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Document 32008R1126

Title and reference
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1126/2008 of 3 November 2008 adopting certain international accounting standards in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council (Text with EEA relevance)
  • In force
OJ L 320, 29.11.2008, p. 1–481 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)
Special edition in Croatian: Chapter 13 Volume 046 P. 3 - 483

ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2008/1126/oj
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Dates
  • Date of document: 03/11/2008
  • Date of effect: 02/12/2008; Entry into force Date pub. + 3 See Art 3
  • Date of end of validity: 31/12/9999
Miscellaneous information
  • Author: European Commission
  • Form: Regulation
  • Additional information: EEA relevance
Relationship between documents
Text

29.11.2008   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 320/1


COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1126/2008

of 3 November 2008

adopting certain international accounting standards in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES,

Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community,

Having regard to Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 July 2002 on the application of international accounting standards (1), and in particular Article 3(1) thereof,

Whereas:

(1)

Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 requires that for each financial year starting on or after 1 January 2005, publicly traded companies governed by the law of a Member State are, under certain conditions, to prepare their consolidated accounts in conformity with international accounting standards as defined in Article 2 of that Regulation.

(2)

By Commission Regulation (EC) No 1725/2003 of 29 September 2003 adopting certain international accounting standards in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council (2), certain international standards and interpretations that were in existence at 14 September 2002 were adopted. The Commission, having considered the advice provided by the Technical Expert Group (TEG) of the European Financial Reporting Advisory Group (EFRAG), has amended that Regulation in order to include all standards presented by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) as well as all interpretations presented by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) and adopted within the Community by 15 October 2008 in full, except for IAS 39 (related to recognition and measurement of financial instruments), of which limited parts have been omitted.

(3)

The different international standards have been adopted by a number of amending regulations. This causes legal uncertainty and difficulty in correctly applying international accounting standards in the Community. In order to simplify Community legislation on accounting standards, it is appropriate, for the sake of clarity and transparency, to incorporate in a single text the standards presently contained in Regulation (EC) No 1725/2003 and the acts amending it.

(4)

Regulation (EC) No 1725/2003 should therefore be replaced by this Regulation.

(5)

The measures provided for in this Regulation are in accordance with the opinion of the Accounting Regulatory Committee,

HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

Article 1

The international accounting standards, as defined in Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002, shall be adopted as set out in the Annex hereto.

Article 2

Regulation (EC) No 1725/2003 is hereby repealed.

References to the repealed Regulation shall be construed as references to this Regulation.

Article 3

This Regulation shall enter into force on the third day following its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.

Done at Brussels, 3 November 2008.

For the Commission

Charlie McCREEVY

Member of the Commission


(1)  OJ L 243, 11.9.2002, p. 1.

(2)  OJ L 261, 13.10.2003, p. 1.


ANNEX

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

IAS 1

Presentation of financial statements

IAS 2

Inventories

IAS 7

Cash-flow statements

IAS 8

Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors

IAS 10

Events after the balance sheet date

IAS 11

Construction contracts

IAS 12

Income taxes

IAS 16

Property, plant and equipment

IAS 17

Leases

IAS 18

Revenue

IAS 19

Employee benefits

IAS 20

Accounting for government grants and disclosure of government assistance

IAS 21

The effects of changes in foreign exchange rates

IAS 23

Borrowing costs

IAS 24

Related party disclosures

IAS 26

Accounting and reporting by retirement benefit plans

IAS 27

Consolidated and separate financial statements

IAS 28

Investments in associates

IAS 29

Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies

IAS 31

Interests in joint ventures

IAS 32

Financial instruments: presentation

IAS 33

Earnings per share

IAS 34

Interim financial reporting

IAS 36

Impairment of assets

IAS 37

Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

IAS 38

Intangible assets

IAS 39

Financial instruments: recognition and measurement

IAS 40

Investment property

IAS 41

Agriculture

IFRS 1

First-time adoption of international financial reporting standards

IFRS 2

Share-based payment

IFRS 3

Business combinations

IFRS 4

Insurance contracts

IFRS 5

Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations

IFRS 6

Exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources

IFRS 7

Financial instruments: disclosures

IFRS 8

Operating segments

IFRIC 1

Changes in existing decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities

IFRIC 2

Members' shares in co-operative entities and similar instruments

IFRIC 4

Determining whether an arrangement contains a lease

IFRIC 5

Rights to interests arising from decommissioning, restoration and environmental rehabilitation funds

IFRIC 6

Liabilities arising from participating in a specific market — waste electrical and electronic equipment

IFRIC 7

Applying the Restatement Approach under IAS 29 Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies

IFRIC 8

Scope of IFRS 2

IFRIC 9

Reassessment of embedded derivatives

IFRIC 10

Interim financial reporting and impairment

IFRIC 11

IFRS 2 — Group and treasury share transactions

SIC-7

Introduction of the euro

SIC-10

Government assistance — no specific relation to operating activities

SIC-12

Consolidation — special purpose entities

SIC-13

Jointly controlled entities — non-monetary contributions by venturers

SIC-15

Operating leases — incentives

SIC-21

Income taxes — recovery of revalued non-depreciable assets

SIC-25

Income taxes — changes in the tax status of an entity or its shareholders

SIC-27

Evaluating the substance of transactions involving the legal form of a lease

SIC-29

Disclosure — service concession arrangements

SIC-31

Revenue — barter transactions involving advertising services

SIC-32

Intangible assets — website costs

Reproduction allowed within the European Economic Area. All existing rights reserved outside the EEA, with the exception of the right to reproduce for the purposes of personal use or other fair dealing. Further information can be obtained from the IASB at www.iasb.org

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 1

Presentation of financial statements

OBJECTIVE

1

The objective of this standard is to prescribe the basis for presentation of general purpose financial statements, to ensure comparability both with the entity's financial statements of previous periods and with the financial statements of other entities. To achieve this objective, this standard sets out overall requirements for the presentation of financial statements, guidelines for their structure and minimum requirements for their content. The recognition, measurement and disclosure of specific transactions and other events are dealt with in other standards and in interpretations.

SCOPE

2

This standard shall be applied to all general purpose financial statements prepared and presented in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRSs).

3

General purpose financial statements are those intended to meet the needs of users who are not in a position to demand reports tailored to meet their particular information needs. General purpose financial statements include those that are presented separately or within another public document such as an annual report or a prospectus. This standard does not apply to the structure and content of condensed interim financial statements prepared in accordance with IAS 34 Interim financial reporting. However, paragraphs 13-41 apply to such financial statements. This standard applies equally to all entities and whether or not they need to prepare consolidated financial statements or separate financial statements, as defined in IAS 27 Consolidated and separate financial statements.

4

[Deleted]

5

This standard uses terminology that is suitable for profit-oriented entities, including public sector business entities. Entities with not-for-profit activities in the private sector, public sector or government seeking to apply this standard may need to amend the descriptions used for particular line items in the financial statements and for the financial statements themselves.

6

Similarly, entities that do not have equity as defined in IAS 32 Financial instruments: presentation (e.g. some mutual funds) and entities whose share capital is not equity (e.g. some cooperative entities) may need to adapt the presentation in the financial statements of members' or unitholders' interests.

PURPOSE OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

7

Financial statements are a structured representation of the financial position and financial performance of an entity. The objective of general purpose financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an entity that is useful to a wide range of users in making economic decisions. Financial statements also show the results of management's stewardship of the resources entrusted to it. To meet this objective, financial statements provide information about an entity's:

(a)

assets;

(b)

liabilities;

(c)

equity;

(d)

income and expenses, including gains and losses;

(e)

other changes in equity; and

(f)

cash flows.

This information, along with other information in the notes, assists users of financial statements in predicting the entity's future cash flows and, in particular, their timing and certainty.

COMPONENTS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

8

A complete set of financial statements comprises:

(a)

a balance sheet;

(b)

an income statement;

(c)

a statement of changes in equity showing either:

(i)

all changes in equity; or

(ii)

changes in equity other than those arising from transactions with equity holders acting in their capacity as equity holders;

(d)

a cash-flow statement; and

(e)

notes, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory notes.

9

Many entities present, outside the financial statements, a financial review by management that describes and explains the main features of the entity's financial performance and financial position and the principal uncertainties it faces. Such a report may include a review of:

(a)

the main factors and influences determining financial performance, including changes in the environment in which the entity operates, the entity's response to those changes and their effect, and the entity's policy for investment to maintain and enhance financial performance, including its dividend policy;

(b)

the entity's sources of funding and its targeted ratio of liabilities to equity; and

(c)

the entity's resources not recognised in the balance sheet in accordance with IFRSs.

10

Many entities also present, outside the financial statements, reports and statements such as environmental reports and value added statements, particularly in industries in which environmental factors are significant and when employees are regarded as an important user group. Reports and statements presented outside financial statements are outside the scope of IFRSs.

DEFINITIONS

11

The following terms are used in this standard with the meanings specified:

Impracticable Applying a requirement is impracticable when the entity cannot apply it after making every reasonable effort to do so.

International financial reporting standards (IFRSs) are standards and interpretations adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). They comprise:

(a)

international financial reporting standards;

(b)

international accounting standards; and

(c)

interpretations originated by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) or the former Standing Interpretations Committee (SIC).

Material Omissions or misstatements of items are material if they could, individually or collectively, influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements. Materiality depends on the size and nature of the omission or misstatement judged in the surrounding circumstances. The size or nature of the item, or a combination of both, could be the determining factor.

Notes contain information in addition to that presented in the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity and cash-flow statement. Notes provide narrative descriptions or disaggregations of items disclosed in those statements and information about items that do not qualify for recognition in those statements.

12

Assessing whether an omission or misstatement could influence economic decisions of users, and so be material, requires consideration of the characteristics of those users. The Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements states in paragraph 25 that ‘users are assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities and accounting and a willingness to study the information with reasonable diligence.’ Therefore, the assessment needs to take into account how users with such attributes could reasonably be expected to be influenced in making economic decisions.

OVERALL CONSIDERATIONS

Fair presentation and compliance with IFRSs

13

Financial statements shall present fairly the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an entity. Fair presentation requires the faithful representation of the effects of transactions, other events and conditions in accordance with the definitions and recognition criteria for assets, liabilities, income and expenses set out in the Framework. The application of IFRSs, with additional disclosure when necessary, is presumed to result in financial statements that achieve a fair presentation.

14

An entity whose financial statements comply with IFRSs shall make an explicit and unreserved statement of such compliance in the notes. Financial statements shall not be described as complying with IFRSs unless they comply with all the requirements of IFRSs.

15

In virtually all circumstances, a fair presentation is achieved by compliance with applicable IFRSs. A fair presentation also requires an entity:

(a)

to select and apply accounting policies in accordance with IAS 8 Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors. IAS 8 sets out a hierarchy of authoritative guidance that management considers in the absence of a standard or an interpretation that specifically applies to an item;

(b)

to present information, including accounting policies, in a manner that provides relevant, reliable, comparable and understandable information;

(c)

to provide additional disclosures when compliance with the specific requirements in IFRSs is insufficient to enable users to understand the impact of particular transactions, other events and conditions on the entity's financial position and financial performance.

