH,G

=

humidity correction factor for gas engines as determined in Section 4.2

DF

=

dilution factor as determined in Section 4.3.1.1

4.4.   Calculation of the specific emissions

The emissions (g/kWh) shall be calculated for all individual components in the following way:

Formula (diesel and gas engines)

Formula (diesel and gas engines)

Formula (diesel and LPG fuelled gas engines)

Formula (NG fuelled gas engines)

Formula (NG fuelled gas engines)

where:

Wact

=

actual cycle work as determined in Section 3.9.2, kWh

5.   CALCULATION OF THE PARTICULATE EMISSION (DIESEL ENGINES ONLY)

5.1.   Calculation of the mass flow

The particulate mass (g/test) shall be calculated as follows:

Formula

where:

Mf

=

particulate mass sampled over the cycle, mg

MTOTW

=

total mass of diluted exhaust gas over the cycle as determined in Section 4.1, kg

MSAM

=

mass of diluted exhaust gas taken from the dilution tunnel for collecting particulates, kg

and:

Mf

=

Mf,p + Mf,b if weighed separately, mg

Mf,p

=

particulate mass collected on the primary filter, mg

Mf,b

=

particulate mass collected on the back-up filter, mg

If a double dilution system is used, the mass of the secondary dilution air shall be subtracted from the total mass of the double diluted exhaust gas sampled through the particulate filters

Formula

where:

MTOT

=

mass of double diluted exhaust gas through particulate filter, kg

MSEC

=

mass of secondary dilution air, kg

If the particulate background level of the dilution air is determined in accordance with Section 3.4, the particulate mass may be background corrected. In this case, the particulate mass (g/test) shall be calculated as follows:

Formula

where:

Mf, MSAM, MTOTW

=

see above

MDIL

=

mass of primary dilution air sampled by background particulate sampler, kg

Md

=

mass of the collected background particulates of the primary dilution air, mg

DF

=

dilution factor as determined in Section 4.3.1.1

5.2.   Calculation of the specific emission

The particulate emission (g/kWh) shall be calculated in the following way:

Formula

where:

Wact

=

actual cycle work as determined in Section 3.9.2, kWh.


(1)  Until 1 October 2005, the figures shown in brackets may be used for the type-approval testing of gas engines. The Commission shall report on the development of gas engine technology to confirm or modify the regression line tolerances applicable to gas engines given in this table.

(2)  Based on C1 equivalent.

Appendix 3

ETC ENGINE DYNAMOMETER SCHEDULE

Time

s

Normal speed

%

Normal torque

%

1

0

0

2

0

0

3

0

0

4

0

0

5

0

0

6

0

0

7

0

0

8

0

0

9

0

0

10

0

0

11

0

0

12

0

0

13

0

0

14

0

0

15

0

0

16

0,1

1,5

17

23,1

21,5

18

12,6

28,5

19

21,8

71

20

19,7

76,8

21

54,6

80,9

22

71,3

4,9

23

55,9

18,1

24

72

85,4

25

86,7

61,8

26

51,7

0

27

53,4

48,9

28

34,2

87,6

29

45,5

92,7

30

54,6

99,5

31

64,5

96,8

32

71,7

85,4

33

79,4

54,8

34

89,7

99,4

35

57,4

0

36

59,7

30,6

37

90,1

‘m’

38

82,9

‘m’

39

51,3

‘m’

40

28,5

‘m’

41

29,3

‘m’

42

26,7

‘m’

43

20,4

‘m’

44

14,1

0

45

6,5

0

46

0

0

47

0

0

48

0

0

49

0

0

50

0

0

51

0

0

52

0

0

53

0

0

54

0

0

55

0

0

56

0

0

57

0

0

58

0

0

59

0

0

60

0

0

61

0

0

62

25,5

11,1

63

28,5

20,9

64

32

73,9

65

4

82,3

66

34,5

80,4

67

64,1

86

68

58

0

69

50,3

83,4

70

66,4

99,1

71

81,4

99,6

72

88,7

73,4

73

52,5

0

74

46,4

58,5

75

48,6

90,9

76

55,2

99,4

77

62,3

99

78

68,4

91,5

79

74,5

73,7

80

38

0

81

41,8

89,6

82

47,1

99,2

83

52,5

99,8

84

56,9

80,8

85

58,3

11,8

86

56,2

‘m’

