Help Print this page 
Title and reference
Directive 2004/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 October 2004 amending Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community, in respect of the Kyoto Protocol's project mechanismsText with EEA relevance

OJ L 338, 13.11.2004, p. 18–23 (ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, SK, SL, FI, SV)
Special edition in Bulgarian: Chapter 15 Volume 012 P. 61 - 66
Special edition in Romanian: Chapter 15 Volume 012 P. 61 - 66
Special edition in Croatian: Chapter 15 Volume 016 P. 80 - 85
Languages, formats and link to OJ
Multilingual display
Text

13.11.2004   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 338/18


DIRECTIVE 2004/101/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL

of 27 October 2004

amending Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community, in respect of the Kyoto Protocol's project mechanisms

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 175(1) thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the Commission,

Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee (1),

After consulting the Committee of the Regions,

Acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 251 of the Treaty (2),

Whereas:

(1)

Directive 2003/87/EC (3) establishes a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community (the Community scheme) in order to promote reductions of greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective and economically efficient manner, recognising that, in the longer-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases will need to be reduced by approximately 70 % compared to 1990 levels. It aims at contributing towards fulfilling the commitments of the Community and its Member States to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto Protocol which was approved by Council Decision 2002/358/EC of 25 April 2002 concerning the approval, on behalf of the European Community, of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the joint fulfilment of commitments thereunder (4).

(2)

Directive 2003/87/EC states that the recognition of credits from project-based mechanisms for fulfilling obligations as from 2005 will increase the cost-effectiveness of achieving reductions of global greenhouse gas emissions and shall be provided for by provisions for linking the Kyoto project-based mechanisms, including joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM), with the Community scheme.

(3)

Linking the Kyoto project-based mechanisms to the Community scheme, while safeguarding the latter's environmental integrity, gives the opportunity to use emission credits generated through project activities eligible pursuant to Articles 6 and 12 of the Kyoto Protocol in order to fulfil Member States' obligations in accordance with Article 12(3) of Directive 2003/87/EC. As a result, this will increase the diversity of low-cost compliance options within the Community scheme leading to a reduction of the overall costs of compliance with the Kyoto Protocol while improving the liquidity of the Community market in greenhouse gas emission allowances. By stimulating demand for JI credits, Community companies will invest in the development and transfer of advanced environmentally sound technologies and know-how. The demand for CDM credits will also be stimulated and thus developing countries hosting CDM projects will be assisted in achieving their sustainable development goals.

(4)

In addition to the use of the Kyoto project-based mechanisms by the Community and its Member States, and by companies and individuals outside the Community scheme, those mechanisms should be linked to the Community scheme in such a way as to ensure consistency with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol and subsequent decisions adopted thereunder as well as with the objectives and architecture of the Community scheme and provisions laid down by Directive 2003/87/EC.

(5)

Member States may allow operators to use, in the Community scheme, certified emission reductions (CERs) from 2005 and emission reduction units (ERUs) from 2008. The use of CERs and ERUs by operators from 2008 may be allowed up to a percentage of the allocation to each installation, to be specified by each Member State in its national allocation plan. The use will take place through the issue and immediate surrender of one allowance in exchange for one CER or ERU. An allowance issued in exchange for a CER or ERU will correspond to that CER or ERU.

(6)

The Commission Regulation for a standardised and secured system of registries, to be adopted pursuant to Article 19(3) of Directive 2003/87/EC and Article 6(1) of Decision No 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 concerning a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol (5), will provide for the relevant processes and procedures in the registries system for the use of CERs during the period 2005 to 2007 and subsequent periods, and for the use of ERUs during the period 2008 to 2012 and subsequent periods.

(7)

Each Member State will decide on the limit for the use of CERs and ERUs from project activities, having due regard to the relevant provisions of the Kyoto Protocol and the Marrakesh Accords, to meet the requirements therein that the use of the mechanisms should be supplemental to domestic action. Domestic action will thus constitute a significant element of the effort made.

(8)

In accordance with the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol and subsequent decisions adopted thereunder, Member States are to refrain from using CERs and ERUs generated from nuclear facilities to meet their commitments pursuant to Article 3(1) of the Kyoto Protocol and pursuant to Decision 2002/358/EC.