16

Inappropriate accounting policies are not rectified either by disclosure of the accounting policies used or by notes or explanatory material.

17

In the extremely rare circumstances in which management concludes that compliance with a requirement in a standard or an interpretation would be so misleading that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework, the entity shall depart from that requirement in the manner set out in paragraph 18 if the relevant regulatory framework requires, or otherwise does not prohibit, such a departure.

18

When an entity departs from a requirement of a standard or an interpretation in accordance with paragraph 17, it shall disclose:

(a)

that management has concluded that the financial statements present fairly the entity's financial position, financial performance and cash flows;

(b)

that it has complied with applicable standards and interpretations, except that it has departed from a particular requirement to achieve a fair presentation;

(c)

the title of the standard or interpretation from which the entity has departed, the nature of the departure, including the treatment that the standard or interpretation would require, the reason why that treatment would be so misleading in the circumstances that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework, and the treatment adopted; and

(d)

for each period presented, the financial impact of the departure on each item in the financial statements that would have been reported in complying with the requirement.

19

When an entity has departed from a requirement of a standard or an interpretation in a prior period, and that departure affects the amounts recognised in the financial statements for the current period, it shall make the disclosures set out in paragraph 18(c) and (d).

20

Paragraph 19 applies, for example, when an entity departed in a prior period from a requirement in a standard or an interpretation for the measurement of assets or liabilities and that departure affects the measurement of changes in assets and liabilities recognised in the current period's financial statements.

21

In the extremely rare circumstances in which management concludes that compliance with a requirement in a standard or an interpretation would be so misleading that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework, but the relevant regulatory framework prohibits departure from the requirement, the entity shall, to the maximum extent possible, reduce the perceived misleading aspects of compliance by disclosing:

(a)

the title of the standard or interpretation in question, the nature of the requirement, and the reason why management has concluded that complying with that requirement is so misleading in the circumstances that it conflicts with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework; and

(b)

for each period presented, the adjustments to each item in the financial statements that management has concluded would be necessary to achieve a fair presentation.

22

For the purpose of paragraphs 17-21, an item of information would conflict with the objective of financial statements when it does not represent faithfully the transactions, other events and conditions that it either purports to represent or could reasonably be expected to represent and, consequently, it would be likely to influence economic decisions made by users of financial statements. When assessing whether complying with a specific requirement in a standard or an interpretation would be so misleading that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework, management considers:

(a)

why the objective of financial statements is not achieved in the particular circumstances; and

(b)

how the entity's circumstances differ from those of other entities that comply with the requirement. If other entities in similar circumstances comply with the requirement, there is a rebuttable presumption that the entity's compliance with the requirement would not be so misleading that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework.

Going concern

23

When preparing financial statements, management shall make an assessment of an entity's ability to continue as a going concern. Financial statements shall be prepared on a going concern basis unless management either intends to liquidate the entity or to cease trading, or has no realistic alternative but to do so. When management is aware, in making its assessment, of material uncertainties related to events or conditions that may cast significant doubt upon the entity's ability to continue as a going concern, those uncertainties shall be disclosed. When financial statements are not prepared on a going concern basis, that fact shall be disclosed, together with the basis on which the financial statements are prepared and the reason why the entity is not regarded as a going concern.

24

In assessing whether the going concern assumption is appropriate, management takes into account all available information about the future, which is at least, but is not limited to, 12 months from the balance sheet date. The degree of consideration depends on the facts in each case. When an entity has a history of profitable operations and ready access to financial resources, a conclusion that the going concern basis of accounting is appropriate may be reached without detailed analysis. In other cases, management may need to consider a wide range of factors relating to current and expected profitability, debt repayment schedules and potential sources of replacement financing before it can satisfy itself that the going concern basis is appropriate.

Accrual basis of accounting

25

An entity shall prepare its financial statements, except for cash flow information, using the accrual basis of accounting.

26

When the accrual basis of accounting is used, items are recognised as assets, liabilities, equity, income and expenses (the elements of financial statements) when they satisfy the definitions and recognition criteria for those elements in the Framework.

Consistency of presentation

27

The presentation and classification of items in the financial statements shall be retained from one period to the next unless:

(a)

it is apparent, following a significant change in the nature of the entity's operations or a review of its financial statements, that another presentation or classification would be more appropriate having regard to the criteria for the selection and application of accounting policies in IAS 8; or

(b)

a standard or an interpretation requires a change in presentation.

28

A significant acquisition or disposal, or a review of the presentation of the financial statements, might suggest that the financial statements need to be presented differently. An entity changes the presentation of its financial statements only if the changed presentation provides information that is reliable and is more relevant to users of the financial statements and the revised structure is likely to continue, so that comparability is not impaired. When making such changes in presentation, an entity reclassifies its comparative information in accordance with paragraphs 38 and 39.

Materiality and aggregation

29

Each material class of similar items shall be presented separately in the financial statements. Items of a dissimilar nature or function shall be presented separately unless they are immaterial.

30

Financial statements result from processing large numbers of transactions or other events that are aggregated into classes according to their nature or function. The final stage in the process of aggregation and classification is the presentation of condensed and classified data, which form line items on the face of the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity and cash-flow statement, or in the notes. If a line item is not individually material, it is aggregated with other items either on the face of those statements or in the notes. An item that is not sufficiently material to warrant separate presentation on the face of those statements may nevertheless be sufficiently material for it to be presented separately in the notes.

31

Applying the concept of materiality means that a specific disclosure requirement in a standard or an interpretation need not be satisfied if the information is not material.

Offsetting

32

Assets and liabilities, and income and expenses, shall not be offset unless required or permitted by a standard or an interpretation.

33

It is important that assets and liabilities, and income and expenses, are reported separately. Offsetting in the income statement or the balance sheet, except when offsetting reflects the substance of the transaction or other event, detracts from the ability of users both to understand the transactions, other events and conditions that have occurred and to assess the entity's future cash flows. Measuring assets net of valuation allowances — for example, obsolescence allowances on inventories and doubtful debts allowances on receivables — is not offsetting.

34

IAS 18 Revenue defines revenue and requires it to be measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account the amount of any trade discounts and volume rebates allowed by the entity. An entity undertakes, in the course of its ordinary activities, other transactions that do not generate revenue but are incidental to the main revenue-generating activities. The results of such transactions are presented, when this presentation reflects the substance of the transaction or other event, by netting any income with related expenses arising on the same transaction. For example:

(a)

gains and losses on the disposal of non-current assets, including investments and operating assets, are reported by deducting from the proceeds on disposal the carrying amount of the asset and related selling expenses; and

(b)

expenditure related to a provision that is recognised in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets and reimbursed under a contractual arrangement with a third party (for example, a supplier's warranty agreement) may be netted against the related reimbursement.

35

In addition, gains and losses arising from a group of similar transactions are reported on a net basis, for example, foreign exchange gains and losses or gains and losses arising on financial instruments held for trading. Such gains and losses are, however, reported separately if they are material.

Comparative information

36

Except when a standard or an interpretation permits or requires otherwise, comparative information shall be disclosed in respect of the previous period for all amounts reported in the financial statements. Comparative information shall be included for narrative and descriptive information when it is relevant to an understanding of the current period's financial statements.

37

In some cases, narrative information provided in the financial statements for the previous period(s) continues to be relevant in the current period. For example, details of a legal dispute, the outcome of which was uncertain at the last balance sheet date and is yet to be resolved, are disclosed in the current period. Users benefit from information that the uncertainty existed at the last balance sheet date, and about the steps that have been taken during the period to resolve the uncertainty.

38

When the presentation or classification of items in the financial statements is amended, comparative amounts shall be reclassified unless the reclassification is impracticable. When comparative amounts are reclassified, an entity shall disclose:

(a)

the nature of the reclassification;

(b)

the amount of each item or class of items that is reclassified; and

(c)

the reason for the reclassification.

39

When it is impracticable to reclassify comparative amounts, an entity shall disclose:

(a)

the reason for not reclassifying the amounts; and

(b)

the nature of the adjustments that would have been made if the amounts had been reclassified.

40

Enhancing the inter-period comparability of information assists users in making economic decisions, especially by allowing the assessment of trends in financial information for predictive purposes. In some circumstances, it is impracticable to reclassify comparative information for a particular prior period to achieve comparability with the current period. For example, data may not have been collected in the prior period(s) in a way that allows reclassification, and it may not be practicable to recreate the information.

41

IAS 8 deals with the adjustments to comparative information required when an entity changes an accounting policy or corrects an error.

STRUCTURE AND CONTENT

Introduction

42

This standard requires particular disclosures on the face of the balance sheet, income statement and statement of changes in equity and requires disclosure of other line items either on the face of those statements or in the notes. IAS 7 Cash-flow statements sets out requirements for the presentation of a cash-flow statement.

43

This standard sometimes uses the term ‘disclosure’ in a broad sense, encompassing items presented on the face of the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity and cash-flow statement, as well as in the notes. Disclosures are also required by other standards and interpretations. Unless specified to the contrary elsewhere in this standard, or in another standard or interpretation, such disclosures are made either on the face of the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity or cash-flow statement (whichever is relevant), or in the notes.

Identification of the financial statements

44

The financial statements shall be identified clearly and distinguished from other information in the same published document.

45

IFRSs apply only to financial statements, and not to other information presented in an annual report or other document. Therefore, it is important that users can distinguish information that is prepared using IFRSs from other information that may be useful to users but is not the subject of those requirements.

46

Each component of the financial statements shall be identified clearly. In addition, the following information shall be displayed prominently, and repeated when it is necessary for a proper understanding of the information presented:

(a)

the name of the reporting entity or other means of identification, and any change in that information from the preceding balance sheet date;

(b)

whether the financial statements cover the individual entity or a group of entities;

(c)

the balance sheet date or the period covered by the financial statements, whichever is appropriate to that component of the financial statements;

(d)

the presentation currency, as defined in IAS 21 The effects of changes in foreign exchange rates; and

(e)

the level of rounding used in presenting amounts in the financial statements.

47

The requirements in paragraph 46 are normally met by presenting page headings and abbreviated column headings on each page of the financial statements. Judgement is required in determining the best way of presenting such information. For example, when the financial statements are presented electronically, separate pages are not always used; the above items are then presented frequently enough to ensure a proper understanding of the information included in the financial statements.

48

Financial statements are often made more understandable by presenting information in thousands or millions of units of the presentation currency. This is acceptable as long as the level of rounding in presentation is disclosed and material information is not omitted.

Reporting period

49

Financial statements shall be presented at least annually. When an entity's balance sheet date changes and the annual financial statements are presented for a period longer or shorter than one year, an entity shall disclose, in addition to the period covered by the financial statements:

(a)

the reason for using a longer or shorter period; and

(b)

the fact that comparative amounts for the income statement, statement of changes in equity, cash-flow statement and related notes are not entirely comparable.

50

Normally, financial statements are consistently prepared covering a one-year period. However, for practical reasons, some entities prefer to report, for example, for a 52-week period. This standard does not preclude this practice, because the resulting financial statements are unlikely to be materially different from those that would be presented for one year.

