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EU Action Plan on Drugs 2017-2020

OJ C 215, 5.7.2017, p. 21–58 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)
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  • Date of document: 05/07/2017; Date of publication
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  • Author: Council of the European Union
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5.7.2017   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

C 215/21


EU ACTION PLAN ON DRUGS 2017-2020

(2017/C 215/02)

CONTENTS

Introduction

1.

Drug demand reduction

2.

Drug supply reduction

3.

Coordination

4.

International cooperation

5.

Information, research, monitoring and evaluation

ANNEX I — 15 over-arching indicators for the EU Action Plan on Drugs 2017-2020

ANNEX II — Glossary of acronyms

Introduction

The use of illicit drugs and the misuse of drugs generally, is a major problem for individuals, families and communities across Europe. Apart from the health and social implications of drug misuse, the illicit drugs market constitutes a major element of criminal activity across European society and, indeed, on a global level.

In December 2012, the Council adopted the EU Drugs Strategy for 2013-2020. The Strategy aims to contribute to a reduction in drug demand and drug supply within the EU. It also aims to reduce the health and social risks and harms caused by drugs through a strategic approach that supports and complements national policies, that provides a framework for coordinated and joint actions and that forms the basis and political framework for EU external cooperation in this field. This will be achieved through an integrated, balanced and evidence-based approach.

The objectives of the Strategy are:

to contribute to a measurable reduction of the demand for drugs, of drug dependence and of drug-related health and social risks and harms,

to contribute to a disruption of the illicit drugs market and a measurable reduction of the availability of illicit drugs,

to encourage coordination through active discourse and analysis of developments and challenges in the field of drugs at EU and international level,

to further strengthen dialogue and cooperation between the EU and third countries, international organisations and fora on drug issues,

to contribute to a better dissemination of monitoring, research and evaluation results and a better understanding of all aspects of the drugs phenomenon and of the impact of interventions in order to provide a sound and comprehensive evidence base for policies and actions.

This EU Drugs Action Plan, like the EU Drugs Strategy, is based on the fundamental principles of EU law and it upholds the founding values of the Union — respect for human dignity, liberty, democracy, equality, solidarity, the rule of law and human rights. It is also based on the UN Conventions that provide the international legal framework to address, inter alia, the use of illicit drugs, as well as on the Universal Declaration on Human Rights.

The Plan sets out the Actions that will be implemented to achieve the objectives of the Strategy. Actions are set out under the two policy areas of the Strategy:

drug demand reduction, and

drug supply reduction,

and the three cross-cutting themes of the Strategy:

coordination,

international cooperation, and

information, research, monitoring and evaluation.

Actions are aligned to objectives of the EU Drugs Strategy 2013-2020. In drawing up the actions, account was taken of the need to be evidence-based, scientifically sound, realistic, time-bound, available and measurable with a clear EU relevance and added value. This Action Plan indicates timetables, responsible parties, indicators and data collection/assessment mechanisms.

Based on existing reporting mechanisms, a number of over-arching indicators are set out in Annex I. These facilitate the measurement of the overall effectiveness of this EU Drugs Action Plan and do not involve an additional reporting burden. A number of these are referenced, as appropriate, across the Plan. Furthermore, throughout the Plan, indicators are set out that draw on programme, evaluative and other data sources. Utilisation of these indicators is dependent on data collection processes in each Member State or at EU institution level.

In line with the Strategy stipulation that its detailed implementation should be set out in two consecutive Action Plans, the first Action Plan implementing the current drugs strategy was adopted in 2013 and expired in 2016. In 2016, an external mid-term assessment of the EU Drugs Strategy and the implementation of the EU Drugs Action Plan 2013-2016 was completed. The evaluation concluded that most of the actions foreseen in this Action Plan were concluded or in progress. The results of the evaluation also demonstrated the need for the second Action Plan to implement the EU Drugs Strategy 2013-2020, which should be the updated version of the EU Action Plan on Drugs 2013-2016. The EU Drugs Action Plan 2017-2020 as provided below takes into account the results of this evaluation and the major changes in drug situation and policies since the adoption of the last Action Plan.

1.   Drug demand reduction

Contribute to a measurable reduction in the use of illicit drugs, in problem drug use, in drug dependence and in drug-related health and social harms as well as contributing to a delay in the onset of drug use

Objective

Action

Timetable

Responsible party

Indicator(s)

Data collection/assessment mechanisms

1.

Prevent drug use and, secondly, delay the onset of drug use

1.

Improve the availability and effectiveness of evidence-based (1) prevention measures that take account of risk and protective factors as outlined below

a.

population factors such as age; gender; education, cultural and social factors;

b.

situational factors such as homelessness; migration and asylum seeking, drug use in nightlife and recreational settings; the workplace; and driving under the influence of drugs; and

c.

individual factors such as mental health; behaviour and psychosocial development; and other factors known to affect individual vulnerability to drug use such as genetic influences and family circumstances

Ongoing

MS

Over-arching indicators 1, 11, 12

Availability and level of provision at MS level of evidence-based universal and environmental prevention measures

Availability and level of provision at MS level of evidence-based targeted prevention measures, including family and community based measures

Availability and level of provision at MS level of evidence-based indicated prevention measures

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package

MS reporting on results of measures

 

2.

In addition to the prevention of drug use, strengthen and better target prevention and diversionary measures to delay the age of first use of illicit drugs and other psychoactive substances

Ongoing

MS

Over-arching indicators 1, 5, 11, 12

Availability and level of provision at MS level of evidence-based prevention and diversionary measures that target young people in family, community, and formal/non-formal education settings

EMCDDA Reporting

MS reporting on results of measures

 

3.

Exchange of best practices of all forms of prevention actions targeting children and young people, parents and, educational environments whilst also taking into account gender-specific needs, including educational activities, community based programmes, programmes using internet and social media.

Ongoing

MS

EMCDDA

Overview of exchanges of best practices between MS

Positive evaluations of behavioural outcomes of best practice interventions (where available)

EMCDDA Best Practice portal

COM Reporting

MS Reporting

Civil Society Forum on Drugs reporting

 

4.

Raise awareness of the risks and consequences associated with the use of illicit drugs and other psychoactive substances and improve skills and competences for preventing drug use.

Ongoing

MS

COM

EMCDDA

Over-arching indicators 5, 12

Level of awareness in general and youth populations of healthy lifestyles and of the risks and consequences of the use of illicit drugs and other psychoactive substances and level of the skills and competences of those involved in the prevention of drug use

EMCDDA Reporting

Eurobaro-meter surveys

ESPAD

HBSC/WHO Europe

 

5.

Enable a more informed response to the challenge of the misuse of psychoactive medicines.