87

52

‘m’

88

43,3

‘m’

89

36,1

‘m’

90

27,6

‘m’

91

21,1

‘m’

92

8

0

93

0

0

94

0

0

95

0

0

96

0

0

97

0

0

98

0

0

99

0

0

100

0

0

101

0

0

102

0

0

103

0

0

104

0

0

105

0

0

106

0

0

107

0

0

108

11,6

14,8

109

0

0

110

27,2

74,8

111

17

76,9

112

36

78

113

59,7

86

114

80,8

17,9

115

49,7

0

116

65,6

86

117

78,6

72,2

118

64,9

‘m’

119

44,3

‘m’

120

51,4

83,4

121

58,1

97

122

69,3

99,3

123

72

20,8

124

72,1

‘m’

125

65,3

‘m’

126

64

‘m’

127

59,7

‘m’

128

52,8

‘m’

129

45,9

‘m’

130

38,7

‘m’

131

32,4

‘m’

132

27

‘m’

133

21,7

‘m’

134

19,1

0,4

135

34,7

14

136

16,4

48,6

137

0

11,2

138

1,2

2,1

139

30,1

19,3

140

30

73,9

141

54,4

74,4

142

77,2

55,6

143

58,1

0

144

45

82,1

145

68,7

98,1

146

85,7

67,2

147

60,2

0

148

59,4

98

149

72,7

99,6

150

79,9

45

151

44,3

0

152

41,5

84,4

153

56,2

98,2

154

65,7

99,1

155

74,4

84,7

156

54,4

0

157

47,9

89,7

158

54,5

99,5

159

62,7

96,8

160

62,3

0

161

46,2

54,2

162

44,3

83,2

163

48,2

13,3

164

51

‘m’

165

50

‘m’

166

49,2

‘m’

167

49,3

‘m’

168

49,9

‘m’

169

51,6

‘m’

170

49,7

‘m’

171

48,5

‘m’

172

50,3

72,5

173

51,1

84,5

174

54,6

64,8

175

56,6

76,5

176

58

‘m’

177

53,6

‘m’

178

40,8

‘m’

179

32,9

‘m’

180

26,3

‘m’

181

20,9

‘m’

182

10

0

183

0

0

184

0

0

185

0

0

186

0

0

187

0

0

188

0

0

189

0

0

190

0

0

191

0

0

192

0

0

193

0

0

194

0

0

195

0

0

196

0

0

197

0

0

198

0

0

199

0

0

200

0

0

201

0

0

202

0

0

203

0

0

204

0

0

205

0

0

206

0

0

207

0

0

208

0

0

209

0

0

210

0

0

211

0

0

212

0

0

213

0

0

214

0

0

215

0

0

216

0

0

217

0

0

218

0

0

219

0

0

220

0

0

221

0

0

222

0

0

223

0

0

224

0

0

225

21,2

62,7

226

30,8

75,1

227

5,9

82,7

228

34,6

80,3

229

59,9

87

230

84,3

86,2

231

68,7

‘m’

232

43,6

‘m’

233

41,5

85,4

234

49,9

94,3

235

60,8

99

236

70,2

99,4

237

81,1

92,4

238

49,2

0

239

56

86,2

240

56,2

99,3

241

61,7

99

242

69,2

99,3

243

74,1

99,8

244

72,4

8,4

245

71,3

0

246

71,2

9,1

247

67,1

‘m’

248

65,5

‘m’

249

64,4

‘m’

250

62,9

25,6

251

62,2

35,6

252

62,9

24,4

253

58,8

‘m’

254

56,9

‘m’

255

54,5

‘m’

256

51,7

17

257

56,2

78,7

258

59,5

94,7

259

65,5

99,1

260

71,2

99,5

261

76,6

99,9

262

79

0

263

52,9

97,5

264

53,1

99,7

265

59

99,1

266

62,2

99

267

65

99,1

268

69

83,1

269

69,9

28,4

270

70,6

12,5

271

68,9

8,4

272

69,8

9,1

273

69,6

7

274

65,7

‘m’