Balance sheet

Current/non-current distinction

51

An entity shall present current and non-current assets, and current and non-current liabilities, as separate classifications on the face of its balance sheet in accordance with paragraphs 57-67 except when a presentation based on liquidity provides information that is reliable and is more relevant. When that exception applies, all assets and liabilities shall be presented broadly in order of liquidity.

52

Whichever method of presentation is adopted, for each asset and liability line item that combines amounts expected to be recovered or settled (a) no more than 12 months after the balance sheet date and (b) more than 12 months after the balance sheet date, an entity shall disclose the amount expected to be recovered or settled after more than 12 months.

53

When an entity supplies goods or services within a clearly identifiable operating cycle, separate classification of current and non-current assets and liabilities on the face of the balance sheet provides useful information by distinguishing the net assets that are continuously circulating as working capital from those used in the entity's long-term operations. It also highlights assets that are expected to be realised within the current operating cycle, and liabilities that are due for settlement within the same period.

54

For some entities, such as financial institutions, a presentation of assets and liabilities in increasing or decreasing order of liquidity provides information that is reliable and is more relevant than a current/non-current presentation because the entity does not supply goods or services within a clearly identifiable operating cycle.

55

In applying paragraph 51, an entity is permitted to present some of its assets and liabilities using a current/non-current classification and others in order of liquidity when this provides information that is reliable and is more relevant. The need for a mixed basis of presentation might arise when an entity has diverse operations.

56

Information about expected dates of realisation of assets and liabilities is useful in assessing the liquidity and solvency of an entity. IFRS 7 Financial instruments: disclosures requires disclosure of the maturity dates of financial assets and financial liabilities. Financial assets include trade and other receivables, and financial liabilities include trade and other payables. Information on the expected date of recovery and settlement of non-monetary assets and liabilities such as inventories and provisions is also useful, whether or not assets and liabilities are classified as current or non-current. For example, an entity discloses the amount of inventories that are expected to be recovered more than 12 months after the balance sheet date.

Current assets

57

An asset shall be classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

(a)

it is expected to be realised in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the entity's normal operating cycle;

(b)

it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

(c)

it is expected to be realised within 12 months after the balance sheet date; or

(d)

it is cash or a cash equivalent (as defined in IAS 7) unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the balance sheet date.

All other assets shall be classified as non-current.

58

This standard uses the term ‘non-current’ to include tangible, intangible and financial assets of a long-term nature. It does not prohibit the use of alternative descriptions as long as the meaning is clear.

59

The operating cycle of an entity is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents. When the entity's normal operating cycle is not clearly identifiable, its duration is assumed to be 12 months. Current assets include assets (such as inventories and trade receivables) that are sold, consumed or realised as part of the normal operating cycle even when they are not expected to be realised within 12 months after the balance sheet date. Current assets also include assets held primarily for the purpose of being traded (financial assets within this category are classified as held for trading in accordance with IAS 39 Financial instruments: recognition and measurement) and the current portion of non-current financial assets.

Current liabilities

60

A liability shall be classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

(a)

it is expected to be settled in the entity's normal operating cycle;

(b)

it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

(c)

it is due to be settled within 12 months after the balance sheet date; or

(d)

the entity does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the balance sheet date.

All other liabilities shall be classified as non-current.

61

Some current liabilities, such as trade payables and some accruals for employee and other operating costs, are part of the working capital used in the entity's normal operating cycle. Such operating items are classified as current liabilities even if they are due to be settled more than 12 months after the balance sheet date. The same normal operating cycle applies to the classification of an entity's assets and liabilities. When the entity's normal operating cycle is not clearly identifiable, its duration is assumed to be 12 months.

62

Other current liabilities are not settled as part of the normal operating cycle, but are due for settlement within 12 months after the balance sheet date or held primarily for the purpose of being traded. Examples are financial liabilities classified as held for trading in accordance with IAS 39, bank overdrafts, and the current portion of non-current financial liabilities, dividends payable, income taxes and other non-trade payables. Financial liabilities that provide financing on a long-term basis (i.e. are not part of the working capital used in the entity's normal operating cycle) and are not due for settlement within 12 months after the balance sheet date are non-current liabilities, subject to paragraphs 65 and 66.

63

An entity classifies its financial liabilities as current when they are due to be settled within 12 months after the balance sheet date, even if:

(a)

the original term was for a period longer than 12 months; and

(b)

an agreement to refinance, or to reschedule payments, on a long-term basis is completed after the balance sheet date and before the financial statements are authorised for issue.

64

If an entity expects, and has the discretion, to refinance or roll over an obligation for at least 12 months after the balance sheet date under an existing loan facility, it classifies the obligation as non-current, even if it would otherwise be due within a shorter period. However, when refinancing or rolling over the obligation is not at the discretion of the entity (for example, there is no agreement to refinance), the potential to refinance is not considered and the obligation is classified as current.

65

When an entity breaches an undertaking under a long-term loan agreement on or before the balance sheet date with the effect that the liability becomes payable on demand, the liability is classified as current, even if the lender has agreed, after the balance sheet date and before the authorisation of the financial statements for issue, not to demand payment as a consequence of the breach. The liability is classified as current because, at the balance sheet date, the entity does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for at least 12 months after that date.

66

However, the liability is classified as non-current if the lender agreed by the balance sheet date to provide a period of grace ending at least 12 months after the balance sheet date, within which the entity can rectify the breach and during which the lender cannot demand immediate repayment.

67

In respect of loans classified as current liabilities, if the following events occur between the balance sheet date and the date the financial statements are authorised for issue, those events qualify for disclosure as non-adjusting events in accordance with IAS 10 Events after the balance sheet date:

(a)

refinancing on a long-term basis;

(b)

rectification of a breach of a long-term loan agreement; and

(c)

the receipt from the lender of a period of grace to rectify a breach of a long-term loan agreement ending at least 12 months after the balance sheet date.

Information to be presented on the face of the balance sheet

68

As a minimum, the face of the balance sheet shall include line items that present the following amounts to the extent that they are not presented in accordance with paragraph 68A:

(a)

property, plant and equipment;

(b)

investment property;

(c)

intangible assets;

(d)

financial assets (excluding amounts shown under (e), (h) and (i));

(e)

investments accounted for using the equity method;

(f)

biological assets;

(g)

inventories;

(h)

trade and other receivables;

(i)

cash and cash equivalents;

(j)

trade and other payables;

(k)

provisions;

(l)

financial liabilities (excluding amounts shown under (j) and (k));

(m)

liabilities and assets for current tax, as defined in IAS 12 Income taxes;

(n)

deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, as defined in IAS 12;

(o)

minority interest, presented within equity; and

(p)

issued capital and reserves attributable to equity holders of the parent.

68A

The face of the balance sheet shall also include line items that present the following amounts:

(a)

the total of assets classified as held for sale and assets included in disposal groups classified as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations; and

(b)

liabilities included in disposal groups classified as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5.

69

Additional line items, headings and subtotals shall be presented on the face of the balance sheet when such presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity's financial position.

70

When an entity presents current and non-current assets, and current and non-current liabilities, as separate classifications on the face of its balance sheet, it shall not classify deferred tax assets (liabilities) as current assets (liabilities).

71

This standard does not prescribe the order or format in which items are to be presented. Paragraph 68 simply provides a list of items that are sufficiently different in nature or function to warrant separate presentation on the face of the balance sheet. In addition:

(a)

line items are included when the size, nature or function of an item or aggregation of similar items is such that separate presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity's financial position; and

(b)

the descriptions used and the ordering of items or aggregation of similar items may be amended according to the nature of the entity and its transactions, to provide information that is relevant to an understanding of the entity's financial position. For example, a financial institution may amend the above descriptions to provide information that is relevant to the operations of a financial institution.

72

The judgement on whether additional items are presented separately is based on an assessment of:

(a)

the nature and liquidity of assets;

(b)

the function of assets within the entity; and

(c)

the amounts, nature and timing of liabilities.

73

The use of different measurement bases for different classes of assets suggests that their nature or function differs and, therefore, that they should be presented as separate line items. For example, different classes of property, plant and equipment can be carried at cost or revalued amounts in accordance with IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment.

Information to be presented either on the face of the balance sheet or in the notes

74

An entity shall disclose, either on the face of the balance sheet or in the notes, further subclassifications of the line items presented, classified in a manner appropriate to the entity's operations.

75

The detail provided in subclassifications depends on the requirements of IFRSs and on the size, nature and function of the amounts involved. The factors set out in paragraph 72 also are used to decide the basis of subclassification. The disclosures vary for each item, for example:

(a)

items of property, plant and equipment are disaggregated into classes in accordance with IAS 16;

(b)

receivables are disaggregated into amounts receivable from trade customers, receivables from related parties, prepayments and other amounts;

(c)

inventories are subclassified, in accordance with IAS 2 Inventories, into classifications such as merchandise, production supplies, materials, work in progress and finished goods;

(d)

provisions are disaggregated into provisions for employee benefits and other items; and

(e)

contributed equity and reserves are disaggregated into various classes, such as paid-in capital, share premium and reserves.

76

An entity shall disclose the following, either on the face of the balance sheet or in the notes:

(a)

for each class of share capital:

(i)

the number of shares authorised;

(ii)

the number of shares issued and fully paid, and issued but not fully paid;

(iii)

par value per share, or that the shares have no par value;

(iv)

a reconciliation of the number of shares outstanding at the beginning and at the end of the period;

(v)

the rights, preferences and restrictions attaching to that class, including restrictions on the distribution of dividends and the repayment of capital;

(vi)

shares in the entity held by the entity or by its subsidiaries or associates; and

(vii)

shares reserved for issue under options and contracts for the sale of shares, including the terms and amounts; and

(b)

a description of the nature and purpose of each reserve within equity.

77

An entity without share capital, such as a partnership or trust, shall disclose information equivalent to that required by paragraph 76(a), showing changes during the period in each category of equity interest, and the rights, preferences and restrictions attaching to each category of equity interest.

Income statement

Profit or loss for the period

78

All items of income and expense recognised in a period shall be included in profit or loss unless a standard or an interpretation requires otherwise.

79

Normally, all items of income and expense recognised in a period are included in profit or loss. This includes the effects of changes in accounting estimates. However, circumstances may exist when particular items may be excluded from profit or loss for the current period. IAS 8 deals with two such circumstances: the correction of errors and the effect of changes in accounting policies.

80

Other standards deal with items that may meet the Framework definitions of income or expense but are usually excluded from profit or loss. Examples include revaluation surpluses (see IAS 16), particular gains and losses arising on translating the financial statements of a foreign operation (see IAS 21) and gains or losses on remeasuring available-for-sale financial assets (see IAS 39).

Information to be presented on the face of the income statement

81

As a minimum, the face of the income statement shall include line items that present the following amounts for the period:

(a)

revenue;

(b)

finance costs;

(c)

share of the profit or loss of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method;

(d)

tax expense;

(e)

a single amount comprising the total of (i) the post-tax profit or loss of discontinued operations and (ii) the post-tax gain or loss recognised on the measurement to fair value less costs to sell or on the disposal of the assets or disposal group(s) constituting the discontinued operation; and

(f)

profit or loss.

82

The following items shall be disclosed on the face of the income statement as allocations of profit or loss for the period:

(a)

profit or loss attributable to minority interest; and

(b)

profit or loss attributable to equity holders of the parent.