2017-2020

MS

Council WP (HDG Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices)

EMA

EMCDDA

Number of initiatives that focus on the promotion of appropriate use of psychoactive medicines

Collation of evidence and international examples on how to reduce the risks of diversion and misuse of psychoactive medicines

Number of courses for medical practitioners and other health care professionals in the use of medication to control pain and treat suffering

MS Reporting

EMCDDA

Reporting EMA

2.

Enhance the effectiveness of drug treatment and rehabilitation, including services for people with co-morbidity, to reduce the use of illicit drugs; problem drug use; the incidence of drug dependency and drug-related health and social risks and harms and to support the recovery and social re/integration of problematic and dependent drug users.

6.

Develop and expand the diversity, availability, coverage and accessibility of evidence-based comprehensive and integrated treatment services. Ensure that these services address polydrug use (combined use of illicit and licit substances including psychoactive medicines, alcohol and tobacco) and the emerging needs of the ageing drug-using population and gender-specific issues.

a.

Implement and improve training for health care and social care professionals in addictive behaviours.

b.

Develop and implement early detection and intervention, brief intervention and treatment programmes for children and young people using drugs.

Ongoing

MS

Over-arching indicators 1, 6, 11

Extent and diversity of evidence-based comprehensive and integrated treatment services at MS level including those which address polydrug use and the needs of the ageing drug-using population

MS data on treatment retention and outcomes

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package

EMCDDA Best Practice Portal

EU Drugs Strategy and Action Plan final evaluation

MS Reporting

 

7.

Expand the provision of rehabilitation/reintegration and recovery services with an emphasis on services that:

a.

focus on providing a continuum of care through case management and interagency collaboration for individuals;

b.

focus on supporting the social re/integration (including the employability and housing) of problem and dependent drug users including prisoners and ageing drug users, where relevant;

c.

Strengthen the diagnostic process and the treatment of psychiatric and physical co- morbidity involving drug use, for e.g. with rapid testing for hepatitis B and C and HIV as well as other sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis;

d.

take account of gender-specific needs; and

e.

reach out to vulnerable communities/populations.

Ongoing

MS

Over-arching indicator 11

MS data on:

Extent of increase in rehabilitation/reintegration and recovery services adopting case management and inter-agency approaches

Extent of increase in the number of gender specific rehabilitation/reintegration and recovery programmes

Extent of increase in the number of community care and prison programmes, specifically targeted at drug users with co-morbidity, involving partnerships between both mental health and drug rehabilitation/reintegration and recovery services

Level and duration of abstentions from consumption of illicit and/or licit drugs by people leaving drug treatment

Availability of treatment options to meet needs of people who experience relapses to drug use and of ageing drug users

EMCDDA Reporting

MS Reporting on results of services

 

8.

a.

Scale up where applicable, availability, coverage and access to risk and harm reduction services e.g. needle and syringe exchange programmes, opioid substitution treatment, opioid overdose management programmes, to lessen the negative consequences of drug use and to prevent and to substantially reduce the number of direct and indirect drug-related deaths and infectious blood-borne diseases associated with drug use but not limited to HIV and viral hepatitis, as well as sexually transmittable diseases and tuberculosis in accordance with the WHO recommendation on the comprehensive package of health services for people who inject drugs

b.

Better prevent drug related deaths according to national circumstances as for example in the case of opiates, by providing access to authorised pharmaceutical dosage forms of medicinal products containing naloxone specifically certified to treat opioid overdose symptoms by trained laypersons in the absence of medical professionals

c.

Identify and overcome barriers in detection and access to treatment for HIV and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs, including prisoners and other vulnerable groups

d.

Exchange of information and where applicable best practice on risk and harm reduction measures such as, needle and syringe exchange programmes, opioid substitution treatment, drug consumption rooms, naloxone programmes, peer-based interventions, outreach treatment programmes, hepatitis C treatment, pill testing, self-testing for HIV/AIDS, in accordance with national legislation

Ongoing

MS

EMCDDA

COM

Over-arching indicators 2, 3, 4, 11

Extent of increased availability of and access to evidence-based risk and harm reduction measures in MS where applicable

Overview of exchanges of best practices on risk and harm reduction measures

Number of MS reaching the WHO recommendation on the comprehensive package of health services for people who inject drugs:

Needle/Syringe programmes

Opioid substitution treatment

HIV testing and counselling

HIV treatment and care

Condom programmes

Behavioural interventions

Prevention and management of hepatitis, tuberculosis and mental health

Sexual reproductive health interventions

Naloxone training for laypersons as an irreplaceable prerequisite for safe take-home programmes

Coverage of opioid substitution treatment programmes among people with opioid dependence

The extent of availability, where applicable, of harm reduction services such as naloxone programmes, nightlife harm reduction measures and programmes targeting vulnerable communities/populations

Number of programmes facilitating the access of people who inject drugs into treatment for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and people covered

Degree of implementation of ECDC/EMCDDA guidance on prevention and control of infectious diseases among people injecting drugs

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package

MS Reporting

Civil Society Forum on Drugs

Civil Society Forum on HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and Tuberculosis

 

9.

Scale up the development, availability and coverage of health care measures for drug users in prison and after release with the aim of achieving a quality of care equivalent to that provided in the community

Ongoing

MS

Over-arching indicator 10

Availability of services for drug users in prisons (such as opioid substitution treatment and if applicable, naloxone programmes and needle and syringe exchange programmes in accordance with national legislation and prevention and management of HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and TB) and the extent to which prison health care policies and practices incorporate care models comprising best practices in needs assessment and continuity of care for prisoners during imprisonment

Extent to which prison based services and community based services provide continuity of care for prisoners upon release with particular emphasis on avoiding drug overdoses

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package

MS Reporting on services

3.

Embed coordinated, best practice and quality approaches in drug demand reduction

10.

Implement the EU minimum quality standards adopted by the Council in 2015 (2) that help bridge the gap between science and practice, for:

a.

environmental, universal, selective and indicated prevention measures;

b.

early detection and intervention measures;

c.

risk and harm reduction measures; and

d.

treatment, rehabilitation, social integration and recovery measures

and monitor their implementation.

2017-2020

Council

Council WP (HDG)

MS

COM

EMCDDA

Evidence review of drug demand reduction measures and programmes implemented in accordance with the standards;

Number of specialist training programmes available for practitioners in drug demand reduction and/or estimated number of practitioners reached by specialist training programmes;

Involvement of civil society in the implementation of the standards, including in planning and introduction

Number of projects and programmes supported at EU level that promote the exchange of best practices in the implementation of these standards

Engagement in inter-ministerial cooperation to support implementation of these standards.

EMCDDA Best Practice Portal

MS Reporting

EU Drugs Strategy and Action Plan final evaluation

2.   Drug supply reduction

Contribute to a measurable reduction of the availability and supply of illicit drugs in the EU

Objective

Action

Timetable

Responsible party

Indicator(s)

Data collection/assessment mechanisms

4.