275

67,1

‘m’

276

66,7

‘m’

277

65,6

‘m’

278

64,5

‘m’

279

62,9

‘m’

280

59,3

‘m’

281

54,1

‘m’

282

51,3

‘m’

283

47,9

‘m’

284

43,6

‘m’

285

39,4

‘m’

286

34,7

‘m’

287

29,8

‘m’

288

20,9

73,4

289

36,9

‘m’

290

35,5

‘m’

291

20,9

‘m’

292

49,7

11,9

293

42,5

‘m’

294

32

‘m’

295

23,6

‘m’

296

19,1

0

297

15,7

73,5

298

25,1

76,8

299

34,5

81,4

300

44,1

87,4

301

52,8

98,6

302

63,6

99

303

73,6

99,7

304

62,2

‘m’

305

29,2

‘m’

306

46,4

22

307

47,3

13,8

308

47,2

12,5

309

47,9

11,5

310

47,8

35,5

311

49,2

83,3

312

52,7

96,4

313

57,4

99,2

314

61,8

99

315

66,4

60,9

316

65,8

‘m’

317

59

‘m’

318

50,7

‘m’

319

41,8

‘m’

320

34,7

‘m’

321

28,7

‘m’

322

25,2

‘m’

323

43

24,8

324

38,7

0

325

48,1

31,9

326

40,3

61

327

42,4

52,1

328

46,4

47,7

329

46,9

30,7

330

46,1

23,1

331

45,7

23,2

332

45,5

31,9

333

46,4

73,6

334

51,3

60,7

335

51,3

51,1

336

53,2

46,8

337

53,9

50

338

53,4

52,1

339

53,8

45,7

340

50,6

22,1

341

47,8

26

342

41,6

17,8

343

38,7

29,8

344

35,9

71,6

345

34,6

47,3

346

34,8

80,3

347

35,9

87,2

348

38,8

90,8

349

41,5

94,7

350

47,1

99,2

351

53,1

99,7

352

46,4

0

353

42,5

0,7

354

43,6

58,6

355

47,1

87,5

356

54,1

99,5

357

62,9

99

358

72,6

99,6

359

82,4

99,5

360

88

99,4

361

46,4

0

362

53,4

95,2

363

58,4

99,2

364

61,5

99

365

64,8

99

366

68,1

99,2

367

73,4

99,7

368

73,3

29,8

369

73,5

14,6

370

68,3

0

371

45,4

49,9

372

47,2

75,7

373

44,5

9

374

47,8

10,3

375

46,8

15,9

376

46,9

12,7

377

46,8

8,9

378

46,1

6,2

379

46,1

‘m’

380

45,5

‘m’

381

44,7

‘m’

382

43,8

‘m’

383

41

‘m’

384

41,1

6,4

385

38

6,3

386

35,9

0,3

387

33,5

0

388

53,1

48,9

389

48,3

‘m’

390

49,9

‘m’

391

48

‘m’

392

45,3

‘m’

393

41,6

3,1

394

44,3

79

395

44,3

89,5

396

43,4

98,8

397

44,3

98,9

398

43

98,8

399

42,2

98,8

400

42,7

98,8

401

45

99

402

43,6

98,9

403

42,2

98,8

404

44,8

99

405

43,4

98,8

406

45

99

407

42,2

54,3

408

61,2

31,9

409

56,3

72,3

410

59,7

99,1

411

62,3

99

412

67,9

99,2

413

69,5

99,3

414

73,1

99,7

415

77,7

99,8

416

79,7

99,7

417

82,5

99,5

418

85,3

99,4

419

86,6

99,4

420

89,4

99,4

421

62,2

0

422

52,7

96,4

423

50,2

99,8

424

49,3

99,6

425

52,2

99,8

426

51,3

100

427

51,3

100

428

51,1

100

429

51,1

100

430

51,8

99,9

431

51,3

100

432

51,1

100

433

51,3

100

434

52,3

99,8

435

52,9

99,7

436

53,8

99,6

437

51,7

99,9

438

53,5

99,6

439

52

99,8

440

51,7

99,9

441

53,2

99,7

442

54,2

99,5

443

55,2

99,4

444

53,8

99,6

445

53,1

99,7

446

55

99,4

447

57

99,2

448

61,5

99

449

59,4

5,7

450

59

0

451

57,3

59,8

452

64,1

99

453

70,9

90,5

454

58

0

455

41,5

59,8

456

44,1

92,6

457

46,8

99,2

458

47,2

99,3

459

51

100

460

53,2

99,7

461

53,1

99,7

462

55,9

53,1

463

53,9

13,9

464

52,5

‘m’