83

Additional line items, headings and subtotals shall be presented on the face of the income statement when such presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity's financial performance.

84

Because the effects of an entity's various activities, transactions and other events differ in frequency, potential for gain or loss and predictability, disclosing the components of financial performance assists in an understanding of the financial performance achieved and in making projections of future results. Additional line items are included on the face of the income statement, and the descriptions used and the ordering of items are amended when this is necessary to explain the elements of financial performance. Factors to be considered include materiality and the nature and function of the components of income and expenses. For example, a financial institution may amend the descriptions to provide information that is relevant to the operations of a financial institution. Income and expense items are not offset unless the criteria in paragraph 32 are met.

85

An entity shall not present any items of income and expense as extraordinary items, either on the face of the income statement or in the notes.

Information to be presented either on the face of the income statement or in the notes

86

When items of income and expense are material, their nature and amount shall be disclosed separately.

87

Circumstances that would give rise to the separate disclosure of items of income and expense include:

(a)

write-downs of inventories to net realisable value or of property, plant and equipment to recoverable amount, as well as reversals of such write-downs;

(b)

restructurings of the activities of an entity and reversals of any provisions for the costs of restructuring;

(c)

disposals of items of property, plant and equipment;

(d)

disposals of investments;

(e)

discontinued operations;

(f)

litigation settlements; and

(g)

other reversals of provisions.

88

An entity shall present an analysis of expenses using a classification based on either the nature of expenses or their function within the entity, whichever provides information that is reliable and more relevant.

89

Entities are encouraged to present the analysis in paragraph 88 on the face of the income statement.

90

Expenses are subclassified to highlight components of financial performance that may differ in terms of frequency, potential for gain or loss and predictability. This analysis is provided in one of two forms.

91

The first form of analysis is the nature of expense method. Expenses are aggregated in the income statement according to their nature (for example, depreciation, purchases of materials, transport costs, employee benefits and advertising costs), and are not reallocated among various functions within the entity. This method may be simple to apply because no allocations of expenses to functional classifications are necessary. An example of a classification using the nature of expense method is as follows:

Revenue

 

X

Other income

 

X

Changes in inventories of finished goods and work in progress

X

 

Raw materials and consumables used

X

 

Employee benefits expense

X

 

Depreciation and amortisation expense

X

 

Other expenses

X

 

Total expenses

 

(X)

Profit

 

X

92

The second form of analysis is the function of expense or ‘cost of sales’ method and classifies expenses according to their function as part of cost of sales or, for example, the costs of distribution or administrative activities. At a minimum, an entity discloses its cost of sales under this method separately from other expenses. This method can provide more relevant information to users than the classification of expenses by nature, but allocating costs to functions may require arbitrary allocations and involve considerable judgement. An example of a classification using the function of expense method is as follows:

Revenue

X

Cost of sales

(X)

Gross profit

X

Other income

X

Distribution costs

(X)

Administrative expenses

(X)

Other expenses

(X)

Profit

X

93

Entities classifying expenses by function shall disclose additional information on the nature of expenses, including depreciation and amortisation expense and employee benefits expense.

94

The choice between the function of expense method and the nature of expense method depends on historical and industry factors and the nature of the entity. Both methods provide an indication of those costs that might vary, directly or indirectly, with the level of sales or production of the entity. Because each method of presentation has merit for different types of entities, this standard requires management to select the most relevant and reliable presentation. However, because information on the nature of expenses is useful in predicting future cash flows, additional disclosure is required when the function of expense classification is used. In paragraph 93, ‘employee benefits’ has the same meaning as in IAS 19 Employee benefits.

95

An entity shall disclose, either on the face of the income statement or the statement of changes in equity, or in the notes, the amount of dividends recognised as distributions to equity holders during the period, and the related amount per share.

Statement of changes in equity

96

An entity shall present a statement of changes in equity showing on the face of the statement:

(a)

profit or loss for the period;

(b)

each item of income and expense for the period that, as required by other standards or by interpretations, is recognised directly in equity, and the total of these items;

(c)

total income and expense for the period (calculated as the sum of (a) and (b)), showing separately the total amounts attributable to equity holders of the parent and to minority interest; and

(d)

for each component of equity, the effects of changes in accounting policies and corrections of errors recognised in accordance with IAS 8.

A statement of changes in equity that comprises only these items shall be titled a statement of recognised income and expense.

97

An entity shall also present, either on the face of the statement of changes in equity or in the notes:

(a)

the amounts of transactions with equity holders acting in their capacity as equity holders, showing separately distributions to equity holders;

(b)

the balance of retained earnings (i.e. accumulated profit or loss) at the beginning of the period and at the balance sheet date, and the changes during the period; and

(c)

a reconciliation between the carrying amount of each class of contributed equity and each reserve at the beginning and the end of the period, separately disclosing each change.

98

Changes in an entity's equity between two balance sheet dates reflect the increase or decrease in its net assets during the period. Except for changes resulting from transactions with equity holders acting in their capacity as equity holders (such as equity contributions, reacquisitions of the entity's own equity instruments and dividends) and transaction costs directly related to such transactions, the overall change in equity during a period represents the total amount of income and expenses, including gains and losses, generated by the entity's activities during that period (whether those items of income and expenses are recognised in profit or loss or directly as changes in equity).

99

This standard requires all items of income and expense recognised in a period to be included in profit or loss unless another standard or an interpretation requires otherwise. Other standards require some gains and losses (such as revaluation increases and decreases, particular foreign exchange differences, gains or losses on remeasuring available-for-sale financial assets, and related amounts of current tax and deferred tax) to be recognised directly as changes in equity. Because it is important to consider all items of income and expense in assessing changes in an entity's financial position between two balance sheet dates, this standard requires the presentation of a statement of changes in equity that highlights an entity's total income and expenses, including those that are recognised directly in equity.

100

IAS 8 requires retrospective adjustments to effect changes in accounting policies, to the extent practicable, except when the transitional provisions in another standard or an interpretation require otherwise. IAS 8 also requires that restatements to correct errors are made retrospectively, to the extent practicable. Retrospective adjustments and retrospective restatements are made to the balance of retained earnings, except when a standard or an interpretation requires retrospective adjustment of another component of equity. Paragraph 96(d) requires disclosure in the statement of changes in equity of the total adjustment to each component of equity resulting, separately, from changes in accounting policies and from corrections of errors. These adjustments are disclosed for each prior period and the beginning of the period.

101

The requirements in paragraphs 96 and 97 may be met in various ways. One example is a columnar format that reconciles the opening and closing balances of each element within equity. An alternative is to present only the items set out in paragraph 96 in the statement of changes in equity. Under this approach, the items described in paragraph 97 are shown in the notes.

Cash-flow statement

102

Cash flow information provides users of financial statements with a basis to assess the ability of the entity to generate cash and cash equivalents and the needs of the entity to utilise those cash flows. IAS 7 sets out requirements for the presentation of the cash-flow statement and related disclosures.

Notes

Structure

103

The notes shall:

(a)

present information about the basis of preparation of the financial statements and the specific accounting policies used in accordance with paragraphs 108-115;

(b)

disclose the information required by IFRSs that is not presented on the face of the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity or cash-flow statement; and

(c)

provide additional information that is not presented on the face of the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity or cash-flow statement, but is relevant to an understanding of any of them.

104

Notes shall, as far as practicable, be presented in a systematic manner. Each item on the face of the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity and cash-flow statement shall be cross-referenced to any related information in the notes.

105

Notes are normally presented in the following order, which assists users in understanding the financial statements and comparing them with financial statements of other entities:

(a)

a statement of compliance with IFRSs (see paragraph 14);

(b)

a summary of significant accounting policies applied (see paragraph 108);

(c)

supporting information for items presented on the face of the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity and cash-flow statement, in the order in which each statement and each line item is presented; and

(d)

other disclosures, including:

(i)

contingent liabilities (see IAS 37) and unrecognised contractual commitments; and

(ii)

non-financial disclosures, e.g. the entity's financial risk management objectives and policies (see IFRS 7).

106

In some circumstances, it may be necessary or desirable to vary the ordering of specific items within the notes. For example, information on changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss may be combined with information on maturities of financial instruments, although the former disclosures relate to the income statement and the latter relate to the balance sheet. Nevertheless, a systematic structure for the notes is retained as far as practicable.

107

Notes providing information about the basis of preparation of the financial statements and specific accounting policies may be presented as a separate component of the financial statements.

Disclosure of accounting policies

108

An entity shall disclose in the summary of significant accounting policies:

(a)

the measurement basis (or bases) used in preparing the financial statements; and

(b)

the other accounting policies used that are relevant to an understanding of the financial statements.

109

It is important for users to be informed of the measurement basis or bases used in the financial statements (for example, historical cost, current cost, net realisable value, fair value or recoverable amount) because the basis on which the financial statements are prepared significantly affects their analysis. When more than one measurement basis is used in the financial statements, for example when particular classes of assets are revalued, it is sufficient to provide an indication of the categories of assets and liabilities to which each measurement basis is applied.

110

In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users when those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in standards and interpretations. An example is disclosure of whether a venturer recognises its interest in a jointly controlled entity using proportionate consolidation or the equity method (see IAS 31 Interests in joint ventures). Some standards specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment. IAS 23 Borrowing costs requires disclosure of whether borrowing costs are recognised immediately as an expense or capitalised as part of the cost of qualifying assets.

111

Each entity considers the nature of its operations and the policies that the users of its financial statements would expect to be disclosed for that type of entity. For example, an entity subject to income taxes would be expected to disclose its accounting policies for income taxes, including those applicable to deferred tax liabilities and assets. When an entity has significant foreign operations or transactions in foreign currencies, disclosure of accounting policies for the recognition of foreign exchange gains and losses would be expected. When business combinations have occurred, the policies used for measuring goodwill and minority interest are disclosed.

112

An accounting policy may be significant because of the nature of the entity's operations even if amounts for current and prior periods are not material. It is also appropriate to disclose each significant accounting policy that is not specifically required by IFRSs, but is selected and applied in accordance with IAS 8.

113

An entity shall disclose, in the summary of significant accounting policies or other notes, the judgements, apart from those involving estimations (see paragraph 116), that management has made in the process of applying the entity's accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements.

114

In the process of applying the entity's accounting policies, management makes various judgements, apart from those involving estimations, that can significantly affect the amounts recognised in the financial statements. For example, management makes judgements in determining:

(a)

whether financial assets are held-to-maturity investments;

(b)

when substantially all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of financial assets and lease assets are transferred to other entities;

(c)

whether, in substance, particular sales of goods are financing arrangements and therefore do not give rise to revenue; and

(d)

whether the substance of the relationship between the entity and a special purpose entity indicates that the special purpose entity is controlled by the entity.

115

Some of the disclosures made in accordance with paragraph 113 are required by other standards. For example, IAS 27 requires an entity to disclose the reasons why the entity's ownership interest does not constitute control, in respect of an investee that is not a subsidiary even though more than half of its voting or potential voting power is owned directly or indirectly through subsidiaries. IAS 40 requires disclosure of the criteria developed by the entity to distinguish investment property from owner-occupied property and from property held for sale in the ordinary course of business, when classification of the property is difficult.