Enhance effective law enforcement coordination and cooperation within the EU to counter illicit drug activity, in coherence, as appropriate, with relevant actions determined through the EU policy cycle

11.

Utilise to best effect available intelligence and information sharing law enforcement instruments, channels and communication tools used to collate and analyse drug-related information

Ongoing

MS

Europol

Eurojust

Council WP (COSI)

Over-arching indicator 7, 15

Extent of high impact intelligence led and targeted activities, of joint operations, joint investigation teams and cross border cooperation initiatives focusing on criminal organisations engaged in illicit drug activity

Increased use of drug-related information-sharing, analysis and expert systems of Europol or other law enforcement authorities

Results achieved from EMPACT projects and bilateral and multilateral initiatives

Number of drug-related cases referred to Eurojust and Europol, including qualitative, contextual information about the cases

Europol Reporting

Eurojust Reporting

EMCDDA Reporting

EMPACT Driver Reports

 

12.

Identify and prioritise the most pressing threats associated with drug-related organised crime

2017

Council

Council WP (COSI)

Europol

MS

COM

EU Policy Cycle for organised and serious international crime for the period 2018-2021 in place

EU SOCTA

Multi-annual Strategic Plans (MASPs)

Operational Plans

EMPACT Driver Reports

Europol Reporting

 

13.

Strengthen CEPOL's training for law enforcement officers in relation to illicit drug production, trafficking and financial crime, particularly training methods and techniques

a.

to address the use of new communication technologies in illicit drug production and trafficking;

b.

to enhance asset confiscation;

c.

to counter money laundering;

d.

to detect and dismantle illicit clandestine laboratories and cannabis cultivation sites.

2017-2020

MS

CEPOL

Europol

Council WP (COSI)

COM

Training needs assessment carried out regularly

Availability and uptake of relevant training courses

Number of law enforcement officers trained and effectively deployed as a result

CEPOL Annual Report

CEPOL Curricula

EMPACT Driver Reports

 

14.

Improve counter-narcotic activities through strengthening and monitoring the effectiveness of regional information-sharing platforms and regional security-sharing platforms with the aim of disrupting and suppressing emerging threats from changing drug trafficking routes

Ongoing

COM

MS

Europol

Council WP (COSI)

Regional Information-Sharing Platforms

Regional Security-Sharing Platforms

Over-arching indicator 7

Number of intelligence-led activities leading to the disruption and suppression of drug trafficking routes

Level of information sharing through effective activity of the liaison officer network

Security/Information -sharing Platforms and Evaluation Reports

EMCDDA Reporting

EU SOCTA

EMPACT Driver Reports

Europol Reporting

MAOC(N) (3)

 

15.

Strengthen actions to prevent the diversion of drug precursors and pre-precursors for use in the illicit manufacture of drugs

Ongoing

MS

Europol

COM

Council WP (CUG

COSI)

Number of cases and quantity of stopped or seized shipments of precursors intended for illicit use

Results achieved from EMPACT projects

Use of Pre-Export Notification (PEN) Online System and increased use of the Precursors Incident Communication System (PICS)

Number of joint follow-up meetings and other activities linked to the prevention of the diversion of precursors and pre-precursors

Reports from EU and MS Law Enforcement Agencies

EMPACT

Driver Reports

Europol Reporting

 

16.

Counter cross-border drug trafficking, including through container and parcel shipments, and improve border security notably at EU seaports, airports and land border crossing points through intensified efforts, including information and intelligence sharing, by relevant law enforcement authorities

Ongoing

MS

Europol

Council WP

(CCWP

COSI)

Number of multi-disciplinary/multi-agency joint operations and cross border cooperation initiatives

Intensified information exchange for example such as Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) agreed between law enforcement authorities and relevant bodies such as airlines, air express couriers, shipping companies, harbour authorities and chemical companies

Results achieved from EMPACT projects

Improved intelligence and information sharing on cross-border drug trafficking utilising, inter alia, available border surveillance systems

Implementation of the EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) directive

EMPACT Driver Reports

Europol Reporting

Reports from the CCWP

MS Reporting

MAOC(N)

Frontex

 

17.

Implement the key indicators on drug supply reduction adopted by the Council in 2013 (4)

2017-2020

COM

MS

Council

Council WP (HDG)

EMCDDA

Europol

Extent of the implementation of the following indicators:

number and quantity of drug seizures

purity and content of drugs

drug prices

drug production facilities dismantled

drug law offences

drug availability in population surveys

market size estimates

Overview of existing national drug supply data collection in MS

EMCDDA Reporting

Europol Reporting

5.

Enhance effective judicial cooperation and legislation within the EU

18.

Strengthen EU judicial cooperation in targeting cross-border drug trafficking, money laundering, and in the confiscation of the proceeds of drug-related organised crime

2017-2020

Council

COM

MS

Eurojust

Timely implementation of agreed EU measures and legislation on (a) confiscation and recovery of criminal assets (5); (b) money laundering (6); (c) approximation of drug trafficking offences and sanctions across the EU (7)

Increased number of financial investigations and confiscations in relation to the proceeds of drug-related organised crime through EU law enforcement authorities and judicial cooperation

Timely and effective responses to mutual legal assistance requests and European Arrest Warrants in relation to illicit drug trafficking

Eurojust Reporting

MS Reporting

 

19.

Adopt and implement new EU legislative measures to address the emergence, use and rapid spread of new psychoactive substances

2017-2020

COM

Council

Council WP (HDG)

MS

EMCDDA

Europol

EUROJUST

EU legislation in place

Implementation of EU legislation in MS

Updating of EU guidelines for the information exchange and risk assessment procedures

Monitor the effects of new legislative measures with a special focus on the replacement-effect in the illegal drug market

MS Reporting

EMCDDA Reporting

COM

(EU measures)

 

20.

Implement EU legislation on drug precursors to prevent their diversion without disrupting lawful trade

Ongoing

Council

COM

MS

Information on cases and quantity of stopped or seized shipments of precursors intended for illicit use

Results achieved from EMPACT projects

Use of Pre-Export Notification (PEN) Online System and increased use of the Precursors Incident Communication System (PICS)

Number of joint follow up meetings and other activities linked to the prevention of the diversion of precursors and pre-precursors.

Annual INCB Precursor report

European Commission and EMCDDA reporting

 

21.

Address the use of certain pharmacologically active substances (as defined in Directive 2011/62/EU) as cutting agents for illicit drugs

Ongoing

MS

COM

EMA

Europol

Information on seizures of active substances used as cutting agents for illicit drugs

Timely implementation of new EU legislative requirements aimed at securing the supply chain for active substances under Directive 2011/62/EU, the Falsified Medicines Directive

Reports from the CCWP and CUG

MS Reporting

 

22.

