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Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A New Framework Strategy for Multilingualism

/* COM/2005/0596 final */
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Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social committee and the Committee of the Regions - A New Framework Strategy for Multilingualism /* COM/2005/0596 final */


Brussels, 22.11.2005

COM(2005) 596 final


A New Framework Strategy for Multilingualism


A New Framework Strategy for Multilingualism

Koľko jazykov vieš, toľkokrát si človekom.

The more languages you know, the more of a person you are.

(Slovak proverb)


For the first time, the portfolio of a European Commissioner explicitly includes responsibility for multilingualism. This document is the first Commission Communication to explore this policy area. It complements the Commission’s current initiative to improve communication between European citizens and the institutions that serve them. It also:

- reaffirms the Commission’s commitment to multilingualism in the European Union;

- sets out the Commission’s strategy for promoting multilingualism in European society, in the economy and in the Commission itself; and

- proposes a number of specific actions stemming from this strategic framework.


The European Union is founded on ‘unity in diversity’: diversity of cultures, customs and beliefs - and of languages. Besides the 20[1] official languages of the Union, there are 60 or so other indigenous languages and scores of non-indigenous languages spoken by migrant communities.[2]

It is this diversity that makes the European Union what it is: not a ‘melting pot’ in which differences are rendered down, but a common home in which diversity is celebrated, and where our many mother tongues are a source of wealth and a bridge to greater solidarity and mutual understanding.

Language is the most direct expression of culture; it is what makes us human and what gives each of us a sense of identity. Article 22 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union[3] states that the Union shall respect cultural, religious and linguistic diversity. Article 21 prohibits discrimination based on a number of grounds, including language. Together with respect for the individual, openness towards other cultures, tolerance and acceptance of others, respect for linguistic diversity is a core value of the European Union[4]. Action by the Union and the Member States to uphold multilingualism therefore has a direct impact on the life of every citizen.

I.2 What is multilingualism?

Multilingualism refers to both a person’s ability to use several languages and the co-existence of different language communities in one geographical area. In this document, the term is used to describe the new field of Commission policy that promotes a climate that is conducive to the full expression of all languages, in which the teaching and learning of a variety of languages can flourish.

The Commission’s multilingualism policy has three aims:

- to encourage language learning and promoting linguistic diversity in society;

- to promote a healthy multilingual economy, and

- to give citizens access to European Union legislation, procedures and information in their own languages.

Responsibility for making further progress mainly rests with Member States (be it at national, regional or local level), but the Commission will also do all within its remit to reinforce awareness of multilingualism and to improve the consistency of action taken at different levels.


II.1 Language learning

II.1.1 Language skills

The ability to understand and communicate in more than one language – already a daily reality for the majority of people across the globe - is a desirable life-skill for all European citizens. It encourages us to become more open to other people’s cultures and outlooks[5], improves cognitive skills and strengthens learners’ mother tongue skills; it enables people to take advantage of the freedom to work or study in another Member State.

In March 2002, the Heads of State or Government of the European Union meeting in Barcelona[6] called for at least two foreign languages to be taught from a very early age . The Commission’s long-term objective is to increase individual multilingualism until every citizen has practical skills in at least two languages in addition to his or her mother tongue.[7]

As a recent Eurobarometer survey shows[8] half of the citizens of the European Union state that they can hold a conversation in at least one language other than their mother tongue. The percentages vary between countries and social groups: 99% of Luxemburgers, 93% of Latvians and Maltese, and 90% of Lithuanians know at least one language other than their mother tongue, whereas a considerable majority in Hungary (71%), the UK (70%), Spain, Italy and Portugal (64% each) master only their mother tongue. Men, young people and city dwellers are more likely to speak a foreign language than women, old people and rural inhabitants, respectively.

The percentage of primary school pupils learning a foreign language is increasing.[9]However, the average number of foreign languages taught in secondary schools is still some way from the target set in Barcelona. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency for ‘foreign language learning’ to mean simply ‘learning English’; the Commission has already pointed out that ‘English is not enough’.[10]

II.1.2 How does the Community help to develop language skills and promote linguistic diversity?

In 2003,[11]the Commission committed itself to undertake 45 new actions to encourage national, regional and local authorities also to work for ‘a major step change in promoting language learning and linguistic diversity’. These actions complement the many other forms of support given by the Commission for many years, beginning with the pioneering LINGUA programme in 1990. It has invested over €30 million a year through the Socrates and Leonardo da Vinci programmes in: bursaries to enable language teachers to be trained abroad, placing foreign language assistants in schools, funding class exchanges to motivate pupils to learn languages, creating new language courses on CDs and the Internet and projects that raise awareness of the benefits of language learning. Through strategic studies, the Commission promotes debate, innovation and the exchange of good practice.[12]In addition, the mainstream actions of Community programmes which encourage mobility and transnational partnerships motivate participants to learn languages.