(9)

Decisions 15/CP.7 and 19/CP.7 adopted pursuant to the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol emphasise that environmental integrity is to be achieved, inter alia, through sound modalities, rules and guidelines for the mechanisms, and through sound and strong principles and rules governing land use, land-use change and forestry activities, and that the issues of non-permanence, additionality, leakage, uncertainties and socioeconomic and environmental impacts, including impacts on biodiversity and natural ecosystems, associated with afforestation and reforestation project activities are to be taken into account. The Commission should consider, in its review of Directive 2003/87/EC in 2006, technical provisions relating to the temporary nature of credits and the limit of 1 % for eligibility for land use, land-use change and forestry project activities as established in Decision 17/CP.7, and also provisions relating to the outcome of the evaluation of potential risks associated with the use of genetically modified organisms and potentially invasive alien species in afforestation and reforestation project activities, to allow operators to use CERs and ERUs resulting from land use, land use change and forestry project activities in the Community scheme from 2008, in accordance with the decisions adopted pursuant to the UNFCCC or the Kyoto Protocol.

(10)

In order to avoid double counting, CERs and ERUs should not be issued as a result of project activities undertaken within the Community that also lead to a reduction in, or limitation of, emissions from installations covered by Directive 2003/87/EC, unless an equal number of allowances is cancelled from the registry of the Member State of the CERs’ or ERUs’ origin.

(11)

In accordance with the relevant treaties of accession, the acquis communautaire should be taken into account in the establishment of baselines for project activities undertaken in countries acceding to the Union.

(12)

Any Member State that authorises private or public entities to participate in project activities remains responsible for the fulfilment of its obligations under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol and should therefore ensure that such participation is consistent with the relevant guidelines, modalities and procedures adopted pursuant to the UNFCCC or the Kyoto Protocol.

(13)

In accordance with the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and subsequent decisions adopted for their implementation, the Commission and the Member States should support capacity building activities in developing countries and countries with economies in transition in order to help them take full advantage of JI and the CDM in a manner that supports their sustainable development strategies. The Commission should review and report on efforts in this regard.

(14)

Criteria and guidelines that are relevant to considering whether hydroelectric power production projects have negative environmental or social impacts have been identified by the World Commission on Dams in its November 2000 Report ‘Dams and Development — A New Framework for Decision-Making’, by the OECD and by the World Bank.

(15)

Since participation in JI and CDM project activities is voluntary, corporate environmental and social responsibility and accountability should be enhanced in accordance with paragraph 17 of the Plan of implementation of the world summit on sustainable development. In this connection, companies should be encouraged to improve the social and environmental performance of JI and CDM activities in which they participate.

(16)

Information on project activities in which a Member State participates or authorises private or public entities to participate should be made available to the public in accordance with Directive 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2003 on public access to environmental information (6).

(17)

The Commission may mention impacts on the electricity market in its reports on emission allowance trading and the use of credits from project activities.

(18)

Following entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, the Commission should examine whether it could be possible to conclude agreements with countries listed in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol which have yet to ratify the Protocol, to provide for the recognition of allowances between the Community scheme and mandatory greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes capping absolute emissions established within those countries.

(19)

Since the objective of the proposed action, namely the establishment of a link between the Kyoto project-based mechanisms and the Community scheme, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States acting individually, and can therefore by reason of the scale and effects of this action be better achieved at Community level, the Community may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve that objective.

(20)

Directive 2003/87/EC should therefore be amended accordingly,

HAVE ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:

Article 1

Amendments to Directive 2003/87/EC

Directive 2003/87/EC is hereby amended as follows:

1.

In Article 3, the following points are added:

‘(k)

“Annex I Party” means a Party listed in Annex I to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that has ratified the Kyoto Protocol as specified in Article 1(7) of the Kyoto Protocol;

(l)

“project activity” means a project activity approved by one or more Annex I Parties in accordance with Article 6 or Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol and the decisions adopted pursuant to the UNFCCC or the Kyoto Protocol;

(m)

“emission reduction unit” or “ERU” means a unit issued pursuant to Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol and the decisions adopted pursuant to the UNFCCC or the Kyoto Protocol;

(n)

“certified emission reduction” or “CER” means a unit issued pursuant to Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol and the decisions adopted pursuant to the UNFCCC or the Kyoto Protocol.’

2.

The following Articles are inserted after Article 11:

‘Article 11a

Use of CERs and ERUs from project activities in the Community scheme

1.   Subject to paragraph 3, during each period referred to in Article 11(2), Member States may allow operators to use CERs and ERUs from project activities in the Community scheme up to a percentage of the allocation of allowances to each installation, to be specified by each Member State in its national allocation plan for that period. This shall take place through the issue and immediate surrender of one allowance by the Member State in exchange for one CER or ERU held by the operator in the national registry of its Member State.