Members States to provide and apply, where appropriate and in accordance with their legal frameworks, alternatives to coercive sanctions for drug using offenders, such as:

a.

Education

b.

(Suspension of sentence with) treatment

c.

Suspension of investigation or prosecution

d.

Rehabilitation and recovery

e.

Aftercare and social reintegration

2017-2020

MS

Council WP (HDG

DROIPEN)

Increased availability and implementation of alternatives to coercive sanctions for drug-using offenders in the areas of education, treatment, rehabilitation, aftercare and social integration.

Increased monitoring, implementation and evaluation of alternatives to coercive sanctions

Type and number of alternatives to coercive sanctions provided for and implemented by MS

Information on the effectiveness of the use of alternatives to coercive sanctions

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package

MS Reporting

6.

Respond effectively to current and emerging trends in illicit drug activity

23.

Identify strategic responses to address the role of new information communication technologies (ICT) and the hosting of associated websites, in the production, marketing, purchasing and distribution of illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances at national and EU level.

2017-2020

Council

COM

Council WP (HDG

COSI

CCWP)

MS

Europol

CEPOL

EMCDDA

EUROJUST

Results achieved from law enforcement actions targeting drug-related crime via the internet

Increased number of joint operations and cross border cooperation initiatives

Number and impact of funded research projects and tools developed to support law enforcement

Number of agreements/discussions with relevant industry partners

Setting up of a glossary of terms

Setting up of an inventory of monitoring tools

Numbers of training sessions for relevant stakeholders

Number of meetings with international partners in which the action was discussed

Interim Review of the EU Policy Cycle

EMPACT

Driver Reports

Europol Reporting

CEPOL Statistics/Annual Report

EMCDDA Reporting

MS Reporting

Reports from EU Agencies

COM

3.   Coordination

Member States and EU to effectively coordinate drugs policy

Objective

Action

Timetable

Responsible party

Indicator(s)

Data collection/assessment mechanisms

7.

Ensure effective EU coordination in the drugs field

24.

Enhance information-sharing between the HDG and other relevant Council Working Parties and in particular COSI to enhance coordination as regards the drug supply reduction pillar

Enhance information sharing between the HDG and other relevant geographical and thematic Council Working Parties including such as COSI, COAFR, COASI, COEST, COLAC, COTRA, COWEB, CONUN, COHOM, CCWP, COSCE, CUG and DROIPEN

Ongoing

PRES

Council

EEAS

Council WP (HDG)

Extent to which the EU Drugs Strategy/and Action Plan are taken into account in the Programmes of other Council Working Parties such as COSI, COAFR, COASI, COEST, COLAC, COTRA, COWEB, CONUN, COHOM, CCWP, COSCE, CUG and DROIPEN.

Regular information point on the HDG agenda on (1) activities linked to drug-related priorities of the EU Policy Cycle (based on EMPACT reporting, once per Presidency); and (2) relevant activities of other Council Working Parties, in the presence of other relevant Working Party Chairs, where appropriate

Council Working Party (HDG) reporting

Presidency Reporting

 

25.

Each Presidency may convene meetings of the National Drugs Coordinators, and of other groupings as appropriate, to consider emerging trends, effective interventions and other policy developments of added value to the EU Drugs Strategy and to MS

Biannually

PRES

MS

Extent to which National Drug Coordinators' meeting agenda reflects developments, trends and new insights in policy responses and provides for improved communication and information exchange

Presidency Reporting

 

26.

The HDG will facilitate (a) monitoring of the implementation of the Action Plan through thematic debates; and (b) an annual dialogue on the state of the drugs phenomenon in Europe

(a)

Ongoing

(b)

Annually

PRES

Council WP (HDG)

MS

COM

EMCDDA

Europol

Extent of implementation of the Action Plan

Number of actions from the Action Plan addressed in thematic debates in the HDG

Timeliness of dialogue at the HDG on latest drug-related trends and data

Presidency Reporting

 

27.

Ensure consistency and continuity of MS and EU actions across Presidencies to strengthen the integrated, balanced and evidence-based approach to drugs in the EU

Ongoing

PRES

PRES Trio

MS

COM

Council WP (HDG)

EMCDDA

Europol

Extent of consistency and continuity of actions across Presidencies

Advancement in implementation of EU Drugs Strategy priorities across Presidencies

Presidency Reporting

 

28.

Ensure coordination of EU drugs policies and responses, to support international cooperation between the EU, third countries and international organisations

Ongoing

EEAS

COM

Council WP (HDG)

MS

Level of consistency and coherence in the objectives, expected results and measures foreseen in EU actions on drugs

Inclusion of drug-related priorities in strategies of relevant EU bodies

Intensified cooperation between the HDG and the geographical/regional and thematic Council Working Parties, including COSI, COAFR, COASI, COEST, COLAT, COTRA, COWEB, CONUN and COHOM, CCWP, COSCE, CUG and DROIPEN

Number of reports by Dublin Group

Periodical reporting by EEAS and COM to the Council Working Party (HDG)

Dublin Group

 

29.

a.

Achieve a coordinated and appropriate level of resources at EU level and Member State level to fulfil the priorities of the EU Drugs Strategy

b.

Strengthen the cooperation to tackle the rising trend of stimulant addiction, in particular methamphetamine, between relevant government bodies and the NGO sector, focusing on creating and sharing best practices in preventing the spread from local epidemics, including demand and supply reduction efforts, and sharing information on the prevention of misuse of medicinal products for methamphetamine production.

Annually

2017-2020

MS

COM

EEAS

Council

Council WP (HDG)

Over-arching indicator 14

Amount of funding at EU level, and where appropriate, MS level

Extent of coordination on drugs-related financial programmes across Council Working Parties and COM

Level of networking between professionals from both statutory and non-statutory sector

Availability of accessible interventions

Number of developed interventions

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package

COM Reporting

EMCDDA Best Practice portal

8.

Ensure effective coordination of drug-related policy at national level

30.

Coordinate actions on drugs policy between Government Departments/Ministries and relevant agencies at MS level and ensure appropriate multi-disciplinary representation on, or input to, HDG delegations

Ongoing

MS

Over-arching indicator 14

Effectiveness of a horizontal drug policy coordination mechanism at MS level

Number of cross-cutting actions in drug demand and supply reduction at Member State level

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package

MS Reporting

9.

Ensure the participation of civil society in drugs policy

31.