465

51,7

‘m’

466

51,5

52,2

467

52,8

80

468

54,9

95

469

57,3

99,2

470

60,7

99,1

471

62,4

‘m’

472

60,1

‘m’

473

53,2

‘m’

474

44

‘m’

475

35,2

‘m’

476

30,5

‘m’

477

26,5

‘m’

478

22,5

‘m’

479

20,4

‘m’

480

19,1

‘m’

481

19,1

‘m’

482

13,4

‘m’

483

6,7

‘m’

484

3,2

‘m’

485

14,3

63,8

486

34,1

0

487

23,9

75,7

488

31,7

79,2

489

32,1

19,4

490

35,9

5,8

491

36,6

0,8

492

38,7

‘m’

493

38,4

‘m’

494

39,4

‘m’

495

39,7

‘m’

496

40,5

‘m’

497

40,8

‘m’

498

39,7

‘m’

499

39,2

‘m’

500

38,7

‘m’

501

32,7

‘m’

502

30,1

‘m’

503

21,9

‘m’

504

12,8

0

505

0

0

506

0

0

507

0

0

508

0

0

509

0

0

510

0

0

511

0

0

512

0

0

513

0

0

514

30,5

25,6

515

19,7

56,9

516

16,3

45,1

517

27,2

4,6

518

21,7

1,3

519

29,7

28,6

520

36,6

73,7

521

61,3

59,5

522

40,8

0

523

36,6

27,8

524

39,4

80,4

525

51,3

88,9

526

58,5

11,1

527

60,7

‘m’

528

54,5

‘m’

529

51,3

‘m’

530

45,5

‘m’

531

40,8

‘m’

532

38,9

‘m’

533

36,6

‘m’

534

36,1

72,7

535

44,8

78,9

536

51,6

91,1

537

59,1

99,1

538

66

99,1

539

75,1

99,9

540

81

8

541

39,1

0

542

53,8

89,7

543

59,7

99,1

544

64,8

99

545

70,6

96,1

546

72,6

19,6

547

72

6,3

548

68,9

0,1

549

67,7

‘m’

550

66,8

‘m’

551

64,3

16,9

552

64,9

7

553

63,6

12,5

554

63

7,7

555

64,4

38,2

556

63

11,8

557

63,6

0

558

63,3

5

559

60,1

9,1

560

61

8,4

561

59,7

0,9

562

58,7

‘m’

563

56

‘m’

564

53,9

‘m’

565

52,1

‘m’

566

49,9

‘m’

567

46,4

‘m’

568

43,6

‘m’

569

40,8

‘m’

570

37,5

‘m’

571

27,8

‘m’

572

17,1

0,6

573

12,2

0,9

574

11,5

1,1

575

8,7

0,5

576

8

0,9

577

5,3

0,2

578

4

0

579

3,9

0

580

0

0

581

0

0

582

0

0

583

0

0

584

0

0

585

0

0

586

0

0

587

8,7

22,8

588

16,2

49,4

589

23,6

56

590

21,1

56,1

591

23,6

56

592

46,2

68,8

593

68,4

61,2

594

58,7

‘m’

595

31,6

‘m’

596

19,9

8,8

597

32,9

70,2

598

43

79

599

57,4

98,9

600

72,1

73,8

601

53

0

602

48,1

86

603

56,2

99

604

65,4

98,9

605

72,9

99,7

606

67,5

‘m’

607

39

‘m’

608

41,9

38,1

609

44,1

80,4

610

46,8

99,4

611

48,7

99,9

612

50,5

99,7

613

52,5

90,3

614

51

1,8

615

50

‘m’