2.   Subject to paragraph 3, during the period referred to in Article 11(1), Member States may allow operators to use CERs from project activities in the Community scheme. This shall take place through the issue and immediate surrender of one allowance by the Member State in exchange for one CER. Member States shall cancel CERs that have been used by operators during the period referred to in Article 11(1).

3.   All CERs and ERUs that are issued and may be used in accordance with the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol and subsequent decisions adopted thereunder may be used in the Community scheme:

(a)

except that, in recognition of the fact that, in accordance with the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol and subsequent decisions adopted thereunder, Member States are to refrain from using CERs and ERUs generated from nuclear facilities to meet their commitments pursuant to Article 3(1) of the Kyoto Protocol and in accordance with Decision 2002/358/EC, operators are to refrain from using CERs and ERUs generated from such facilities in the Community scheme during the period referred to in Article 11(1) and the first five-year period referred to in Article 11(2);

and

(b)

except for CERs and ERUs from land use, land use change and forestry activities.

Article 11b

Project activities

1.   Member States shall take all necessary measures to ensure that baselines for project activities, as defined by subsequent decisions adopted under the UNFCCC or the Kyoto Protocol, undertaken in countries having signed a Treaty of Accession with the Union fully comply with the acquis communautaire, including the temporary derogations set out in that Treaty of Accession.

2.   Except as provided for in paragraphs 3 and 4, Member States hosting project activities shall ensure that no ERUs or CERs are issued for reductions or limitations of greenhouse gas emissions from installations falling within the scope of this Directive.

3.   Until 31 December 2012, for JI and CDM project activities which reduce or limit directly the emissions of an installation falling within the scope of this Directive, ERUs and CERs may be issued only if an equal number of allowances is cancelled by the operator of that installation.

4.   Until 31 December 2012, for JI and CDM project activities which reduce or limit indirectly the emission level of installations falling within the scope of this Directive, ERUs and CERs may be issued only if an equal number of allowances is cancelled from the national registry of the Member State of the ERUs’ or CERs’ origin.

5.   A Member State that authorises private or public entities to participate in project activities shall remain responsible for the fulfilment of its obligations under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol and shall ensure that such participation is consistent with the relevant guidelines, modalities and procedures adopted pursuant to the UNFCCC or the Kyoto Protocol.

6.   In the case of hydroelectric power production project activities with a generating capacity exceeding 20 MW, Member States shall, when approving such project activities, ensure that relevant international criteria and guidelines, including those contained in the World Commission on Dams November 2000 Report “Dams and Development — A New Framework for Decision-Making”, will be respected during the development of such project activities.

7.   Provisions for the implementation of paragraphs 3 and 4, particularly in respect of the avoidance of double counting, and any provisions necessary for the implementation of paragraph 5 where the host party meets all eligibility requirements for JI project activities shall be adopted in accordance with Article 23(2).’

3.

Article 17 is replaced by the following:

‘Article 17

Access to information

Decisions relating to the allocation of allowances, information on project activities in which a Member State participates or authorises private or public entities to participate, and the reports of emissions required under the greenhouse gas emissions permit and held by the competent authority, shall be made available to the public in accordance with Directive 2003/4/EC.’

4.

In Article 18 the following subparagraph is added:

‘Member States shall in particular ensure coordination between their designated focal point for approving project activities pursuant to Article 6 (1)(a) of the Kyoto Protocol and their designated national authority for the implementation of Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol respectively designated in accordance with subsequent decisions adopted under the UNFCCC or the Kyoto Protocol.’

5.

In Article 19(3) the following sentence is added:

‘That Regulation shall also include provisions concerning the use and identification of CERs and ERUs in the Community scheme and the monitoring of the level of such use.’

6.

Article 21 is amended as follows:

(a)

in paragraph 1 the second sentence is replaced by the following:

‘This report shall pay particular attention to the arrangements for the allocation of allowances, the use of ERUs and CERs in the Community scheme, the operation of registries, the application of the monitoring and reporting guidelines, verification and issues relating to compliance with the Directive and the fiscal treatment of allowances, if any.’

(b)

paragraph 3 is replaced by the following:

‘3.   The Commission shall organise an exchange of information between the competent authorities of the Member States concerning developments relating to issues of allocation, the use of ERUs and CERs in the Community scheme, the operation of registries, monitoring, reporting, verification and compliance with this Directive.’