Youth exchanges, town twinning projects and the European Voluntary Service also promote multilingualism. Since 1997, the Culture programme has financed the translation of around 2 000 literary works from and into European languages.

The new programmes proposed for implementation from 2007 ( Culture 2007 , Youth in Action and Lifelong Learning ) will continue and develop this kind of support.

In addition, the Community provides the main financial support to the European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages[13] (a non-governmental organisation which represents the interests of the over 40 million citizens who belong to a regional and minority language community), and for the Mercator networks[14] of universities active in research on lesser-used languages in Europe. Following a request from the European Parliament, the Commission in 2004 launched a feasibility study on the possible creation of a European Agency for Language Learning and Linguistic Diversity. The study[15] concludes that there are unmet needs in this field, and proposes two options: creating an agency or setting up a European network of “Language Diversity Centres”. The Commission believes that a network would be the most appropriate next step and, where possible, should build on existing structures; it will examine the possibility of financing it on a multi-annual basis through the proposed Lifelong Learning programme.

II.1.3 Key areas for action in education systems and practices

The Member States agreed in Lisbon in 2000 to establish an effective internal market, to boost research and innovation and to improve education to make the European Union “the most dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy in the world” by 2010. This was further underlined in the Commission Communication ‘Working together for Growth and Jobs – a new start for the Lisbon strategy’[16] and the Integrated Guidelines for Growth and Jobs (2005 – 2008).[17] Through the ‘Education and Training 2010’ process, Member States agree common objectives towards which they work by setting indicators and benchmarks, sharing good practice and undertaking peer reviews. They have identified the improvement of language skills as a priority, and a Group of national experts on languages[18] has produced recommendations to Member States[19] which have inspired some of the following proposals concerning key areas for action.

National strategies

Experts have identified a need for national plans to give coherence and direction to actions to promote multilingualism amongst individuals and in society generally. These plans should establish clear objectives for language teaching at the various stages of education and be accompanied by a sustained effort to raise awareness of the importance of linguistic diversity. The teaching of regional and minority languages should also be taken into account as appropriate, as should opportunities for migrants to learn the language of the host country (and the teaching of migrant languages).

Better teacher training

The curricula and structures for training teachers of a foreign language need to respond to changing demands about the language skills that pupils and students should acquire. The Commission has funded a new, independent study drawing on good practice from across Europe[20] which has proposed a common core of competencies and values for language teachers in Europe. The Commission will facilitate a debate on this issue, leading to a Recommendation.

Early language learning

In most countries at least half of all primary school pupils now learn a foreign language.[21]However, as the Commission has previously[22] made clear, the advantages of the early learning of languages only accrue where teachers are trained specifically to teach languages to very young children, where class sizes are small enough, where appropriate training materials are available, and where enough curriculum time is devoted to languages.

Content and language integrated learning

A recent conference organised by the Luxembourg Presidency of the European Union discussed developments in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in which pupils learn a subject through the medium of a foreign language. This approach is being used increasingly across Europe and provides greater opportunities within the school curriculum for exposure to foreign languages.

Languages in higher education

Higher education institutions could play a more active role in promoting multilingualism amongst students and staff, but also in the wider local community. It needs to be recognised that the trend in non-English-speaking countries towards teaching through the medium of English, instead of through the national or regional language, may have unforeseen consequences for the vitality of those languages. The Commission intends to study this phenomenon in more detail shortly.

Developing the academic field of multilingualism

Over the past few years, a number of universities have introduced chairs in fields of study related to multilingualism and interculturalism in European society. Current Commission support for research into linguistic diversity could be complemented by networks of such Chairs, along the lines of the successful Jean Monnet action.

European Indicator of Language Competence

Work on the European Indicator of Language Competence , which is the subject of a recent Communication,[23]is already well advanced; it will gather reliable data about the actual foreign language skills of young people and supply invaluable information to policy-makers.

II.2 Research and development in multilingualism

The EU research programmes addresses multilingualism in two areas in particular, in which they invest around €20 million per annum. The Information Society Technologies programme includes research to overcome language barriers through new information and communication technologies, such as:

- productivity tools for translators (translation memories, on-line dictionaries and thesauri);

- interactive semi-automatic translation systems for fast, high-quality translation of texts in specific fields;

- fully automatic systems for translations of low-to-medium quality; and

- artificial speech recognition and synthesis, dialogue and translation.

The social sciences and humanities research programme supports research on language issues in relation to social inclusion and exclusion, identity, political participation, cultural diversity and cross-cultural understanding. This includes questions of linguistic diversity, minority and regional languages, and language issues for migrants and ethnic minorities.