Promote and strengthen dialogue with, and involvement of, civil society and the scientific community in the formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of drug policies at MS and EU levels

Ongoing

MS

COM

Council WP (HDG)

PRES

Timely dialogues between EU Civil Society Forum on Drugs and the HDG during each Presidency period

Engagement of EU Civil Society Forum in reviewing implementation of the EU Drug Action Plan

Level of involvement of civil society and the scientific community in MS and EU drug policy formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation

Timely dialogue between the scientific community (natural and social sciences, including neuroscience and behavioural research) and the HDG

Feedback from EU Civil Society Forum on Drugs and from Civil Society Representatives at MS and EU level

MS Reporting

Feedback from Scientific Community through the EMCDDA Scientific Committee

4.   International cooperation

Strengthen dialogue and cooperation between the EU and third countries and international organisations on drugs issues in a comprehensive and balanced manner

Objective

Action

Timetable

Responsible party

Indicator(s)

Data collection/assessment mechanisms

10.

Integrate the EU Drugs Strategy within the EU's overall foreign policy framework as part of a comprehensive approach that makes full use of the variety of policies and diplomatic, political and financial instruments at the EU's disposal in a coherent and coordinated manner

32.

Ensure policy coherence between the internal and external aspects of the EU drug policies and fully integrate drug issues within the political dialogues and framework agreements between the EU and its partners and in the EU advocacy on global issues or challenges

Ongoing

COM

EEAS

PRES

Council WP (HDG)

MS

Over-arching indicator 13

Drug policy priorities increasingly reflected in EU's external policies and actions

Inclusion of drug-related priorities in EU strategies with third countries and regions

Number of agreements, strategy papers, action plans in place

EEAS Reporting

 

33.

Ensure that the policy priorities and the balance between demand and supply reduction are well reflected in policy options and in the programming, implementation and monitoring of external assistance, particularly in source and transit countries, through projects involving:

a.

development of integrated, balanced and evidence-based drug policies;

b.

supply reduction;

the prevention of the diversion of drug precursors and pre-precursors;

c.

drug demand reduction; and

d.

alternative development measures

Ongoing

COM

MS

EEAS

Extent to which EU's Drug policy priorities, especially the balance between demand and supply reduction, are reflected in funded priorities and projects

Level of implementation of coordinated actions in action plans between the EU and third countries and regions

Number of third country national strategies and action plans that incorporate integrated drug policies

COM, EEAS and MS programming programme monitoring and evaluation reports

 

34.

Improve capacity and strengthen the role of EU Delegations to enable them to proactively engage on drug policy issues and effectively report back on the local situation on drugs

2017-2020

EEAS

COM

MS

Relevant expertise, training and policy guidance provided to EU Delegations

Regional networking among EU Delegations on drug issues enhanced

Coordination with MS enhanced

EEAS and COM Reporting

EU Delegations

Dublin Group Reports

 

35.

Promote and implement the EU approach to alternative development (consistent with the EU Drug Strategy 2013-2020; the EU Approach to Alternative Development and the United Nations Guiding Principles on Alternative Development 2013) in cooperation with third countries, taking into account human rights, human security, gender aspects and specific framework conditions, including:

a.

incorporating alternative development into the broader agenda of Member States, encouraging third countries that wish to do so to integrate alternative development into their national strategies;

b.

contributing to initiatives that aim to reduce poverty, conflict and vulnerability by supporting sustainable, legal and gender sensitive livelihoods for people who were previously, or are currently, involved in illicit drug crop cultivation

c.

providing an appropriate level of EU and MS funding and expertise to further strengthen and support non-EU countries' efforts in addressing and preventing illicit drug crop cultivation, through rural development measures and strengthening the rule of law in order to deal with the challenges of poverty reduction, public health, safety and security

Ongoing

MS

COM

EEAS

Number of third country national policies, strategies and action plans that incorporate:

integrated approaches to the problem of illicit drug crop cultivation and

effectively organised alternative development initiatives

Number of evaluated projects that demonstrate positive outcomes relating to sustainable, legal and gender sensitive livelihoods

Improvements in human development indicators

Number of rural development projects and programmes, funded by the EU and MS in regions where illicit drug crop cultivation is taking place, or in regions at risk of illicit drug crop cultivation

Reported local decrease in illicit drug crop cultivation in the long-term

UNODC and INCB reports on drug policies in non-EU countries

EU and MS Project and Programme Monitoring and Evaluation Reports

UNDP Human Development Reports

Dublin Group reporting on non-EU countries

 

36.

Support third countries, including civil society in those countries, to develop and implement risk and harm reduction initiatives particularly where there is a growing threat of transmission of drug-related blood-borne viruses associated with drug use including but not limited to HIV and viral hepatitis, as well as sexually transmittable diseases and tuberculosis

Ongoing

MS

COM

EEAS

Number and quality of risk and harm reduction initiatives developed

Prevalence of drug-related deaths in third countries and drug-related blood-borne viruses including but not limited to HIV and viral hepatitis, as well as sexually transmittable diseases and tuberculosis

WHO Reports

Dublin Group reporting on non-EU countries

EEAS, COM and MS exchanges on the policies of non-EU countries

 

37.

Support third countries to tackle drug-related organised crime, including drug trafficking, by:

a.

intelligence-sharing and the exchange of best practices;

b.

strengthening counter-narcotics capacity and developing expertise of source and transit countries;

c.

working with international partners to tackle the enablers of drug trafficking such as corruption, weak institutions, poor governance and lack of financial regulatory controls;

d.

strengthening cooperation in the field of asset identification and recovery, in particular through the creation of dedicated national platforms; and

e.

intensifying regional and intra-regional cooperation

f.

incorporating rule-of-law and international human rights standards and principles in drug-related law enforcement measures

Ongoing

MS

EEAS

COM

Europol

Number and effectiveness of projects and programmes by the EU and the MS in non-EU countries

Sustained reduction in drug trafficking

COM and MS Reporting

Europol Reporting

EEAS Reporting

UNODC Annual World Drug Report

 

38.

a.

Reinforce cooperation and/or conduct dialogue with partners, including:

Acceding countries, candidate countries and potential candidates

European Neighbourhood Policy countries

United States of America

Russian Federation

Other countries or regions of priority notably:

Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran

Central Asian Republics

China

Latin American and the Caribbean (CELAC)

Africa, in particular West Africa

Other countries depending on national and international developments

b.

Explore possibilities for engagement (such as bilateral dialogues, joint projects) with other non-EU countries on serious drug-related issues

Ongoing

PRES Trio

COM

EEAS

MS

Over-arching indicator 13

Strengthened cooperation in the field of drugs with relevant partners

Dialogues organised

Declarations agreed

Programmes and Action Plans implemented

EEAS Reporting

Implementation Reports of the relevant action plans where available

 

39.

Improve the Dublin Group consultative mechanism through intensified EU coordination and participation, better formulation, implementation and dissemination of its recommendations

Ongoing

Dublin Group

COM

EEAS

MS

Level of activity across Dublin Group structures including number of Dublin Group recommendations effectively implemented

Achieved modernisation of the Dublin Group's working methods

Dublin Group Reports

 

40.