616

49,1

‘m’

617

47

‘m’

618

43,1

‘m’

619

39,2

‘m’

620

40,6

0,5

621

41,8

53,4

622

44,4

65,1

623

48,1

67,8

624

53,8

99,2

625

58,6

98,9

626

63,6

98,8

627

68,5

99,2

628

72,2

89,4

629

77,1

0

630

57,8

79,1

631

60,3

98,8

632

61,9

98,8

633

63,8

98,8

634

64,7

98,9

635

65,4

46,5

636

65,7

44,5

637

65,6

3,5

638

49,1

0

639

50,4

73,1

640

50,5

‘m’

641

51

‘m’

642

49,4

‘m’

643

49,2

‘m’

644

48,6

‘m’

645

47,5

‘m’

646

46,5

‘m’

647

46

11,3

648

45,6

42,8

649

47,1

83

650

46,2

99,3

651

47,9

99,7

652

49,5

99,9

653

50,6

99,7

654

51

99,6

655

53

99,3

656

54,9

99,1

657

55,7

99

658

56

99

659

56,1

9,3

660

55,6

‘m’

661

55,4

‘m’

662

54,9

51,3

663

54,9

59,8

664

54

39,3

665

53,8

‘m’

666

52

‘m’

667

50,4

‘m’

668

50,6

0

669

49,3

41,7

670

50

73,2

671

50,4

99,7

672

51,9

99,5

673

53,6

99,3

674

54,6

99,1

675

56

99

676

55,8

99

677

58,4

98,9

678

59,9

98,8

679

60,9

98,8

680

63

98,8

681

64,3

98,9

682

64,8

64

683

65,9

46,5

684

66,2

28,7

685

65,2

1,8

686

65

6,8

687

63,6

53,6

688

62,4

82,5

689

61,8

98,8

690

59,8

98,8

691

59,2

98,8

692

59,7

98,8

693

61,2

98,8

694

62,2

49,4

695

62,8

37,2

696

63,5

46,3

697

64,7

72,3

698

64,7

72,3

699

65,4

77,4

700

66,1

69,3

701

64,3

‘m’

702

64,3

‘m’

703

63

‘m’

704

62,2

‘m’

705

61,6

‘m’

706

62,4

‘m’

707

62,2

‘m’

708

61

‘m’

709

58,7

‘m’

710

55,5

‘m’

711

51,7

‘m’

712

49,2

‘m’

713

48,8

40,4

714

47,9

‘m’

715

46,2

‘m’

716

45,6

9,8

717

45,6

34,5

718

45,5

37,1

719

43,8

‘m’

720

41,9

‘m’

721

41,3

‘m’

722

41,4

‘m’

723

41,2

‘m’

724

41,8

‘m’

725

41,8

‘m’

726

43,2

17,4

727

45

29

728

44,2

‘m’

729

43,9

‘m’

730

38

10,7

731

56,8

‘m’

732

57,1

‘m’

733

52

‘m’

734

44,4

‘m’

735

40,2

‘m’

736

39,2

16,5

737

38,9

73,2

738

39,9

89,8

739

42,3

98,6

740

43,7

98,8

741

45,5

99,1

742

45,6

99,2

743

48,1

99,7

744

49

100

745

49,8

99,9

746

49,8

99,9

747

51,9

99,5

748

52,3

99,4

749

53,3

99,3

750

52,9

99,3

751

54,3

99,2

752

55,5

99,1

753

56,7

99

754

61,7

98,8

755

64,3

47,4

756

64,7

1,8

757

66,2

‘m’

758

49,1

‘m’

759

52,1

46

760

52,6

61

761

52,9

0

762

52,3

20,4

763

54,2

56,7

764

55,4

59,8

765

56,1

49,2

766

56,8

33,7

767

57,2

96

768

58,6

98,9

769

59,5

98,8

770

61,2

98,8

771

62,1

98,8

772

62,7

98,8

773

62,8

98,8

774

64

98,9

775

63,2

46,3

776

62,4

‘m’

777

60,3

‘m’

778

58,7

‘m’