II.3 Action for a multilingual society

The Commission will: implement, in cooperation with Member States, the European Indicator of Language Competence; promote discussion and produce a recommendation on ways of bringing language teacher education up to date; publish a study of best practice in early language learning in 2006; provide support through the proposed Lifelong Learning Programme for studies on the state of multilingualism in higher education and the creation of chairs in fields of study related to multilingualism and interculturalism; continue to support the teaching and learning of languages through its cooperation programmes in the field of education, training, youth, citizenship and culture; investigate ways of supporting language diversity networks through the new integrated Lifelong Learning programme; and reinforce in the 7th Framework Research Programme the research and technological development activities on language-related information society technologies, with a specific focus on new technologies for machine translation, and study the ways in which the European Union could encourage further cooperation in new translation and interpretation technologies. In the same framework, linguistic issues will form an integral part of the activities supported in the fields of social sciences and humanities. |

Member States are invited to: establish national plans to give structure, coherence and direction to actions to promote multilingualism, including increasing the use and presence of a variety of languages in daily life;[24] review their current arrangements for foreign language teacher training in the light of the findings of the study ‘European Profile for Language Teacher Education’;[25] review their current arrangements for early language learning in the light of best practice from across Europe; and implement the Conclusions of the Luxembourg Presidency concerning Content and Language Integrated Learning, including raising awareness of the benefits of this approach, exchanging information and scientific evidence on good CLIL practice and specific CLIL training for teachers. |


III.1 The contribution of language skills to the competitiveness of the EU economy

The European Union is developing a highly competitive economy. Intercultural communication skills are assuming an ever-larger role in global marketing and sales strategies. To trade with companies in other Member States, European businesses need skills in the languages of the European Union as well as in the languages of our other trading partners around the globe. This is particularly true for medium-sized, high-growth, job-creating companies which are the main drivers for innovation, employment and social and local integration in the Union. However, there is some evidence that European companies lose business because they cannot speak their customers’ languages.[26]

For the Single Market to be effective, the Union needs a more mobile workforce. Skills in several languages increase opportunities on the labour market, including the freedom to work or study in another Member State. Therefore, the Commission intends to strengthen the follow-up of its 2002 Action Plan on Skills and Mobility.[27]Language skills will be among the issues addressed during the European Year of Workers’ Mobility in 2006.

III.2 Multilingualism and consumers

In the Single Market, customers can choose from a wide variety of products from all Member States, which brings them into contact with products from other language communities. To protect consumers’ interests, there are regulations concerning the languages used on the packaging of such products. Labelling should provide clear, accurate information in a language easily understood by the consumer and must not mislead the purchaser to a material degree[28]. The recently adopted Unfair Commercial Practices Directive[29] strengthens safeguards concerning the language used in after-sales service.

III.3 Multilingualism in the information society

In Europe’s information society, linguistic diversity is a fact of life. Web TV, online music, and movies on mobile phones are a reality for European businesses and citizens, emphasising the importance of being able to access and use information in a number of languages.

The Commission is working to promote multilingualism as part of the i2010 initiative to foster growth and jobs in the information society and media industries. The first task is to create "a single European Information Space, offering rich and diverse content and digital services”. Several European Union programmes[30] support the creation and circulation of multilingual European content and knowledge.

A multilingual information society requires the deployment of standardised and interoperable language resources (dictionaries, terminology, text corpora, etc.) and applications for all languages, including the less widely used languages of the Union. European Commission programmes have encouraged coordination and standardisation efforts in this area by supporting professional networks and platforms. The Commission has established a science and technology forum on multilingualism which comprises experts from industry, academia and policy-making bodies.

III.4 The language-related professions and industries

Whilst there is some evidence that the language industry in Europe, and its employment potential, are growing, there is as yet no organisation capable of developing standards for this sector or providing reliable data about its size.[31]

The language-related industries include translation, editing, proofreading, précis-writing, interpreting, terminology, language technologies (speech processing, voice recognition and synthesis), language training, language teaching, language certification and testing and research. These industries are rapidly evolving in most European countries. Furthermore, the language professions are becoming less clearly defined, with linguists, translators or interpreters being called upon to do a range of multifaceted jobs that involve language expertise. Some universities are putting on specialist courses in “Language industries”. A good command of foreign languages is also necessary for sales, logistics, subtitling, public relations, marketing, communication, cinema, advertising, journalism, banking, tourism and publishing. Training programmes in higher education and elsewhere need to be continuously updated to ensure that students acquire the right skills, are offered the right tools and are given insight into real working conditions.