Hold an annual dialogue on EU and MS drugs-related assistance to third countries accompanied by a written update

From 2017

COM

EEAS

MS

Presentation by COM and EEAS to the Horizontal Drugs Group, at least once a year

COM and EEAS Reporting

MS Reporting

Project and Programme Monitoring and Evaluation System and Reports

 

41.

Ensure that the promotion and protection of human rights are fully integrated in political dialogues and in the planning and implementation of relevant drugs-related programmes and projects including through the implementation of the rights-based approach (RBA) and of tailored human rights guidance and impact assessment tool

Ongoing

COM

COHOM/EEAS

MS

Human rights effectively mainstreamed into EU external drug-related policies and actions

Human rights guidance and assessment tool implemented

EU Annual Report on Human Rights

MS Reporting

11.

Improve cohesiveness of EU approach and EU visibility in the United Nations (UN) and strengthen EU coordination with international bodies related to the drugs field

42.

Contribute to shaping the agenda on international drugs policy, including through:

a.

More affirmative action by EU and MS Delegations at the UN General Assembly and the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND);

b.

Coordinated action by EU and MS delegations in all other UN fora addressing drug-related matters (e.g. World Health Assembly, Human Rights Council, High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development)

c.

preparation, coordination and adoption of EU common positions and joint resolutions in the UN General Assembly and the CND, including, ahead of the CND, on scheduling of substances, and ensuring that the EU speaks with one strong voice in these and other international fora;

d.

promotion and monitoring the implementation of the recommendations of the 2016 UNGASS Outcome Document as a pivotal reference document for discussions of relevance to international drug policy in all pertinent fora

e.

the ministerial segment to be held during the sixty-second session of CND, in Vienna in 2019; and

f.

ensure the meaningful involvement of civil society and the scientific community in the review process

Ongoing

EEAS

PRES

MS

COM

Council

Council WP (HDG)

Over-arching indicator 13

Number of EU statements delivered at CND and other UN fora

Number of EU common positions supported by other regions and international bodies

Number of EU common positions concerning CND decisions on scheduling of substances

Outcome of the CND decisions on scheduling of substances

Level of successful adoption of EU resolutions at UN including at the CND

Effective promotion of EU policies in the UN, including at the CND

Adoption of an EU Common Position Paper for the 2019 review process; EU contribution to the definition by the CND on the modalities for the 2019 process

Implementation of EU common position on the post-UNGASS process

Outcome of the 2019 review of the UN Political Declaration and Action Plan on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem

Progress in implementation of drug-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

EEAS Reporting

Convergence Indicator

2019 review Outcome

The Sustainable Development Goals annual reports

 

43.

Strengthen partnerships with the UNODC, WHO, UNAIDS and other relevant UN agencies, international and regional bodies and organisations and initiatives (such as the Council of Europe and the Paris Pact Initiative)

Ongoing

Council

EEAS

COM

PRES

Council WP (HDG)

EMCDDA

Over-arching indicators 13, 15

Number of information exchanges and activities between the EU and relevant international and regional bodies and organisations and initiatives

Effectiveness of partnerships with relevant bodies

MS, EEAS, COM Reporting

12.

Support the process for acceding countries, candidate countries, and potential candidates to adapt to and align with the EU acquis in the drugs field, through targeted assistance and monitoring

44.

Provide targeted technical assistance, and other assistance and support as necessary, to acceding countries, candidate countries, and potential candidates to facilitate their adaptation to and alignment with the EU acquis in the drugs field

Ongoing

COM

MS

EMCDDA

Europol

Eurojust

Frontex

EEAS

Over-arching indicator 15

Increased compliance by countries with EU acquis

Number and quality of completed projects

National Drug Strategies and national drug coordinating structures established

EMCDDA Reporting

Acceding countries, candidate countries and potential candidates reports

5.   Information, research, monitoring and evaluation

Contribute to a better understanding of all aspects of the drugs phenomenon and of the impact of measures in order to provide sound and comprehensive evidence for policies and actions

Objective

Action

Timetable

Responsible party

Indicator(s)

Data collection/assessment mechanisms

13.

Ensure adequate investment in research, data collection, monitoring, evaluation and information exchange on all aspects of the drug phenomenon

45.

Promote appropriate financing of EU-level drug-related multi-disciplinary research and studies including through EU related financial programmes (2014-2020)

2017-2020

MS

COM

Amount and type of EU funding provided across the different programmes and projects

COM

Reporting at annual research dialogue

 

46.

Ensure that EU-supported projects:

a.

take account of the priorities of the EU Drug Strategy and Action Plan on Drugs;

b.

take account of gaps in policy formulation;

c.

deliver clear added value and ensure coherence and synergy; and

d.

avoid duplication with research under other programmes and bodies

e.

take account of the importance of behavioural research and neuroscience (8)

f.

include clear indicators for measuring their impact

2017-2020

COM

EMCDDA

The inclusion of the priorities of the EU Strategy and Action Plan on Drugs in the funding and assessment criteria of EU-funded drug-related research

Number, impact, complementarity and value of EU-funded drug-related research grants and contracts awarded

Number of EU-funded drug- related articles and research reports published in peer-reviewed journals with high impact factors

Annual debate at the HDG on drug-related research projects funded by the EU including EMCDDA Scientific Committee recommendations on research priorities

Research project reports

EMCDDA Scientific Committee recommendations on research priorities

Science Citation Index and similar bibliometric tools

Strategic research agenda developed by ERANID

 

47.

Promote evidence-based evaluations of policies and interventions at national, EU and international level

2017-2020

COM

MS

EMCDDA

Over-arching indicator 14

EMCDDA guide on evaluation used to support national process

Delivery of dedicated studies into the effectiveness and impacts of EU and international drug policies

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package

 

48.

Reinforce analysis (including mapping information sources) and information sharing on the relationship between drugs trafficking and:

a.

financing of terrorist groups and activities, including any overlap between the established routes for drug production and trafficking areas and conflict zones; and financing sources of terrorist cells in the EU from illicit activities, including drug trafficking;

b.

migrant smuggling (building synergies with the EU Action Plan against migrant smuggling (2015-2020) that foresees research and risk analysis between smuggling and other crimes such as drug trafficking) including:

A focus on vulnerable migrants and their potential exploitation for drug trafficking purposes and/or as end-users of drugs, in particular minors and women.