7.

The following Article is inserted after Article 21:

‘Article 21a

Support of capacity-building activities

In accordance with the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and any subsequent decision adopted for their implementation, the Commission and the Member States shall endeavour to support capacity-building activities in developing countries and countries with economies in transition in order to help them take full advantage of JI and the CDM in a manner that supports their sustainable development strategies and to facilitate the engagement of entities in JI and CDM project development and implementation.’

8.

Article 30 is amended as follows:

(a)

in paragraph 2, point (d) is replaced by the following:

‘(d)

the use of credits from project activities, including the need for harmonisation of the allowed use of ERUs and CERs in the Community scheme;’

(b)

in paragraph 2 the following points are added:

‘(l)

the impact of project mechanisms on host countries, particularly on their development objectives, whether JI and CDM hydroelectric power production project activities with a generating capacity exceeding 500 MW and having negative environmental or social impacts have been approved, and the future use of CERs or ERUs resulting from any such hydroelectric power production project activities in the Community scheme;

(m)

the support for capacity-building efforts in developing countries and countries with economies in transition;

(n)

the modalities and procedures for Member States' approval of domestic project activities and for the issuing of allowances in respect of emission reductions or limitations resulting from such activities from 2008;

(o)

technical provisions relating to the temporary nature of credits and the limit of 1 % for eligibility for land use, land-use change and forestry project activities as established in Decision 17/CP.7, and provisions relating to the outcome of the evaluation of potential risks associated with the use of genetically modified organisms and potentially invasive alien species by afforestation and reforestation project activities, to allow operators to use CERs and ERUs resulting from land use, land-use change and forestry project activities in the Community scheme from 2008, in accordance with the decisions adopted pursuant to the UNFCCC or the Kyoto Protocol.’

(c)

paragraph 3 is replaced by the following:

‘3.   In advance of each period referred to in Article 11(2), each Member State shall publish in its national allocation plan its intended use of ERUs and CERs and the percentage of the allocation to each installation up to which operators are allowed to use ERUs and CERs in the Community scheme for that period. The total use of ERUs and CERs shall be consistent with the relevant supplementarity obligations under the Kyoto Protocol and the UNFCCC and the decisions adopted thereunder.

Member States shall, in accordance with Article 3 of Decision No 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 concerning a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol (7), report to the Commission every two years on the extent to which domestic action actually constitutes a significant element of the efforts undertaken at national level, as well as the extent to which use of the project mechanisms is actually supplemental to domestic action, and the ratio between them, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Kyoto Protocol and the decisions adopted thereunder. The Commission shall report on this in accordance with Article 5 of the said Decision. In the light of this report, the Commission shall, if appropriate, make legislative or other proposals to complement provisions adopted by Member States to ensure that use of the mechanisms is supplemental to domestic action within the Community.’

9.

In Annex III the following point is added:

‘12.

The plan shall specify the maximum amount of CERs and ERUs which may be used by operators in the Community scheme as a percentage of the allocation of the allowances to each installation. The percentage shall be consistent with the Member State’s supplementarity obligations under the Kyoto Protocol and decisions adopted pursuant to the UNFCCC or the Kyoto Protocol.’

Article 2

Implementation

1.   Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive by 13 November 2005. They shall forthwith inform the Commission thereof.

When Member States adopt these measures, they shall contain a reference to this Directive or be accompanied by such a reference on the occasion of their official publication. The methods of making such reference shall be laid down by the Member States.

2.   Member States shall communicate to the Commission the text of the provisions of national law which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive. The Commission shall inform the other Member States thereof.

Article 3

Entry into force

This Directive shall enter into force on the day of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

Article 4

Addressees

This Directive is addressed to the Member States.

Done at Strasbourg, 27 October 2004.

For the European Parliament

J. BORRELL FONTELLES

The President

For the Council

A. NICOLAI

The President


(1)  OJ C 80, 30.3.2004, p. 61.

(2)  Opinion of the European Parliament of 20 April 2004 (not yet published in the Official Journal) and Council Decision of 13 September 2004 (not yet published in the Official Journal).

(3)  OJ L 275, 25.10.2003, p. 32.

(4)  OJ L 130, 15.5.2002, p. 1.

(5)  OJ L 49, 19.2.2004, p. 1.

(6)  OJ L 41, 14.2.2003, p. 26.

(7)  OJ L 49, 19.2.2004, p. 1.


Top