III.5 Translation services

The markets for translation services in the Member States are extensive, providing services to international organisations, governments, public authorities, the courts, the business sector, publishers, the media and the advertising and entertainment industries.

There are numerous developments in translation-related technology, especially translation memories and machine-aided translation, speech processing, multilingual document management and web content localisation. Multilingual websites are growing in number and offer such services as on-line translation, e-mail translation, dictionaries and banks of unusual characters. Major search engines offer free translations of web information and account for many millions of translated pages per day; all major web portals are investing in improved multilingual services.

The increased use being made of on-line machine translation demonstrates that an essentially mechanical function of that kind cannot replace the thought processes of a human translator, and thus emphasises the importance of translation quality. Developments such as the “European Standard for Translation Services”[32]should give clients a higher level of quality assurance and traceability.

III.6 Interpretation services

Demand for trained interpreters is increasing in an expanding market.[33]Supranational institutions like the EU and the UN employ large numbers of conference interpreters, both staff and freelance, all trained at graduate or postgraduate level, with international benchmarking. Interpreters also help the institutions of multilingual societies to function. They support immigrant communities in courts, hospitals, police and immigration services. Properly trained, interpreters thus contribute to safeguarding human and democratic rights.

III.7 Language teaching, testing and certification

Though the picture varies from country to country, language teaching and training - and hence language testing and certification - are growth industries in many Member States. For example, the 2005 budget of the British Council alone is around €750 million; the income of the Alliance Française from language classes in 2004 was around €110 million; Berlitz’s turnover in 2004 was over €279 million.

Language certification has become such big business that consumers have difficulty choosing the most appropriate courses and certificates available on the market. The Commission wishes to contribute to making this supply more transparent by publishing on the web an inventory of the systems currently available.

III.8 Action for the multilingual economy

The Commission will: publish a study on the impact on the European economy of shortages of language skills in 2006; publish on the web an inventory of the language certification systems available in the European Union in 2006; launch a study on the potential for greater use of sub-titles in film and television programmes to promote language learning; publish the inter-institutional, multilingual database IATE (Inter-Agency Terminology Exchange) as a service to anyone needing validated terms from EU-related contexts; organise a conference on translator training in universities, in 2006; Launch under i2010 a flagship initiative on digital libraries making multimedia sources easier and more interesting to use, and building on Europe’s rich heritage combining multicultural and multilingual environments,[34] and Bring together and coordinate the work of European research teams in the fields of human language technologies, machine translation, and the creation of language resources such as dictionaries and thesauri, and set technical challenges specific to the European context (such as the focus on the quality of multilingual applications and machine translation systems). |

Member States are invited to: review training programmes at universities to ensure that they equip students in the language professions with the right skills for rapidly changing working conditions. |


IV.1 Accessibility and transparency

The European Union adopts legislation which is directly binding on its citizens. It is therefore a prerequisite for the Union’s democratic legitimacy and transparency that citizens should be able to communicate with its Institutions and read EU law in their own national language, and take part in the European project without encountering any language barriers. The very first Regulation adopted by the Council[35] therefore defines the European Community as a multilingual entity, stipulates that legislation must be published in the official languages and requires its institutions to deal with citizens in the official languages of their choice. In the interests of equity and transparency, the Union maintains a substantial online public service giving access to the law and jurisprudence of the Union; this is the EUR-Lex service, which is fully multilingual and covers all 20 official languages[36].

IV.2 Multilingualism makes the EU special

Specialist linguists in the field of translation and interpretation guarantee cost-effective communication and make decision-making democratic and transparent. Interpreters enable delegates to defend their countries’ interests in their own language(s), and to communicate with other delegates. In this way, citizens can be represented by their best experts, who may not be the best linguists. Similarly, the translation and interpretation services ensure that the European and national institutions can effectively exercise their right of democratic scrutiny. Translators and interpreters guarantee that citizens can communicate with the Institutions and have access to decisions in their national language(s).

The EU institutions must strike a balance between the costs and the benefits of being multilingual. The translation and interpreting services of all institutions together cost the equivalent of 1.05% of the EU’s total budget for 2004, or €2.28 per citizen per year. For this price, all citizens get universal access to all EU legislation and the right to communicate, contribute and be informed.

The system that makes multilingualism function in the European Union does, of course, have a cost attached; but, without it, a democratic and transparent European Union is simply not possible.

With proper planning, foresight and allocation of the required resources, the EU could in the future operate in yet more official languages, with the help, for example, of new technologies and by exploiting economies of scale to the maximum.