779

57,2

‘m’

780

56,1

‘m’

781

56

9,3

782

55,2

26,3

783

54,8

42,8

784

55,7

47,1

785

56,6

52,4

786

58

50,3

787

58,6

20,6

788

58,7

‘m’

789

59,3

‘m’

790

58,6

‘m’

791

60,5

9,7

792

59,2

9,6

793

59,9

9,6

794

59,6

9,6

795

59,9

6,2

796

59,9

9,6

797

60,5

13,1

798

60,3

20,7

799

59,9

31

800

60,5

42

801

61,5

52,5

802

60,9

51,4

803

61,2

57,7

804

62,8

98,8

805

63,4

96,1

806

64,6

45,4

807

64,1

5

808

63

3,2

809

62,7

14,9

810

63,5

35,8

811

64,1

73,3

812

64,3

37,4

813

64,1

21

814

63,7

21

815

62,9

18

816

62,4

32,7

817

61,7

46,2

818

59,8

45,1

819

57,4

43,9

820

54,8

42,8

821

54,3

65,2

822

52,9

62,1

823

52,4

30,6

824

50,4

‘m’

825

48,6

‘m’

826

47,9

‘m’

827

46,8

‘m’

828

46,9

9,4

829

49,5

41,7

830

50,5

37,8

831

52,3

20,4

832

54,1

30,7

833

56,3

41,8

834

58,7

26,5

835

57,3

‘m’

836

59

‘m’

837

59,8

‘m’

838

60,3

‘m’

839

61,2

‘m’

840

61,8

‘m’

841

62,5

‘m’

842

62,4

‘m’

843

61,5

‘m’

844

63,7

‘m’

845

61,9

‘m’

846

61,6

29,7

847

60,3

‘m’

848

59,2

‘m’

849

57,3

‘m’

850

52,3

‘m’

851

49,3

‘m’

852

47,3

‘m’

853

46,3

38,8

854

46,8

35,1

855

46,6

‘m’

856

44,3

‘m’

857

43,1

‘m’

858

42,4

2,1

859

41,8

2,4

860

43,8

68,8

861

44,6

89,2

862

46

99,2

863

46,9

99,4

864

47,9

99,7

865

50,2

99,8

866

51,2

99,6

867

52,3

99,4

868

53

99,3

869

54,2

99,2

870

55,5

99,1

871

56,7

99

872

57,3

98,9

873

58

98,9

874

60,5

31,1

875

60,2

‘m’

876

60,3

‘m’

877

60,5

6,3

878

61,4

19,3

879

60,3

1,2

880

60,5

2,9

881

61,2

34,1

882

61,6

13,2

883

61,5

16,4

884

61,2

16,4

885

61,3

‘m’

886

63,1

‘m’

887

63,2

4,8

888

62,3

22,3

889

62

38,5

890

61,6

29,6

891

61,6

26,6

892

61,8

28,1

893

62

29,6

894

62

16,3

895

61,1

‘m’

896

61,2

‘m’

897

60,7

19,2

898

60,7

32,5

899

60,9

17,8

900

60,1

19,2

901

59,3

38,2

902

59,9

45

903

59,4

32,4

904

59,2

23,5

905

59,5

40,8

906

58,3

‘m’

907

58,2

‘m’

908

57,6

‘m’

909

57,1

‘m’

910

57

0,6

911

57

26,3

912

56,5

29,2

913

56,3

20,5

914

56,1

‘m’

915

55,2

‘m’