Key sources of estimation uncertainty

116

An entity shall disclose in the notes information about the key assumptions concerning the future, and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the balance sheet date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year. In respect of those assets and liabilities, the notes shall include details of:

(a)

their nature; and

(b)

their carrying amount as at the balance sheet date.

117

Determining the carrying amounts of some assets and liabilities requires estimation of the effects of uncertain future events on those assets and liabilities at the balance sheet date. For example, in the absence of recently observed market prices used to measure the following assets and liabilities, future-oriented estimates are necessary to measure the recoverable amount of classes of property, plant and equipment, the effect of technological obsolescence on inventories, provisions subject to the future outcome of litigation in progress, and long-term employee benefit liabilities such as pension obligations. These estimates involve assumptions about such items as the risk adjustment to cash flows or discount rates used, future changes in salaries and future changes in prices affecting other costs.

118

The key assumptions and other key sources of estimation uncertainty disclosed in accordance with paragraph 116 relate to the estimates that require management's most difficult, subjective or complex judgements. As the number of variables and assumptions affecting the possible future resolution of the uncertainties increases, those judgements become more subjective and complex, and the potential for a consequential material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities normally increases accordingly.

119

The disclosures in paragraph 116 are not required for assets and liabilities with a significant risk that their carrying amounts might change materially within the next financial year if, at the balance sheet date, they are measured at fair value based on recently observed market prices (their fair values might change materially within the next financial year but these changes would not arise from assumptions or other sources of estimation uncertainty at the balance sheet date).

120

The disclosures in paragraph 116 are presented in a manner that helps users of financial statements to understand the judgements management makes about the future and about other key sources of estimation uncertainty. The nature and extent of the information provided vary according to the nature of the assumption and other circumstances. Examples of the types of disclosures made are:

(a)

the nature of the assumption or other estimation uncertainty;

(b)

the sensitivity of carrying amounts to the methods, assumptions and estimates underlying their calculation, including the reasons for the sensitivity;

(c)

the expected resolution of an uncertainty and the range of reasonably possible outcomes within the next financial year in respect of the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities affected; and

(d)

an explanation of changes made to past assumptions concerning those assets and liabilities, if the uncertainty remains unresolved.

121

It is not necessary to disclose budget information or forecasts in making the disclosures in paragraph 116.

122

When it is impracticable to disclose the extent of the possible effects of a key assumption or another key source of estimation uncertainty at the balance sheet date, the entity discloses that it is reasonably possible, based on existing knowledge, that outcomes within the next financial year that are different from assumptions could require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset or liability affected. In all cases, the entity discloses the nature and carrying amount of the specific asset or liability (or class of assets or liabilities) affected by the assumption.

123

The disclosures in paragraph 113 of particular judgements management made in the process of applying the entity's accounting policies do not relate to the disclosures of key sources of estimation uncertainty in paragraph 116.

124

The disclosure of some of the key assumptions that would otherwise be required in accordance with paragraph 116 is required by other standards. For example, IAS 37 requires disclosure, in specified circumstances, of major assumptions concerning future events affecting classes of provisions. IFRS 7 requires disclosure of significant assumptions applied in estimating fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities that are carried at fair value. IAS 16 requires disclosure of significant assumptions applied in estimating fair values of revalued items of property, plant and equipment.

Capital

124A

An entity shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the entity's objectives, policies and processes for managing capital.

124B

To comply with paragraph 124A, the entity discloses the following:

(a)

qualitative information about its objectives, policies and processes for managing capital, including (but not limited to):

(i)

a description of what it manages as capital;

(ii)

when an entity is subject to externally imposed capital requirements, the nature of those requirements and how those requirements are incorporated into the management of capital; and

(iii)

how it is meeting its objectives for managing capital;

(b)

summary quantitative data about what it manages as capital. Some entities regard some financial liabilities (e.g. some forms of subordinated debt) as part of capital. Other entities regard capital as excluding some components of equity (e.g. components arising from cash flow hedges);

(c)

any changes in (a) and (b) from the previous period;

(d)

whether during the period it complied with any externally imposed capital requirements to which it is subject;

(e)

when the entity has not complied with such externally imposed capital requirements, the consequences of such non-compliance.

These disclosures shall be based on the information provided internally to the entity's key management personnel.

124C

An entity may manage capital in a number of ways and be subject to a number of different capital requirements. For example, a conglomerate may include entities that undertake insurance activities and banking activities, and those entities may also operate in several jurisdictions. When an aggregate disclosure of capital requirements and how capital is managed would not provide useful information or distorts a financial statement user's understanding of an entity's capital resources, the entity shall disclose separate information for each capital requirement to which the entity is subject.

Other disclosures

125

An entity shall disclose in the notes:

(a)

the amount of dividends proposed or declared before the financial statements were authorised for issue but not recognised as a distribution to equity holders during the period, and the related amount per share; and

(b)

the amount of any cumulative preference dividends not recognised.

126

An entity shall disclose the following, if not disclosed elsewhere in information published with the financial statements:

(a)

the domicile and legal form of the entity, its country of incorporation and the address of its registered office (or principal place of business, if different from the registered office);

(b)

a description of the nature of the entity's operations and its principal activities; and

(c)

the name of the parent and the ultimate parent of the group.

EFFECTIVE DATE

127

An entity shall apply this standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity applies this standard for a period beginning before 1 January 2005, it shall disclose that fact.

127A

An entity shall apply the amendment in paragraph 96 for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2006. If an entity applies the amendments to IAS 19 Employee benefits — actuarial gains and losses, group plans and disclosures for an earlier period, that amendment shall be applied for that earlier period.

127B

An entity shall apply the requirements of paragraphs 124A-124C for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2007. Earlier application is encouraged.

WITHDRAWAL OF IAS 1 (REVISED 1997)

128

This standard supersedes IAS 1 Presentation of financial statements revised in 1997.

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 2

Inventories

OBJECTIVE

1

The objective of this standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for inventories. A primary issue in accounting for inventories is the amount of cost to be recognised as an asset and carried forward until the related revenues are recognised. This standard provides guidance on the determination of cost and its subsequent recognition as an expense, including any write-down to net realisable value. It also provides guidance on the cost formulas that are used to assign costs to inventories.

SCOPE

2

This standard applies to all inventories, except:

(a)

work in progress arising under construction contracts, including directly related service contracts (see IAS 11 Construction contracts);

(b)

financial instruments (see IAS 32 Financial instruments: presentation and IAS 39 Financial instruments: recognition and measurement); and

(c)

biological assets related to agricultural activity and agricultural produce at the point of harvest (see IAS 41 Agriculture).

3

This standard does not apply to the measurement of inventories held by:

(a)

producers of agricultural and forest products, agricultural produce after harvest, and minerals and mineral products, to the extent that they are measured at net realisable value in accordance with well-established practices in those industries. When such inventories are measured at net realisable value, changes in that value are recognised in profit or loss in the period of the change;

(b)

commodity broker-traders who measure their inventories at fair value less costs to sell. When such inventories are measured at fair value less costs to sell, changes in fair value less costs to sell are recognised in profit or loss in the period of the change.

4

The inventories referred to in paragraph 3(a) are measured at net realisable value at certain stages of production. This occurs, for example, when agricultural crops have been harvested or minerals have been extracted and sale is assured under a forward contract or a government guarantee, or when an active market exists and there is a negligible risk of failure to sell. These inventories are excluded from only the measurement requirements of this standard.

5

Broker-traders are those who buy or sell commodities for others or on their own account. The inventories referred to in paragraph 3(b) are principally acquired with the purpose of selling in the near future and generating a profit from fluctuations in price or broker-traders' margin. When these inventories are measured at fair value less costs to sell, they are excluded from only the measurement requirements of this standard.

DEFINITIONS

6

The following terms are used in this standard with the meanings specified:

Inventories are assets:

(a)

held for sale in the ordinary course of business;

(b)

in the process of production for such sale; or

(c)

in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm's length transaction.

7

Net realisable value refers to the net amount that an entity expects to realise from the sale of inventory in the ordinary course of business. Fair value reflects the amount for which the same inventory could be exchanged between knowledgeable and willing buyers and sellers in the marketplace. The former is an entity-specific value; the latter is not. Net realisable value for inventories may not equal fair value less costs to sell.

8

Inventories encompass goods purchased and held for resale, including, for example, merchandise purchased by a retailer and held for resale, or land and other property held for resale. Inventories also encompass finished goods produced, or work in progress being produced, by the entity and include materials and supplies awaiting use in the production process. In the case of a service provider, inventories include the costs of the service, as described in paragraph 19, for which the entity has not yet recognised the related revenue (see IAS 18 Revenue).

MEASUREMENT OF INVENTORIES

9

Inventories shall be measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value.

Cost of inventories

10

The cost of inventories shall comprise all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Costs of purchase

11

The costs of purchase of inventories comprise the purchase price, import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable by the entity from the taxing authorities), and transport, handling and other costs directly attributable to the acquisition of finished goods, materials and services. Trade discounts, rebates and other similar items are deducted in determining the costs of purchase.

Costs of conversion

12

The costs of conversion of inventories include costs directly related to the units of production, such as direct labour. They also include a systematic allocation of fixed and variable production overheads that are incurred in converting materials into finished goods. Fixed production overheads are those indirect costs of production that remain relatively constant regardless of the volume of production, such as depreciation and maintenance of factory buildings and equipment, and the cost of factory management and administration. Variable production overheads are those indirect costs of production that vary directly, or nearly directly, with the volume of production, such as indirect materials and indirect labour.

13

The allocation of fixed production overheads to the costs of conversion is based on the normal capacity of the production facilities. Normal capacity is the production expected to be achieved on average over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance. The actual level of production may be used if it approximates normal capacity. The amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is not increased as a consequence of low production or idle plant. Unallocated overheads are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. In periods of abnormally high production, the amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is decreased so that inventories are not measured above cost. Variable production overheads are allocated to each unit of production on the basis of the actual use of the production facilities.

14

A production process may result in more than one product being produced simultaneously. This is the case, for example, when joint products are produced or when there is a main product and a by-product. When the costs of conversion of each product are not separately identifiable, they are allocated between the products on a rational and consistent basis. The allocation may be based, for example, on the relative sales value of each product either at the stage in the production process when the products become separately identifiable, or at the completion of production. Most by-products, by their nature, are immaterial. When this is the case, they are often measured at net realisable value and this value is deducted from the cost of the main product. As a result, the carrying amount of the main product is not materially different from its cost.

Other costs

15

Other costs are included in the cost of inventories only to the extent that they are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. For example, it may be appropriate to include non-production overheads or the costs of designing products for specific customers in the cost of inventories.

16

Examples of costs excluded from the cost of inventories and recognised as expenses in the period in which they are incurred are:

(a)

abnormal amounts of wasted materials, labour or other production costs;

(b)

storage costs, unless those costs are necessary in the production process before a further production stage;

(c)

administrative overheads that do not contribute to bringing inventories to their present location and condition; and

(d)

selling costs.

17

IAS 23 Borrowing costs identifies limited circumstances where borrowing costs are included in the cost of inventories.