Exploration of any overlap between drug trafficking and migrant smuggling criminal rings, modi operandi and routes.

c.

trafficking in human beings building synergies with the EU legal and policy framework addressing trafficking in human beings including the EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012–2016

2017-2020

MS

Commission

EU ATC

EMCDDA

Europol

Frontex

FRA

EIGE

Council WP

(COSI

COTER

TWP

HLWG)

Extent to which understanding is increased of the potential connections between drug trafficking and:

Terrorist financing

Migrant smuggling

Trafficking in Human Beings

EU and national outputs (such as reports, studies and articles addressing these topics)

MS reporting

COM reporting

EU agencies reporting (EMCDDA Europol

Frontex and FRA in the framework of their regular reporting activities

EIGE in the framework of their regular reporting activities

FATF Risk Assessments

14.

Maintain networking and cooperation and develop capacity within and across the EU's knowledge infrastructure for information, research, monitoring and evaluation of drugs, particularly illicit drugs

49.

In collaboration with relevant parties continue to provide comprehensive analyses of:

a.

the EU drug situation;

b.

the dynamics of drug use within general populations and target groups

c.

responses to drug use

and in due course to provide an update by the EMCDDA of the 2017 overview of cannabis legislation in the EU as well as continue to monitor and report on cannabis legislations at national level and in third countries

Ongoing

EMCDDA

Europol

MS

COM

Over-arching indicators 1-15

Current deficits in the knowledge base established and an EU level framework developed to maximise analyses from current data holdings

Number of overviews and topic analyses on the drug situation

EMCDDA Reporting

MS Reporting

Civil Society Forum on Drugs

COM

 

50.

Enhance evidence-based training for those involved in responding to the drug phenomenon

2017-2020

MS

EMCDDA

CEPOL

Number of initiatives at MS and EU level to train professionals in aspects of drug demand reduction and drug supply reduction

Number of initiatives at MS and EU level implemented to train professionals related to data collection and reporting of drug demand reduction and drug supply reduction

MS Reporting

CEPOL Annual Report

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package

 

51.

Enhance data collection, research, analysis and reporting on:

a.

drug demand reduction;

b.

drug supply reduction;

c.

emerging trends, such as polydrug use and misuse of psychoactive medicines, that pose risks to health and safety;

d.

blood-borne viruses associated with drug use including but not limited to HIV and viral hepatitis, as well as sexually transmittable diseases and tuberculosis;

e.

psychiatric and physical co-morbidity;

f.

drug problems among prisoners and the availability and coverage of drug demand reduction interventions and services in prison settings; and

g.

other problems and consequences related to illicit substances as well as to polydrug use (combined use of illicit and licit substances including psychoactive medicines, alcohol and tobacco)

h.

compliance of drug policies with international human rights standards and principles

Ongoing

MS

COM

EMCDDA

Europol

ECDC

EMA

Increased availability and implementation of evidence-based and scientifically sound indicators on drug supply reduction and drug demand reduction

At MS level, extent of new research initiated on emerging trends such as polydrug use and the misuse of psychoactive medicines; blood-borne diseases associated with drug use including but not limited to HIV and viral hepatitis, as well as sexually transmittable diseases and tuberculosis; psychiatric and physical co-morbidity; and other problems and consequences related to both licit and illicit substances

EU-wide study carried out on drug-related community intimidation and its impact on individuals, families and communities most affected and effective responses to it

Adoption of evidence-based and scientifically sound indicators on drug problems among prisoners

EMCDDA Reporting

EMA Reporting

MS Reporting

Harmonised data reports from EU bodies including EMCDDA

EU SOCTA

 

52.

Improve the capacity to detect, assess and respond effectively to the emergence and use of new psychoactive substances and monitor the extent to which such new substances impact on the number and profile of users

Ongoing

COM

MS

EMCDDA

Europol

Over-arching indicator 6

Extent of new epidemiological, pharmacological and toxicological research initiated on new psychoactive substances and supported by MS and EU Research programmes

Extent of information, best practice and intelligence exchange

Extent of sharing by toxicology laboratories and by Research Institutes of toxicological and health data analyses on new psychoactive substances

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package

EMCDDA-Europol Implementation Report

Reports by laboratories and research institutes

 

53.

Strengthen efforts to share forensic science data, including support on the identification of new psychoactive substances, laboratory reference standards on new psychoactive substances, and the development of a common methodology for the identification of new substances by enhancing cooperation with the Commission's Joint Research Centre, and through existing networks, such as the Drugs Working Group of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes in the framework of the JHA Council Conclusions on the Vision for European Forensic Science 2020 and the Customs Laboratories European Network

2017-2020

COM

MS

EMCDDA

Over-arching indicator 15

Extent of sharing of forensic science data on new psychoactive substances, supporting the identification of new psychoactive substances

Ease of access to laboratory reference standards by forensic science laboratories, customs laboratories and institutes

Progress on development of a common methodology for the identification of new psychoactive substances

EMCDDA/Europol Reporting

COM Reporting

 

54.

Improve and increase the ability to identify, assess and respond at MS and EU levels to (a) behavioural changes in drug consumption; and (b) to drug-related epidemic outbreaks

Ongoing

MS

EMCDDA

ECDC

Number and effectiveness of new drug-related public health initiatives developed and implemented

Number and effectiveness of existing measures and initiatives that are adjusted to take account of drug consumption or epidemic outbreaks

Number and impact of early warning reports, risk assessment and alerts

Early Warning System reports

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package

EMA Reporting

15.

Enhance dissemination of monitoring, research and evaluation results at EU and national level

55.

Member States continue to support EU monitoring and information exchange efforts, including cooperation with, and adequate support for, Reitox National Focal Points

a.

Organisation of European events focused on the transfer and dissemination of knowledge from research to policy makers and professionals

Ongoing

MS

EMCDDA

COM

Open-access outputs from EU funded studies disseminated

Extent to which Reitox National Focal Points funding and other resources match requirements

Number and effectiveness of Reitox National Focal Points dissemination initiatives

Number of EU events organised on the transfer and dissemination of knowledge from research to policy makers and professionals

Web Dissemination including OpenAire, Cordis

EMCDDA website

EMCDDA Reporting/Reitox network national reporting package


(1)  Evidence-based should be read in this context as ‘based on available scientific evidence and experience’.

(2)  Council conclusions on the implementation of the EU Action Plan on Drugs 2013-2016 regarding minimum quality standards in drug demand reduction in the European Union 11985/15.

(3)  MAOC (N), based in Lisbon, is an initiative by seven EU Member countries: France, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Netherlands, Portugal and the UK, and is co-funded by the Internal Security Fund of the European Union. The Centre provides a forum for multi-lateral cooperation to suppress illicit drug trafficking by sea and air.

(4)  Council conclusions on improving the monitoring of drug supply in the European Union 15 November 2013.