916

54,7

17,5

917

55,2

29,2

918

55,2

29,2

919

55,9

16

920

55,9

26,3

921

56,1

36,5

922

55,8

19

923

55,9

9,2

924

55,8

21,9

925

56,4

42,8

926

56,4

38

927

56,4

11

928

56,4

35,1

929

54

7,3

930

53,4

5,4

931

52,3

27,6

932

52,1

32

933

52,3

33,4

934

52,2

34,9

935

52,8

60,1

936

53,7

69,7

937

54

70,7

938

55,1

71,7

939

55,2

46

940

54,7

12,6

941

52,5

0

942

51,8

24,7

943

51,4

43,9

944

50,9

71,1

945

51,2

76,8

946

50,3

87,5

947

50,2

99,8

948

50,9

100

949

49,9

99,7

950

50,9

100

951

49,8

99,7

952

50,4

99,8

953

50,4

99,8

954

49,7

99,7

955

51

100

956

50,3

99,8

957

50,2

99,8

958

49,9

99,7

959

50,9

100

960

50

99,7

961

50,2

99,8

962

50,2

99,8

963

49,9

99,7

964

50,4

99,8

965

50,2

99,8

966

50,3

99,8

967

49,9

99,7

968

51,1

100

969

50,6

99,9

970

49,9

99,7

971

49,6

99,6

972

49,4

99,6

973

49

99,5

974

49,8

99,7

975

50,9

100

976

50,4

99,8

977

49,8

99,7

978

49,1

99,5

979

50,4

99,8

980

49,8

99,7

981

49,3

99,5

982

49,1

99,5

983

49,9

99,7

984

49,1

99,5

985

50,4

99,8

986

50,9

100

987

51,4

99,9

988

51,5

99,9

989

52,2

99,7

990

52,8

74,1

991

53,3

46

992

53,6

36,4

993

53,4

33,5

994

53,9

58,9

995

55,2

73,8

996

55,8

52,4

997

55,7

9,2

998

55,8

2,2

999

56,4

33,6

1000

55,4

‘m’

1001

55,2

‘m’

1002

55,8

26,3

1003

55,8

23,3

1004

56,4

50,2

1005

57,6

68,3

1006

58,8

90,2

1007

59,9

98,9

1008

62,3

98,8

1009

63,1

74,4

1010

63,7

49,4

1011

63,3

9,8

1012

48

0

1013

47,9

73,5

1014

49,9

99,7

1015

49,9

48,8

1016

49,6

2,3

1017

49,9

‘m’

1018

49,3

‘m’

1019

49,7

47,5

1020

49,1

‘m’

1021

49,4

‘m’

1022

48,3

‘m’

1023

49,4

‘m’

1024

48,5

‘m’

1025

48,7

‘m’

1026

48,7

‘m’

1027

49,1

‘m’

1028

49

‘m’

1029

49,8

‘m’

1030

48,7

‘m’

1031

48,5

‘m’

1032

49,3

31,3

1033

49,7

45,3

1034

48,3

44,5

1035

49,8

61

1036

49,4

64,3

1037

49,8

64,4

1038

50,5

65,6

1039

50,3

64,5

1040

51,2

82,9

1041

50,5

86

1042

50,6

89

1043

50,4

81,4

1044

49,9

49,9

1045

49,1

20,1

1046

47,9

24

1047

48,1

36,2

1048

47,5

34,5

1049

46,9

30,3

1050

47,7

53,5

1051

46,9

61,6

1052

46,5

73,6

1053

48

84,6

1054

47,2

87,7

1055

48,7

80

1056

48,7

50,4

1057

47,8

38,6

1058

48,8

63,1

1059

47,4

5

1060

47,3

47,4

1061

47,3

49,8

1062

46,9

23,9

1063

46,7

44,6

1064

46,8

65,2

1065

46,9

60,4

1066

46,7

61,5

1067

45,5

‘m’

1068

45,5

‘m’

1069

44,2

‘m’

1070

43

‘m’

1071

42,5

‘m’

1072

41

‘m’

1073

39,9

‘m’

1074

39,9

38,2

1075

40,1

48,1

1076

39,9

48

1077

39,4

59,3

1078

43,8

19,8

1079

52,9

0

1080

52,8

88,9

1081

53,4

99,5

1082

54,7

99,3

1083

56,3

99,1

1084

57,5

99

1085

59

98,9

1086

59,8

98,9

1087

60,1

98,9

1088

61,8

48,3

1089

61,8

55,6

1090

61,7

59,8

1091

62

55,6

1092

62,3

29,6

1093

62

19,3

1094

61,3

7,9

1095

61,1

19,2

1096

61,2

43

1097

61,1

59,7

1098

61,1

98,8

1099

61,3

98,8

1100

61,3

26,6

1101

60,4

‘m’