18

An entity may purchase inventories on deferred settlement terms. When the arrangement effectively contains a financing element, that element, for example a difference between the purchase price for normal credit terms and the amount paid, is recognised as interest expense over the period of the financing.

Cost of inventories of a service provider

19

To the extent that service providers have inventories, they measure them at the costs of their production. These costs consist primarily of the labour and other costs of personnel directly engaged in providing the service, including supervisory personnel, and attributable overheads. Labour and other costs relating to sales and general administrative personnel are not included but are recognised as expenses in the period in which they are incurred. The cost of inventories of a service provider does not include profit margins or non-attributable overheads that are often factored into prices charged by service providers.

Cost of agricultural produce harvested from biological assets

20

In accordance with IAS 41 Agriculture inventories comprising agricultural produce that an entity has harvested from its biological assets are measured on initial recognition at their fair value less estimated point-of-sale costs at the point of harvest. This is the cost of the inventories at that date for application of this standard.

Techniques for the measurement of cost

21

Techniques for the measurement of the cost of inventories, such as the standard cost method or the retail method, may be used for convenience if the results approximate cost. Standard costs take into account normal levels of materials and supplies, labour, efficiency and capacity utilisation. They are regularly reviewed and, if necessary, revised in the light of current conditions.

22

The retail method is often used in the retail industry for measuring inventories of large numbers of rapidly changing items with similar margins for which it is impracticable to use other costing methods. The cost of the inventory is determined by reducing the sales value of the inventory by the appropriate percentage gross margin. The percentage used takes into consideration inventory that has been marked down to below its original selling price. An average percentage for each retail department is often used.

Cost formulas

23

The cost of inventories of items that are not ordinarily interchangeable and goods or services produced and segregated for specific projects shall be assigned by using specific identification of their individual costs.

24

Specific identification of cost means that specific costs are attributed to identified items of inventory. This is the appropriate treatment for items that are segregated for a specific project, regardless of whether they have been bought or produced. However, specific identification of costs is inappropriate when there are large numbers of items of inventory that are ordinarily interchangeable. In such circumstances, the method of selecting those items that remain in inventories could be used to obtain predetermined effects on profit or loss.

25

The cost of inventories, other than those dealt with in paragraph 23, shall be assigned by using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) or weighted average cost formula. An entity shall use the same cost formula for all inventories having a similar nature and use to the entity. For inventories with a different nature or use, different cost formulas may be justified.

26

For example, inventories used in one operating segment may have a use to the entity different from the same type of inventories used in another operating segment. However, a difference in geographical location of inventories (or in the respective tax rules), by itself, is not sufficient to justify the use of different cost formulas.

27

The FIFO formula assumes that the items of inventory that were purchased or produced first are sold first, and consequently the items remaining in inventory at the end of the period are those most recently purchased or produced. Under the weighted average cost formula, the cost of each item is determined from the weighted average of the cost of similar items at the beginning of a period and the cost of similar items purchased or produced during the period. The average may be calculated on a periodic basis, or as each additional shipment is received, depending upon the circumstances of the entity.

Net realisable value

28

The cost of inventories may not be recoverable if those inventories are damaged, if they have become wholly or partially obsolete, or if their selling prices have declined. The cost of inventories may also not be recoverable if the estimated costs of completion or the estimated costs to be incurred to make the sale have increased. The practice of writing inventories down below cost to net realisable value is consistent with the view that assets should not be carried in excess of amounts expected to be realised from their sale or use.

29

Inventories are usually written down to net realisable value item by item. In some circumstances, however, it may be appropriate to group similar or related items. This may be the case with items of inventory relating to the same product line that have similar purposes or end uses, are produced and marketed in the same geographical area, and cannot be practicably evaluated separately from other items in that product line. It is not appropriate to write inventories down on the basis of a classification of inventory, for example, finished goods, or all the inventories in a particular operating segment. Service providers generally accumulate costs in respect of each service for which a separate selling price is charged. Therefore, each such service is treated as a separate item.

30

Estimates of net realisable value are based on the most reliable evidence available at the time the estimates are made, of the amount the inventories are expected to realise. These estimates take into consideration fluctuations of price or cost directly relating to events occurring after the end of the period to the extent that such events confirm conditions existing at the end of the period.

31

Estimates of net realisable value also take into consideration the purpose for which the inventory is held. For example, the net realisable value of the quantity of inventory held to satisfy firm sales or service contracts is based on the contract price. If the sales contracts are for less than the inventory quantities held, the net realisable value of the excess is based on general selling prices. Provisions may arise from firm sales contracts in excess of inventory quantities held or from firm purchase contracts. Such provisions are dealt with under IAS 37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets.

32

Materials and other supplies held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. However, when a decline in the price of materials indicates that the cost of the finished products exceeds net realisable value, the materials are written down to net realisable value. In such circumstances, the replacement cost of the materials may be the best available measure of their net realisable value.

33

A new assessment is made of net realisable value in each subsequent period. When the circumstances that previously caused inventories to be written down below cost no longer exist or when there is clear evidence of an increase in net realisable value because of changed economic circumstances, the amount of the write-down is reversed (i.e. the reversal is limited to the amount of the original write-down) so that the new carrying amount is the lower of the cost and the revised net realisable value. This occurs, for example, when an item of inventory that is carried at net realisable value, because its selling price has declined, is still on hand in a subsequent period and its selling price has increased.

RECOGNITION AS AN EXPENSE

34

When inventories are sold, the carrying amount of those inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which the related revenue is recognised. The amount of any write-down of inventories to net realisable value and all losses of inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period the write-down or loss occurs. The amount of any reversal of any write-down of inventories, arising from an increase in net realisable value, shall be recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as an expense in the period in which the reversal occurs.

35

Some inventories may be allocated to other asset accounts, for example, inventory used as a component of self-constructed property, plant or equipment. Inventories allocated to another asset in this way are recognised as an expense during the useful life of that asset.

DISCLOSURE

36

The financial statements shall disclose:

(a)

the accounting policies adopted in measuring inventories, including the cost formula used;

(b)

the total carrying amount of inventories and the carrying amount in classifications appropriate to the entity;

(c)

the carrying amount of inventories carried at fair value less costs to sell;

(d)

the amount of inventories recognised as an expense during the period;

(e)

the amount of any write-down of inventories recognised as an expense in the period in accordance with paragraph 34;

(f)

the amount of any reversal of any write-down that is recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as expense in the period in accordance with paragraph 34;

(g)

the circumstances or events that led to the reversal of a write-down of inventories in accordance with paragraph 34; and

(h)

the carrying amount of inventories pledged as security for liabilities.

37

Information about the carrying amounts held in different classifications of inventories and the extent of the changes in these assets is useful to financial statement users. Common classifications of inventories are merchandise, production supplies, materials, work in progress and finished goods. The inventories of a service provider may be described as work in progress.

38

The amount of inventories recognised as an expense during the period, which is often referred to as cost of sales, consists of those costs previously included in the measurement of inventory that has now been sold and unallocated production overheads and abnormal amounts of production costs of inventories. The circumstances of the entity may also warrant the inclusion of other amounts, such as distribution costs.

39

Some entities adopt a format for profit or loss that results in amounts being disclosed other than the cost of inventories recognised as an expense during the period. Under this format, an entity presents an analysis of expenses using a classification based on the nature of expenses. In this case, the entity discloses the costs recognised as an expense for raw materials and consumables, labour costs and other costs together with the amount of the net change in inventories for the period.

EFFECTIVE DATE

40

An entity shall apply this standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity applies this standard for a period beginning before 1 January 2005, it shall disclose that fact.

WITHDRAWAL OF OTHER PRONOUNCEMENTS

41

This standard supersedes IAS 2 Inventories (revised in 1993).

42

This standard supersedes SIC-1 Consistency — different cost formulas for inventories.

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 7

Cash-flow statements

OBJECTIVE

Information about the cash flows of an entity is useful in providing users of financial statements with a basis to assess the ability of the entity to generate cash and cash equivalents and the needs of the entity to utilise those cash flows. The economic decisions that are taken by users require an evaluation of the ability of an entity to generate cash and cash equivalents and the timing and certainty of their generation.

The objective of this standard is to require the provision of information about the historical changes in cash and cash equivalents of an entity by means of a cash-flow statement which classifies cash flows during the period from operating, investing and financing activities.

SCOPE

1

An entity shall prepare a cash-flow statement in accordance with the requirements of this standard and shall present it as an integral part of its financial statements for each period for which financial statements are presented.

2

This standard supersedes IAS 7 Statement of changes in financial position, approved in July 1977.

3

Users of an entity's financial statements are interested in how the entity generates and uses cash and cash equivalents. This is the case regardless of the nature of the entity's activities and irrespective of whether cash can be viewed as the product of the entity, as may be the case with a financial institution. Entities need cash for essentially the same reasons however different their principal revenue-producing activities might be. They need cash to conduct their operations, to pay their obligations, and to provide returns to their investors. Accordingly, this standard requires all entities to present a cash-flow statement.

BENEFITS OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION

4

A cash-flow statement, when used in conjunction with the rest of the financial statements, provides information that enables users to evaluate the changes in net assets of an entity, its financial structure (including its liquidity and solvency) and its ability to affect the amounts and timing of cash flows in order to adapt to changing circumstances and opportunities. Cash flow information is useful in assessing the ability of the entity to generate cash and cash equivalents and enables users to develop models to assess and compare the present value of the future cash flows of different entities. It also enhances the comparability of the reporting of operating performance by different entities because it eliminates the effects of using different accounting treatments for the same transactions and events.

5

Historical cash flow information is often used as an indicator of the amount, timing and certainty of future cash flows. It is also useful in checking the accuracy of past assessments of future cash flows and in examining the relationship between profitability and net cash flow and the impact of changing prices.

DEFINITIONS

6

The following terms are used in this standard with the meanings specified:

Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits.

Cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

Cash flows are inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents.

Operating activities are the principal revenue-producing activities of the entity and other activities that are not investing or financing activities.

Investing activities are the acquisition and disposal of long-term assets and other investments not included in cash equivalents.

Financing activities are activities that result in changes in the size and composition of the contributed equity and borrowings of the entity.

Cash and cash equivalents

7

Cash equivalents are held for the purpose of meeting short-term cash commitments rather than for investment or other purposes. For an investment to qualify as a cash equivalent it must be readily convertible to a known amount of cash and be subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Therefore, an investment normally qualifies as a cash equivalent only when it has a short maturity of, say, three months or less from the date of acquisition. Equity investments are excluded from cash equivalents unless they are, in substance, cash equivalents, for example in the case of preferred shares acquired within a short period of their maturity and with a specified redemption date.

8

Bank borrowings are generally considered to be financing activities. However, in some countries, bank overdrafts which are repayable on demand form an integral part of an entity's cash management. In these circumstances, bank overdrafts are included as a component of cash and cash equivalents. A characteristic of such banking arrangements is that the bank balance often fluctuates from being positive to overdrawn.

9

Cash flows exclude movements between items that constitute cash or cash equivalents because these components are part of the cash management of an entity rather than part of its operating, investing and financing activities. Cash management includes the investment of excess cash in cash equivalents.

PRESENTATION OF A CASH-FLOW STATEMENT

10

The cash-flow statement shall report cash flows during the period classified by operating, investing and financing activities.