IV.3 Action for multilingualism in the Commission’s relations with citizens

Over the past ten years, the Commission has developed several multilingual initiatives ( Citizens First , Dialogue with Citizens, Your Europe - Citizens and the Citizens Signpost Service) to help citizens understand how European legislation affects them, what their rights are when they move to another country and how they can exercise their rights in practice.[37]

The Commission proposes to build on these initiatives by establishing a pro-active multilingual communication policy, complementing through practical action the Commission’s wider initiative to improve communication with European citizens and specific groups such as journalists, the language industry, schools and universities. The Commission will further enhance its on-line information in the official languages and improve the multilingual nature of its many websites. The advent of web content management technologies will also open up new possibilities for multilingual web publication. Moreover, in order to ensure internal consistency on multilingualism matters, the Commission will set up an internal network.

The Commission will: ensure, through an internal network, that all departments apply its multilingualism policy in a coherent way; continue to foster multilingualism on its Internet portal (Europa) and in its publications; launch a Languages portal on Europa providing information about multilingualism in the European Union and accommodating new portals dedicated to language learners and language teachers; give a greater role to its translation field offices in the Member States in promoting multilingualism, particularly through the customisation of the Commission’s messages for local target audiences; organise high-level seminars on multilingualism in the Member States, targeted at journalists and other opinion multipliers; continue to offer universities grants and teaching assistance in the field of conference interpreting, help develop distance learning tools and fund student bursaries and training visits; continue to develop cost-effective multilingual conferencing and communication tools under the Commission’s project on the interoperable delivery of pan-European e-government services to public administrations, businesses and citizens;[38] support the European Master’s in Conference Interpreting and the European Master’s in Conference Management, thereby enhancing co-operation, pooling expertise and disseminating best practice in these fields; continue to play a full part in the International Annual Meeting on Language Arrangements, Documentation and Publication, a body which discusses new job and skills requirements; continue to provide universities with a model curriculum of a Master’s degree in translation and supply visiting translators to help train students in translation; and organise an international translation competition between schools in Member States, to promote language knowledge and the language professions. |


Multilingualism is essential for the proper functioning of the European Union. Increasing citizens' language skills will be equally important in achieving European policy goals, particularly against a background of increasing global competition and the challenge of better exploiting Europe's potential for sustainable growth and more and better jobs. Aware of its own responsibilities and of those of the other Institutions, the Commission considers that the situation can and must improve and therefore urges Member States to take additional measures to promote widespread individual multilingualism and to foster a society that respects all citizens’ linguistic identities.

The Commission has already invited Member States to report in 2007 on the actions they have taken towards the objectives of the Action Plan 'Promoting Language Learning and Linguistic Diversity'. This Communication highlights further steps that are necessary if Member States are to achieve the objectives they have set themselves, and the Commission invites Member States to report also on the actions they have taken on the key areas outlined in this Communication in 2007.

The Commission will set up a High Level Group on Multilingualism, made up of independent experts, to assist it in analysing the progress made by Member States, and to provide support and advice in developing initiatives, as well as fresh impetus and ideas. A ministerial conference on multilingualism will be held to allow Member States to share the progress they have made so far, and to plan future work. On the basis of Member States’ reports and the advice of the High Level Group, the Commission will present a further communication to Parliament and the Council, proposing a comprehensive approach to multilingualism in the European Union. |

- Annex[39]

Languages most commonly used in the European Union: %.


Ability to hold a conversation in a foreign language



1. NAME OF THE PROPOSAL: Commission Communication ‘A new framework strategy for multilingualism’


This proposal concerns several policy areas and associated activities:

DG EAC: Culture and languages

DG SCIC: Interpretation and linked activities.

DGT: aaaaaaaCommission’s administration: Administrative expenditure of Commission’s aaaaaaaaaaaaaadministration policy area

DG INFSO: RTD on Information Society and eEurope.


3.1 Budget lines (operational lines and related technical and administrative assistance lines (ex- B..A lines)) including headings :

DG EAC Socrates Leonardo da Vinci

From 2007, the budget line corresponding to the Lifelong Learning programme, for which the Commission adopted proposals in July 2004.


26.010211.Autres dépenses de gestion du domaine politique administration de la commission

26.010700 Inter-institutional cooperation activities in the language field


XX01021107: Actions de formation et de perfectionnement des interprètes

XX01021102: reunions and conferences organised


09.04 "RTD on Information Society"

09.03 "eEurope"

3.2 Duration of the action and of the financial impact:

2005 and following years: the activities have different starting points and are of different durations. Some, such as the proposed European Indicator of Language Competence are designed to be permanent and should therefore be seen as open-ended; others, such as studies or conferences or projects funded under cooperation programmes are, by their nature limited to less than three years.