1102

58,8

‘m’

1103

57,7

‘m’

1104

56

‘m’

1105

54,7

‘m’

1106

53,3

‘m’

1107

52,6

23,2

1108

53,4

84,2

1109

53,9

99,4

1110

54,9

99,3

1111

55,8

99,2

1112

57,1

99

1113

56,5

99,1

1114

58,9

98,9

1115

58,7

98,9

1116

59,8

98,9

1117

61

98,8

1118

60,7

19,2

1119

59,4

‘m’

1120

57,9

‘m’

1121

57,6

‘m’

1122

56,3

‘m’

1123

55

‘m’

1124

53,7

‘m’

1125

52,1

‘m’

1126

51,1

‘m’

1127

49,7

25,8

1128

49,1

46,1

1129

48,7

46,9

1130

48,2

46,7

1131

48

70

1132

48

70

1133

47,2

67,6

1134

47,3

67,6

1135

46,6

74,7

1136

47,4

13

1137

46,3

‘m’

1138

45,4

‘m’

1139

45,5

24,8

1140

44,8

73,8

1141

46,6

99

1142

46,3

98,9

1143

48,5

99,4

1144

49,9

99,7

1145

49,1

99,5

1146

49,1

99,5

1147

51

100

1148

51,5

99,9

1149

50,9

100

1150

51,6

99,9

1151

52,1

99,7

1152

50,9

100

1153

52,2

99,7

1154

51,5

98,3

1155

51,5

47,2

1156

50,8

78,4

1157

50,3

83

1158

50,3

31,7

1159

49,3

31,3

1160

48,8

21,5

1161

47,8

59,4

1162

48,1

77,1

1163

48,4

87,6

1164

49,6

87,5

1165

51

81,4

1166

51,6

66,7

1167

53,3

63,2

1168

55,2

62

1169

55,7

43,9

1170

56,4

30,7

1171

56,8

23,4

1172

57

‘m’

1173

57,6

‘m’

1174

56,9

‘m’

1175

56,4

4

1176

57

23,4

1177

56,4

41,7

1178

57

49,2

1179

57,7

56,6

1180

58,6

56,6

1181

58,9

64

1182

59,4

68,2

1183

58,8

71,4

1184

60,1

71,3

1185

60,6

79,1

1186

60,7

83,3

1187

60,7

77,1

1188

60

73,5

1189

60,2

55,5

1190

59,7

54,4

1191

59,8

73,3

1192

59,8

77,9

1193

59,8

73,9

1194

60

76,5

1195

59,5

82,3

1196

59,9

82,8

1197

59,8

65,8

1198

59

48,6

1199

58,9

62,2

1200

59,1

70,4

1201

58,9

62,1

1202

58,4

67,4

1203

58,7

58,9

1204

58,3

57,7

1205

57,5

57,8

1206

57,2

57,6

1207

57,1

42,6

1208

57

70,1

1209

56,4

59,6

1210

56,7

39

1211

55,9

68,1

1212

56,3

79,1

1213

56,7

89,7

1214

56

89,4

1215

56

93,1

1216

56,4

93,1

1217

56,7

94,4

1218

56,9

94,8

1219

57

94,1

1220

57,7

94,3

1221

57,5

93,7

1222

58,4

93,2

1223

58,7

93,2

1224

58,2

93,7

1225

58,5

93,1

1226

58,8

86,2

1227

59

72,9

1228

58,2

59,9

1229

57,6

8,5

1230

57,1

47,6

1231

57,2

74,4

1232

57

79,1

1233

56,7

67,2

1234

56,8

69,1

1235

56,9

71,3

1236

57

77,3

1237

57,4

78,2

1238

57,3

70,6

1239

57,7

64

1240

57,5

55,6

1241

58,6

49,6

1242

58,2

41,1

1243

58,8

40,6

1244

58,3

21,1

1245

58,7

24,9

1246

59,1

24,8

1247

58,6

‘m’

1248

58,8

‘m’

1249

58,8

‘m’

1250

58,7

‘m’

1251

59,1

‘m’

1252

59,1

‘m’

1253

59,4

‘m’

1254

60,6