11

An entity presents its cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities in a manner which is most appropriate to its business. Classification by activity provides information that allows users to assess the impact of those activities on the financial position of the entity and the amount of its cash and cash equivalents. This information may also be used to evaluate the relationships among those activities.

12

A single transaction may include cash flows that are classified differently. For example, when the cash repayment of a loan includes both interest and capital, the interest element may be classified as an operating activity and the capital element is classified as a financing activity.

Operating activities

13

The amount of cash flows arising from operating activities is a key indicator of the extent to which the operations of the entity have generated sufficient cash flows to repay loans, maintain the operating capability of the entity, pay dividends and make new investments without recourse to external sources of financing. Information about the specific components of historical operating cash flows is useful, in conjunction with other information, in forecasting future operating cash flows.

14

Cash flows from operating activities are primarily derived from the principal revenue-producing activities of the entity. Therefore, they generally result from the transactions and other events that enter into the determination of profit or loss. Examples of cash flows from operating activities are:

(a)

cash receipts from the sale of goods and the rendering of services;

(b)

cash receipts from royalties, fees, commissions and other revenue;

(c)

cash payments to suppliers for goods and services;

(d)

cash payments to and on behalf of employees;

(e)

cash receipts and cash payments of an insurance entity for premiums and claims, annuities and other policy benefits;

(f)

cash payments or refunds of income taxes unless they can be specifically identified with financing and investing activities; and

(g)

cash receipts and payments from contracts held for dealing or trading purposes.

Some transactions, such as the sale of an item of plant, may give rise to a gain or loss which is included in the determination of profit or loss. However, the cash flows relating to such transactions are cash flows from investing activities.

15

An entity may hold securities and loans for dealing or trading purposes, in which case they are similar to inventory acquired specifically for resale. Therefore, cash flows arising from the purchase and sale of dealing or trading securities are classified as operating activities. Similarly, cash advances and loans made by financial institutions are usually classified as operating activities since they relate to the main revenue-producing activity of that entity.

Investing activities

16

The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from investing activities is important because the cash flows represent the extent to which expenditures have been made for resources intended to generate future income and cash flows. Examples of cash flows arising from investing activities are:

(a)

cash payments to acquire property, plant and equipment, intangibles and other long-term assets. These payments include those relating to capitalised development costs and self-constructed property, plant and equipment;

(b)

cash receipts from sales of property, plant and equipment, intangibles and other long-term assets;

(c)

cash payments to acquire equity or debt instruments of other entities and interests in joint ventures (other than payments for those instruments considered to be cash equivalents or those held for dealing or trading purposes);

(d)

cash receipts from sales of equity or debt instruments of other entities and interests in joint ventures (other than receipts for those instruments considered to be cash equivalents and those held for dealing or trading purposes);

(e)

cash advances and loans made to other parties (other than advances and loans made by a financial institution);

(f)

cash receipts from the repayment of advances and loans made to other parties (other than advances and loans of a financial institution);

(g)

cash payments for futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts except when the contracts are held for dealing or trading purposes, or the payments are classified as financing activities; and

(h)

cash receipts from futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts except when the contracts are held for dealing or trading purposes, or the receipts are classified as financing activities.

When a contract is accounted for as a hedge of an identifiable position, the cash flows of the contract are classified in the same manner as the cash flows of the position being hedged.

Financing activities

17

The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from financing activities is important because it is useful in predicting claims on future cash flows by providers of capital to the entity. Examples of cash flows arising from financing activities are:

(a)

cash proceeds from issuing shares or other equity instruments;

(b)

cash payments to owners to acquire or redeem the entity's shares;

(c)

cash proceeds from issuing debentures, loans, notes, bonds, mortgages and other short or long-term borrowings;

(d)

cash repayments of amounts borrowed; and

(e)

cash payments by a lessee for the reduction of the outstanding liability relating to a finance lease.

REPORTING CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES

18

An entity shall report cash flows from operating activities using either:

(a)

the direct method, whereby major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments are disclosed; or

(b)

the indirect method, whereby profit or loss is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments, and items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows.

19

Entities are encouraged to report cash flows from operating activities using the direct method. The direct method provides information which may be useful in estimating future cash flows and which is not available under the indirect method. Under the direct method, information about major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments may be obtained either:

(a)

from the accounting records of the entity; or

(b)

by adjusting sales, cost of sales (interest and similar income and interest expense and similar charges for a financial institution) and other items in the income statement for:

(i)

changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables;

(ii)

other non-cash items; and

(iii)

other items for which the cash effects are investing or financing cash flows.

20

Under the indirect method, the net cash flow from operating activities is determined by adjusting profit or loss for the effects of:

(a)

changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables;

(b)

non-cash items such as depreciation, provisions, deferred taxes, unrealised foreign currency gains and losses, undistributed profits of associates, and minority interests; and

(c)

all other items for which the cash effects are investing or financing cash flows.

Alternatively, the net cash flow from operating activities may be presented under the indirect method by showing the revenues and expenses disclosed in the income statement and the changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables.

REPORTING CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING AND FINANCING ACTIVITIES

21

An entity shall report separately major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments arising from investing and financing activities, except to the extent that cash flows described in paragraphs 22 and 24 are reported on a net basis.

REPORTING CASH FLOWS ON A NET BASIS

22

Cash flows arising from the following operating, investing or financing activities may be reported on a net basis:

(a)

cash receipts and payments on behalf of customers when the cash flows reflect the activities of the customer rather than those of the entity; and

(b)

cash receipts and payments for items in which the turnover is quick, the amounts are large, and the maturities are short.

23

Examples of cash receipts and payments referred to in paragraph 22(a) are:

(a)

the acceptance and repayment of demand deposits of a bank;

(b)

funds held for customers by an investment entity; and

(c)

rents collected on behalf of, and paid over to, the owners of properties.

Examples of cash receipts and payments referred to in paragraph 22(b) are advances made for, and the repayment of:

(a)

principal amounts relating to credit card customers;

(b)

the purchase and sale of investments; and

(c)

other short-term borrowings, for example, those which have a maturity period of three months or less.

24

Cash flows arising from each of the following activities of a financial institution may be reported on a net basis:

(a)

cash receipts and payments for the acceptance and repayment of deposits with a fixed maturity date;

(b)

the placement of deposits with and withdrawal of deposits from other financial institutions; and

(c)

cash advances and loans made to customers and the repayment of those advances and loans.

FOREIGN CURRENCY CASH FLOWS

25

Cash flows arising from transactions in a foreign currency shall be recorded in an entity's functional currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the cash flow.

26

The cash flows of a foreign subsidiary shall be translated at the exchange rates between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the dates of the cash flows.

27

Cash flows denominated in a foreign currency are reported in a manner consistent with IAS 21 The effects of changes in foreign exchange rates. This permits the use of an exchange rate that approximates the actual rate. For example, a weighted average exchange rate for a period may be used for recording foreign currency transactions or the translation of the cash flows of a foreign subsidiary. However, IAS 21 does not permit use of the exchange rate at the balance sheet date when translating the cash flows of a foreign subsidiary.

28

Unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in foreign currency exchange rates are not cash flows. However, the effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents held or due in a foreign currency is reported in the cash-flow statement in order to reconcile cash and cash equivalents at the beginning and the end of the period. This amount is presented separately from cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities and includes the differences, if any, had those cash flows been reported at end of period exchange rates.

29

[Deleted]

30

[Deleted]

INTEREST AND DIVIDENDS

31

Cash flows from interest and dividends received and paid shall each be disclosed separately. Each shall be classified in a consistent manner from period to period as either operating, investing or financing activities.

32

The total amount of interest paid during a period is disclosed in the cash-flow statement whether it has been recognised as an expense in the income statement or capitalised in accordance with the allowed alternative treatment in IAS 23 Borrowing costs.

33

Interest paid and interest and dividends received are usually classified as operating cash flows for a financial institution. However, there is no consensus on the classification of these cash flows for other entities. Interest paid and interest and dividends received may be classified as operating cash flows because they enter into the determination of profit or loss. Alternatively, interest paid and interest and dividends received may be classified as financing cash flows and investing cash flows respectively, because they are costs of obtaining financial resources or returns on investments.

34

Dividends paid may be classified as a financing cash flow because they are a cost of obtaining financial resources. Alternatively, dividends paid may be classified as a component of cash flows from operating activities in order to assist users to determine the ability of an entity to pay dividends out of operating cash flows.

TAXES ON INCOME

35

Cash flows arising from taxes on income shall be separately disclosed and shall be classified as cash flows from operating activities unless they can be specifically identified with financing and investing activities.

36

Taxes on income arise on transactions that give rise to cash flows that are classified as operating, investing or financing activities in a cash-flow statement. While tax expense may be readily identifiable with investing or financing activities, the related tax cash flows are often impracticable to identify and may arise in a different period from the cash flows of the underlying transaction. Therefore, taxes paid are usually classified as cash flows from operating activities. However, when it is practicable to identify the tax cash flow with an individual transaction that gives rise to cash flows that are classified as investing or financing activities the tax cash flow is classified as an investing or financing activity as appropriate. When tax cash flows are allocated over more than one class of activity, the total amount of taxes paid is disclosed.

INVESTMENTS IN SUBSIDIARIES, ASSOCIATES AND JOINT VENTURES

37

When accounting for an investment in an associate or a subsidiary accounted for by use of the equity or cost method, an investor restricts its reporting in the cash-flow statement to the cash flows between itself and the investee, for example, to dividends and advances.

38

An entity which reports its interest in a jointly controlled entity (see IAS 31 Interests in joint ventures) using proportionate consolidation, includes in its consolidated cash-flow statement its proportionate share of the jointly controlled entity's cash flows. An entity which reports such an interest using the equity method includes in its cash-flow statement the cash flows in respect of its investments in the jointly controlled entity, and distributions and other payments or receipts between it and the jointly controlled entity.

ACQUISITIONS AND DISPOSALS OF SUBSIDIARIES AND OTHER BUSINESS UNITS

39

The aggregate cash flows arising from acquisitions and from disposals of subsidiaries or other business units shall be presented separately and classified as investing activities.

40

An entity shall disclose, in aggregate, in respect of both acquisitions and disposals of subsidiaries or other business units during the period each of the following:

(a)

the total purchase or disposal consideration;

(b)

the portion of the purchase or disposal consideration discharged by means of cash and cash equivalents;

(c)

the amount of cash and cash equivalents in the subsidiary or business unit acquired or disposed of; and

(d)

the amount of the assets and liabilities other than cash or cash equivalents in the subsidiary or business unit acquired or disposed of, summarised by each major category.

41

The separate presentation of the cash flow effects of acquisitions and disposals of subsidiaries and other business units as single line items, together with the separate disclosure of the amounts of assets and liabilities acquired or disposed of, helps to distinguish those cash flows from the cash flows arising from the other operating, investing and financing activities. The cash flow effects of disposals are not deducted from those of acquisitions.

42

The aggregate amount of the cash paid or received as purchase or sale consideration is reported in the cash-flow statement net of cash and cash equivalents acquired or disposed of.