4.1 Financial Resources

4.1.1 Summary of commitment appropriations (CA) and payment appropriations (PA)

EUR million (to 3 decimal places)

Expenditure type | Section no. | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 and later | Total |

Operational expenditure[40] |

Commitment Appropriations (CA) |

promote discussion and bring forward a Recommendation on ways of bringing language teacher education up to date; | See (**) |

publish an inventory of the language certification systems available in the European Union in 2006; | 0.2 | 0.2 See (**) |

continue to support the teaching and learning of languages through its cooperation programmes in the field of education, training, youth, citizenship and culture; | See (**) |

investigate ways to support language diversity networks through the new integrated Lifelong Learning programme; | See (**) |

ministerial conference | 0.15 | 0.15 See (**) |

ensure all departments apply multilingualism policy (via an internal network); phase in a specific multilingualism policy for Europa, the Internet portal and for publications; |

Commitment Appropriations (CA) | a | 0.4 | 0 | 0.19 | 0.08 | 0.12 | 0.16 | 0.95 |

Payment Appropriations (PA) | b | 0.4 | 0 | 0.19 | 0.08 | 0.12 | 0.16 | 0.95 |

Administrative expenditure within reference amount[41] |

Technical & administrative assistance (NDA) |

organise a series of high-level seminars on multilingualism in the Member States, targeted at journalists and other opinion multipliers; | 0.003 | 0.003 See (**) |

international translation competition between schools in Member States | 0.04 | 0.04 See (**) |

establish a High Level Reflection Group on Multilingualism | 0.04 | 0.04 | 0.04 | 0.04 | 0.04 | 0.2 See (**) |

continue to provide universities with a model curriculum of a Master’s degree in translation and provide visiting translators | 0.207 | 0.207 | 0.207 | 0.207 | 0.207 | 0.207 | 1.242 See (**) See (****) |

c | 0.568 | 0.913 | 0.556 | 0.412 | 0.412 | 0.412 | 3.273 |


Commitment Appropriations | a+c | 0.968 | 0.913 | 0.746 | 0.492 | 0.424 | 0.428 | 4.223 |

Payment Appropriations | b+c | 0.968 | 0.913 | 0.746 | 0.492 | 0.424 | 0.428 | 4.223 |

Administrative expenditure not included in reference amount[42] |

Human resources and associated expenditure (NDA) | 8.2.5 | d |

Administrative costs, other than human resources and associated costs, not included in reference amount (NDA) | 8.2.6 | e |

Total indicative financial cost of intervention

(*) La mise sur pied de l'indicateur n'entraînera pas de dépense opérationnelle supplémentaire à charge du budget de l'Union: les dépenses correspondantes seront supportées par les programmes Socrates et Leonardo da Vinci (puis Lifelong Learning) sans augmentation des dotations globales de ces programmes; de là la mention "*" reprise ci-dessus. Pour information, la contribution annuelle de ces programmes au financement de l'indicateur devrait être globalement de l'ordre de € 2,5 Mio.

(**) The implementation of this item will involve no additional operational expenditure to the Union budget. The relevant costs will be met from within existing programmes or their successors without increasing the global allocations to these programmes.

(***) The implementation of this item will involve no additional operational expenditure to the Union budget. The relevant costs will be met from within existing Research programmes or their successors (eContent plus Programme / proposed specific Programmes 2007-2013 implementing FP7) without increasing the global allocations to these programmes.

(****)The cost of €207 000 per year charged to the mission budget relates solely to the provision of visiting translators (where DGT translators will be on a one months mission to universities).

(°) This expenditure for 2005 and 2006 relates to the assistance of IT specialists in the technical design and development of the web-portal. The content of the portal will be managed by Commission staff.

TOTAL CA including cost of Human Resources | a+c+d+e |

TOTAL PA including cost of Human Resources | b+c+d+e |

Co-financing details

None. There will be no co-financing of the actions proposed.

4.1.2 Compatibility with Financial Programming

( Proposal is compatible with existing financial programming.

For the 2007 and subsequent budgets, the appropriations will be subject to the approval of the financial perspective for 2007-2013 and the resulting multiannual financial programming.

( Proposal will entail reprogramming of the relevant heading in the financial perspective.

( Proposal may require application of the provisions of the Interinstitutional Agreement[43] (i.e. flexibility instrument or revision of the financial perspective).

4.1.3. Financial impact on Revenue

( Proposal has no financial implications on revenue

( Proposal has financial impact – the effect on revenue is as follows:

NB: All details and observations relating to the method of calculating the effect on revenue should be shown in a separate annex.

4.2. Human Resources FTE (including officials, temporary and external staff) – see detail under point 8.2.1.

Annual requirements Total number of human resources: | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 and later |

EAC | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 see (i) |

DGT | 22.6 | 80.2 | 80 | 80 | 80 | 80 see (ii) |



Total | 22.6 | 81.2 | 81 | 81 | 81 | 81 |

Notes :

(i) These proposals involve the recruitment of 1 additional FTE at grade A* [as set out in COM (2005) 356]

(ii) All other staff referred to in the table above are internal redeployments within existing staff allocations.