(5)  Directive 2014/42/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the freezing and confiscation of instrumentalities and proceeds of crime in the European Union; Council Decision 2007/845/JHA concerning cooperation between Asset Recovery Offices of the Member States in the field of tracing and identification of proceeds of, or other property related to, crime; Council Framework Decision 2006/783/JHA on the application of the principle of mutual recognition to confiscation orders. Council Framework Decision 2003/577/JHA on the execution in the European Union of orders freezing property or evidence, Commission proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the mutual recognition of freezing and confiscation orders COM(2016) 819; Council Framework Decision 2005/212/JHA on confiscation of crime-related proceeds, instrumentalities and property; Council Framework Decision 2003/577/JHA on the execution in the European Union of orders freezing property or evidence.

(6)  Directive (EU) 2015/849 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purposes of money laundering or terrorist financing, amending Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Directive 2005/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Directive 2006/70/EC; Council Framework Decision 2001/500/JHA on money laundering, the identification, tracing, seizing and confiscation of instrumentalities and the proceeds of crime. Commission proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on countering money laundering by criminal law COM(2016) 826. Regulation (EU) 2015/847 of the European Parliament and of the Council on information accompanying transfers of funds and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1781/2006; Regulation (EC) No 1889/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council on controls of cash entering or leaving the Community. Commission proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on controls on cash entering or leaving the Union and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1889/2005.

(7)  Council Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA of 25 October 2004 laying down minimum provisions on the constituent elements of criminal acts and penalties in the field of illicit drug trafficking, as regards the definition of drug.

(8)  Under Horizon 2020 (2014-2020), some EUR 27 million have already been allocated to projects addressing drug addiction and include behavioural research and neuroscience.


ANNEX I

15 over-arching indicators for the EU Action Plan on Drugs 2017-2020 (1)

1.

Percentage of population who use drugs currently (within last month), used drugs recently (within last year), and who have ever used (lifetime use) by drug and age group (EMCDDA General Population Survey)

2.

Estimated trends in the prevalence of problem and injecting drug use (EMCDDA Problem Drug Use)

3.

Trends in drug induced deaths and mortality amongst drug users (according to national definitions) (EMCDDA Drug-related Deaths)

4.

Prevalence and incidence, among injecting drug users, of infectious diseases attributable to drug use, including HIV and viral Hepatitis, sexually transmittable diseases and tuberculosis (EMCDDA Drug-related Infectious Diseases)

5.

Trends in the age of first use of illicit drugs (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs (ESPAD), Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) and General Population Drug Use Survey (EMCDDA Key Epidemiological Indicator)

6.

Trends in numbers of people entering drug treatment (EMCDDA Treatment Demand) and the estimated total number of people in drug treatment (EMCDDA Treatment Demand and Health and Social Responses)

7.

Trends in number of and quantities of seized illicit drugs (EMCDDA Drug Seizures: cannabis incl. herbal cannabis, heroin, cocaine, crack cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, LSD and other substances)

8.

Trends in retail price and purity of illicit drugs (EMCDDA Price and Purity: cannabis incl. herbal cannabis, heroin, cocaine, crack cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, LSD, other substances and composition of drug tablets)

9.

Trends in the number of initial reports of drug law offences, by drug and type of offence (supply vs use/possession) (EMCDDA Drug Offences)

10.

Prevalence of drug use amongst prisoners (EMCDDA Drug Use in Prisons)

11.

Assessment of availability, coverage and quality of services and interventions in the areas of prevention, harm reduction, social integration and treatment. (EMCDDA Health and Social Responses)

12.

Evidence-based interventions on prevention, treatment, social integration and recovery and their expected impact on drug use prevalence and problem drug use (EMCDDA Best Practice Portal)

13.

Strong dialogue and cooperation, in the drugs related field, with other regions, third countries, international organisations and other parties (EEAS reporting)

14.

Developments in national drug strategies, evaluations, legislation, coordination mechanisms and public expenditure estimates in EU Member States (EMCDDA)

15.

Early Warning System on new psychoactive substances (EMCDDA/Europol) and Risk Assessment on new psychoactive substances (EMCDDA)


(1)  These indicators are based on existing reporting systems that pre-date the objectives of the current EU drug strategy and action plan, but provide the most comprehensive set of EU-level resources to support their monitoring and evaluation.


ANNEX II

Glossary of acronyms

CCWP

Council of the EU — Customs Cooperation Working Party

CELAC

Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños (Community of Latin American and Caribbean States)

CEPOL

European Police College

CND

Commission on Narcotic Drugs (UN)

COAFR

Council of the EU — Africa Working Party

COASI

Council of the EU — Asia-Oceania Working Party

COEST

Council of the EU — Working Party on Eastern Europe and Central Asia

COHOM

Council of the EU — Working Party on Human Rights

COLAC

Council of the EU — Working Party on Latin America

COM

European Commission

CONUN

Council of the EU — United Nations Working Party

COSCE

Council of the EU — Working Party on OSCE and the Council of Europe

COSI

Council of the EU — Standing Committee on Operational Cooperation on Internal Security

COTRA

Council of the EU — Working Party on Transatlantic Relations (Canada and the USA)

Council WP

Council Working Party

COTER

Council of the EU — Working Party on Terrorism (International Aspects)

COWEB

Council of the EU — Working Party on the Western Balkans Region

CUG

Council of the EU — Customs Union Group

DROIPEN

Council of the EU — Working Party on Substantive Criminal Law

ECDC

European Centre for Disease Control

EEAS

European Union External Action Service

EMA

European Medicines Agency

EMCDDA

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction

EMPACT

European Multidisciplinary Platform against Criminal Threats

ENFSI

European Network of Forensic Science Institutes

ERA-net

European Research Area — Network

ERANID

European Research Area Network on Illicit Drugs

ESPAD

European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs

EU

European Union

EUROJUST

European Judicial Cooperation Unit

EUROPOL

European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation

EU SOCTA

EU Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment

Frontex

European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union

HBSC

Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HDG

Council of the EU — Horizontal Working Party on Drugs

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HLWG

Council of the EU — High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration

INCB

International Narcotics Control Board (UN)

JHA

Justice and Home Affairs

LGBTI

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender/Transsexual and Intersexed

LSD

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MAOC (N)

The Maritime Analysis and Operations Centre

MASPs

Multiannual Strategic Plans (Europol)

MOU

Memorandum of Understanding

MS

Member State

NPS

New psychoactive substances

PEN

UNODC/INCB developed Pre-Export Notification Online System

PICS

Precursors Incident Communication System

PRES

Rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union

PRES Trio

Grouping of three consecutive rotating Presidencies of the Council of the European Union

Reitox

Réseau Européen d’Information sur les Drogues et les Toxicomanies

SOCTA

Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment

TWP

Council of the EU — Working Party on Terrorism

UN

United Nations

UNAIDS

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

UNGASS

United Nations General Assembly Special Session

UNODC

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

WHO

World Health Organisation (UN)


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