Details of the context of the proposal are required in the Explanatory Memorandum. This section of the Financial Statement should include the following specific complementary information:

5.1. Need to be met in the short or long term

The Communication identifies a series of needs in the field of Multilingualism in European Union society, economy and Institutions.

5.2. Value-added of Community involvement and coherence of the proposal with other financial instruments and possible synergy

The added-value is provided by the Commission taking the lead in identifying areas in which action needs to be taken, and proposing action either by Member States or by the Commission, in pursuit of objectives that will benefit the whole Union.

5.3. Objectives, expected results and related indicators of the proposal in the context of the ABM framework

The main objectives are: an improvement in the extent to which citizens are multilingual; a better understanding of the role of multilingualism in the European Union economy and a more coherent approach to multilingualism in the relations between the Commission and citizens.

A review of progress towards these objectives is proposed for 2007.

5.4 Method of Implementation (indicative)

Show below the method(s)[44] chosen for the implementation of the action.

( Centralised Management

aaaaaa( Directly by the Commission

aaaaaa( Indirectly by delegation to:

aaaaaaaaaaaa(aaaaaaExecutive Agencies

aaaaaaaaaaaa(aaaaaaBodies set up by the Communities as referred to in art. 185 of the aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaFinancial Regulation

aaaaaaaaaaaa(aaaaaaNational public-sector bodies/bodies with public-service mission

( Shared or decentralised management

aaaaaa(aaaaaWith Member states

aaaaaa(aaaaaWith Third countries

( Joint management with international organisations (please specify)

Relevant comments:


6.1. Monitoring system

The actions referred to in this Communication will be monitored by means of the systems already in operation for the programmes and budgets lines to which they relate.

6.2. Evaluation

6.2.1. Ex-ante evaluation

No ex-ante evaluation has taken place. The Communication is, of its nature, an assessment of the current state in key aspects of multilingualism.

6.2.2. Measures taken following an intermediate/ex-post evaluation (lessons learned from similar experiences in the past)


6.2.3. Terms and frequency of future evaluation

see 6.1.


The anti-fraud measures for the actions referred to in this Communication will be the same as those already in operation for the programmes and budgets lines to which they relate.


8.1. Objectives of the proposal in terms of their financial cost

Commitment appropriations in EUR million (to 3 decimal places)


The needs for human and administrative resources shall be covered within the allocation granted to the managing DG in the framework of the annual allocation procedure.

(i) These proposals involve the recruitment of 1 additional FTE [as set out in COM (2005) 356]

(ii) All other staff referred to in the table above are internal redeployments within existing staff allocations. It should be noted that one option for resourcing the proposed Multilingualism network would involve the redeployment of 23 existing A* staff from DGT to other DGs. The individuals would be seconded to the other DGs, but their posts would remain with DGT. These redeployments are included in this table.

8.2.2. Description of tasks deriving from the action

8.2.3. Sources of human resources (statutory)

(When more than one source is stated, please indicate the number of posts originating from each of the sources)

( Posts currently allocated to the management of the programme to be replaced or extended

( Posts pre-allocated within the APS/PDB exercise for year n

( Posts to be requested in the next APS/PDB procedure

( Posts to be redeployed using existing resources within the managing service (internal redeployment)

( Posts required for year n although not foreseen in the APS/PDB exercise of the year in question

8.2.4. Other Administrative expenditure included in reference amount (XX 01 04/05 – Expenditure on administrative management)

EUR million (to 3 decimal places)

Budget line (number and heading) | Year n | Year n+1 | Year n+2 | Year n+3 | Year n+4 | Year n+5 and later | TOTAL |

Other technical and administrative assistance |

- intra muros |

- extra muros |

Total Technical and administrative assistance |

8.2.5. Financial cost of human resources and associated costs not included in the reference amount

EUR million (to 3 decimal places)

Type of human resources | Year n | Year n+1 | Year n+2 | Year n+3 | Year n+4 | Year n+5 and later |

Officials and temporary staff (XX 01 01) |

Staff financed by Art XX 01 02 (auxiliary, END, contract staff, etc.) (specify budget line) |

Total cost of Human Resources and associated costs (NOT in reference amount) |

Calculation– Officials and Temporary agents

Reference should be made to Point 8.2.1, if applicable

Calculation– Staff financed under art. XX 01 02

Reference should be made to Point 8.2.1, if applicable

8.2.6. Other administrative expenditure not included in reference amount

EUR million (to 3 decimal places) |

XX 01 02 11 02 – Meetings & Conferences continue to play a full part in the International Annual Meeting on Language arrangements, documentation and publication | 0.01 | 0.01 | 0.01 | 0.01 | 0.01 | 0.01 | 0.06 |

XX 01 02 11 03 – Committees[49] |

XX 01 02 11 04 – Studies & consultations |

XX 01 02 11 05 - Information systems |

XX01021107 Actions de formation et de perfectionnement des interprètes |

offer universities grants and teaching assistance in the domain of conference interpreting, help develop distance learning tools and fund student bursaries and training visits; | 0.935 | 0.935 | 0.935 | 0.935 | 0.935 | 0.935 | 5.61 |

support the European Master’s in Conference Interpreting and Conference Management | 0.082 | 0.082 | 0.082 | 0.082 | 0.082 | 0.082 | 4.92 |

2 Total Other Management Expenditure (XX 01 02 11) | 1.027 | 1.027 | 1.027 | 1.027 | 1.027 | 1.027 | 10.59 |

3 Other expenditure of an administrative nature (specify including reference to budget line) |

Total Administrative expenditure, other than human resources and associated costs (NOT included in reference amount) |

Calculation - Other administrative expenditure not included in reference amount

[1] 21 with the inclusion of Irish from 2007; 23 when Bulgarian and Romanian are added.

[2] See the Euromosaic study at

[3] Official Journal C 364, 18.12.2000, p. 1.

[4] See the Resolution of the European Parliament and the Council concerning the European Year of Languages 2001 (1934/2000) of 17/07/2000.

[5] Understanding of other cultures comes from learning the languages that give expression to those cultures; that is why the Commission does not promote the use of artificial languages which, by definition, have no cultural references.

[6] Barcelona European Council, 15 and 16 March 2002, Presidency Conclusions, part I, 43.1.

[7] COM (2003)449: Promoting Language Learning and Linguistic Diversity: an Action Plan 2004 – 2006 ; COM (1995)590: White Paper ‘Teaching and Learning’

[8] Eurobarometer 63.4

[9] Key data on teaching languages at school in Europe , Eurydice, 2005, ISBN 92 894 8681-3.

[10] COM(2003)449

[11] COM(2003)449




[15] Feasibility Study concerning the Creation of a European Agency for Linguistic Diversity and Language Learning, Final Report, May 2005;

[16] COM (2005) 24 of 02 02 2005.


[18] The Group of Experts on Languages was established in the framework of the Education and Training 2010 process and comprises one expert nominated by most Member States.

[19] The most recent report is available at:

[20] European Profile for Language Teacher Education – A Frame of Reference by Michael Kelly, Michael Grenfell et al., Southampton University, UK

[21] Key Data on Teaching Languages at School in Europe , Op cit.

[22] COM(2003)449

[23] COM(2005)356

[24] These plans should be based upon Integrated Guideline N° 23 and form part of the national plans that Member States are producing in the context of the Lisbon Action Plan for growth and jobs. (

[25] European Profile for Language Teacher Education – A Frame of Reference

[26] E.g.: the study by CILT, the UK national language centre, released in 2005:

[27] COM(2002)72 final.

[28] Article 16 (1) of Directive 2000/13/EC of the Parliament and of the Council of 20 March 2000 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the labelling, presentation and advertising of foodstuffs, Official Journal 109, 6.5.2000, p. 29; Communication of 10 November 1993 concerning language use in the information of consumers in the Community: COM (1993)456 final.

[29] 2005/29/EC

[30] eContent, eContent plus, Media and eLearning

[31] However, it has been estimated that the world’s top 20 companies providing translation services employ over 10 000 people and have an annual revenue of over €1 200 million; around two fifths of this activity is estimated to take place in the European Union.(see

[32] Translation services — Service requirements, document WI CSA07001, prepared by the Technical Committee CEN/BTTF 138.

[33] The International Association of Conference Interpreters has around 3 000 individual members, of whom around half are in the European Union.

[34] COM (2005) 229 and 465

[35] No 1 of 1958, determining the languages to be used by the European Economic Community.




[39] Eurobarometer Report 63.4;

[40] Expenditure that does not fall under Chapter xx 01 of the Title xx concerned.

[41] Expenditure within article xx 01 04 of Title xx.

[42] Expenditure within chapter xx 01 other than articles xx 01 04 or xx 01 05.

[43] See points 19 and 24 of the Interinstitutional agreement.

[44] If more than one method is indicated please provide additional details in the "Relevant comments" section of this point

[45] As described under Section 5.3

[46] Cost of which is NOT covered by the reference amount

[47] Cost of which is NOT covered by the reference amount

[48] Cost of which is included within the reference amount

[49] Specify the type of committee and the group to which it belongs.