NON-CASH TRANSACTIONS

43

Investing and financing transactions that do not require the use of cash or cash equivalents shall be excluded from a cash-flow statement. Such transactions shall be disclosed elsewhere in the financial statements in a way that provides all the relevant information about these investing and financing activities.

44

Many investing and financing activities do not have a direct impact on current cash flows although they do affect the capital and asset structure of an entity. The exclusion of non-cash transactions from the cash-flow statement is consistent with the objective of a cash-flow statement as these items do not involve cash flows in the current period. Examples of non-cash transactions are:

(a)

the acquisition of assets either by assuming directly related liabilities or by means of a finance lease;

(b)

the acquisition of an entity by means of an equity issue; and

(c)

the conversion of debt to equity.

COMPONENTS OF CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

45

An entity shall disclose the components of cash and cash equivalents and shall present a reconciliation of the amounts in its cash-flow statement with the equivalent items reported in the balance sheet.

46

In view of the variety of cash management practices and banking arrangements around the world and in order to comply with IAS 1 Presentation of financial statements, an entity discloses the policy which it adopts in determining the composition of cash and cash equivalents.

47

The effect of any change in the policy for determining components of cash and cash equivalents, for example, a change in the classification of financial instruments previously considered to be part of an entity's investment portfolio, is reported in accordance with IAS 8 Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors.

OTHER DISCLOSURES

48

An entity shall disclose, together with a commentary by management, the amount of significant cash and cash equivalent balances held by the entity that are not available for use by the group.

49

There are various circumstances in which cash and cash equivalent balances held by an entity are not available for use by the group. Examples include cash and cash equivalent balances held by a subsidiary that operates in a country where exchange controls or other legal restrictions apply when the balances are not available for general use by the parent or other subsidiaries.

50

Additional information may be relevant to users in understanding the financial position and liquidity of an entity. Disclosure of this information, together with a commentary by management, is encouraged and may include:

(a)

the amount of undrawn borrowing facilities that may be available for future operating activities and to settle capital commitments, indicating any restrictions on the use of these facilities;

(b)

the aggregate amounts of the cash flows from each of operating, investing and financing activities related to interests in joint ventures reported using proportionate consolidation;

(c)

the aggregate amount of cash flows that represent increases in operating capacity separately from those cash flows that are required to maintain operating capacity; and

(d)

the amount of the cash flows arising from the operating, investing and financing activities of each reportable segment (see IFRS 8 Operating segments).

51

The separate disclosure of cash flows that represent increases in operating capacity and cash flows that are required to maintain operating capacity is useful in enabling the user to determine whether the entity is investing adequately in the maintenance of its operating capacity. An entity that does not invest adequately in the maintenance of its operating capacity may be prejudicing future profitability for the sake of current liquidity and distributions to owners.

52

The disclosure of segmental cash flows enables users to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between the cash flows of the business as a whole and those of its component parts and the availability and variability of segmental cash flows.

EFFECTIVE DATE

53

This standard becomes operative for financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 1994.

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 8

Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors

OBJECTIVE

1

The objective of this standard is to prescribe the criteria for selecting and changing accounting policies, together with the accounting treatment and disclosure of changes in accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and corrections of errors. The standard is intended to enhance the relevance and reliability of an entity's financial statements, and the comparability of those financial statements over time and with the financial statements of other entities.

2

Disclosure requirements for accounting policies, except those for changes in accounting policies, are set out in IAS 1 Presentation of financial statements.

SCOPE

3

This standard shall be applied in selecting and applying accounting policies, and accounting for changes in accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and corrections of prior period errors.

4

The tax effects of corrections of prior period errors and of retrospective adjustments made to apply changes in accounting policies are accounted for and disclosed in accordance with IAS 12 Income taxes.

DEFINITIONS

5

The following terms are used in this standard with the meanings specified:

Accounting policies are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements.

A change in accounting estimate is an adjustment of the carrying amount of an asset or a liability, or the amount of the periodic consumption of an asset, that results from the assessment of the present status of, and expected future benefits and obligations associated with, assets and liabilities. Changes in accounting estimates result from new information or new developments and, accordingly, are not corrections of errors.

International financial reporting standards (IFRSs) are standards and interpretations adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). They comprise:

(a)

international financial reporting standards;

(b)

international accounting standards; and

(c)

interpretations originated by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) or the former Standing Interpretations Committee (SIC).

Material Omissions or misstatements of items are material if they could, individually or collectively, influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements. Materiality depends on the size and nature of the omission or misstatement judged in the surrounding circumstances. The size or nature of the item, or a combination of both, could be the determining factor.

Prior period errors are omissions from, and misstatements in, the entity's financial statements for one or more prior periods arising from a failure to use, or misuse of, reliable information that:

(a)

was available when financial statements for those periods were authorised for issue; and

(b)

could reasonably be expected to have been obtained and taken into account in the preparation and presentation of those financial statements.

Such errors include the effects of mathematical mistakes, mistakes in applying accounting policies, oversights or misinterpretations of facts, and fraud.

Retrospective application is applying a new accounting policy to transactions, other events and conditions as if that policy had always been applied.

Retrospective restatement is correcting the recognition, measurement and disclosure of amounts of elements of financial statements as if a prior period error had never occurred.

Impracticable Applying a requirement is impracticable when the entity cannot apply it after making every reasonable effort to do so. For a particular prior period, it is impracticable to apply a change in an accounting policy retrospectively or to make a retrospective restatement to correct an error if:

(a)

the effects of the retrospective application or retrospective restatement are not determinable;

(b)

the retrospective application or retrospective restatement requires assumptions about what management's intent would have been in that period; or

(c)

the retrospective application or retrospective restatement requires significant estimates of amounts and it is impossible to distinguish objectively information about those estimates that:

(i)

provides evidence of circumstances that existed on the date(s) as at which those amounts are to be recognised, measured or disclosed; and

(ii)

would have been available when the financial statements for that prior period were authorised for issue;

from other information.

Prospective application of a change in accounting policy and of recognising the effect of a change in an accounting estimate, respectively, are:

(a)

applying the new accounting policy to transactions, other events and conditions occurring after the date as at which the policy is changed; and

(b)

recognising the effect of the change in the accounting estimate in the current and future periods affected by the change.

6

Assessing whether an omission or misstatement could influence economic decisions of users, and so be material, requires consideration of the characteristics of those users. The Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements states in paragraph 25 that ‘users are assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities and accounting and a willingness to study the information with reasonable diligence.’ Therefore, the assessment needs to take into account how users with such attributes could reasonably be expected to be influenced in making economic decisions.

ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Selection and application of accounting policies

7

When a standard or an interpretation specifically applies to a transaction, other event or condition, the accounting policy or policies applied to that item shall be determined by applying the standard or interpretation and considering any relevant Implementation Guidance issued by the IASB for the standard or interpretation.

8

IFRSs set out accounting policies that the IASB has concluded result in financial statements containing relevant and reliable information about the transactions, other events and conditions to which they apply. Those policies need not be applied when the effect of applying them is immaterial. However, it is inappropriate to make, or leave uncorrected, immaterial departures from IFRSs to achieve a particular presentation of an entity's financial position, financial performance or cash flows.

9

Implementation Guidance for Standards issued by the IASB does not form part of those standards, and therefore does not contain requirements for financial statements.

10

In the absence of a standard or an interpretation that specifically applies to a transaction, other event or condition, management shall use its judgement in developing and applying an accounting policy that results in information that is:

(a)

relevant to the economic decision-making needs of users; and

(b)

reliable, in that the financial statements:

(i)

represent faithfully the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of the entity;

(ii)

reflect the economic substance of transactions, other events and conditions, and not merely the legal form;

(iii)

are neutral, i.e. free from bias;

(iv)

are prudent; and

(v)

are complete in all material respects.

11

In making the judgement described in paragraph 10, management shall refer to, and consider the applicability of, the following sources in descending order:

(a)

the requirements and guidance in standards and interpretations dealing with similar and related issues; and

(b)

the definitions, recognition criteria and measurement concepts for assets, liabilities, income and expenses in the Framework.

12

In making the judgement described in paragraph 10, management may also consider the most recent pronouncements of other standard-setting bodies that use a similar conceptual framework to develop accounting standards, other accounting literature and accepted industry practices, to the extent that these do not conflict with the sources in paragraph 11.

Consistency of accounting policies

13

An entity shall select and apply its accounting policies consistently for similar transactions, other events and conditions, unless a standard or an interpretation specifically requires or permits categorisation of items for which different policies may be appropriate. If a standard or an interpretation requires or permits such categorisation, an appropriate accounting policy shall be selected and applied consistently to each category.

Changes in accounting policies

14

An entity shall change an accounting policy only if the change:

(a)

is required by a standard or an interpretation; or

(b)

results in the financial statements providing reliable and more relevant information about the effects of transactions, other events or conditions on the entity's financial position, financial performance or cash flows.

15

Users of financial statements need to be able to compare the financial statements of an entity over time to identify trends in its financial position, financial performance and cash flows. Therefore, the same accounting policies are applied within each period and from one period to the next unless a change in accounting policy meets one of the criteria in paragraph 14.

16

The following are not changes in accounting policies:

(a)

the application of an accounting policy for transactions, other events or conditions that differ in substance from those previously occurring; and

(b)

the application of a new accounting policy for transactions, other events or conditions that did not occur previously or were immaterial.

17

The initial application of a policy to revalue assets in accordance with IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment or IAS 38 Intangible assets is a change in an accounting policy to be dealt with as a revaluation in accordance with IAS 16 or IAS 38, rather than in accordance with this standard.

18

Paragraphs 19-31 do not apply to the change in accounting policy described in paragraph 17.

Applying changes in accounting policies

19

Subject to paragraph 23:

(a)

an entity shall account for a change in accounting policy resulting from the initial application of a standard or an interpretation in accordance with the specific transitional provisions, if any, in that standard or interpretation; and

(b)

when an entity changes an accounting policy upon initial application of a standard or an interpretation that does not include specific transitional provisions applying to that change, or changes an accounting policy voluntarily, it shall apply the change retrospectively.

20

For the purpose of this standard, early application of a standard or an interpretation is not a voluntary change in accounting policy.

21

In the absence of a standard or an interpretation that specifically applies to a transaction, other event or condition, management may, in accordance with paragraph 12, apply an accounting policy from the most recent pronouncements of other standard-setting bodies that use a similar conceptual framework to develop accounting standards. If, following an amendment of such a pronouncement, the entity chooses to change an accounting policy, that change is accounted for and disclosed as a voluntary change in accounting policy.

Retrospective application

22

Subject to paragraph 23, when a change in accounting policy is applied retrospectively in accordance with paragraph 19(a) or (b), the entity shall adjust the opening balance of each affected component of equity for the earliest prior period presented and the other comparative amounts disclosed for each prior period presented as if the new accounting policy had always been applied.

Limitations on retrospective application

23

When retrospective application is required by paragraph 19(a) or (b), a change in accounting policy shall be applied retrospectively except to the extent that it is impracticable to determine either the period-specific effects or the cumulative effect of the change.

24

When it is impracticable to determine the period-specific effects of changing an accounting policy on comparative information for one or more prior periods presented, the entity shall apply the new accounting policy to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities as at the beginning of the earliest period for which retrospective application is practicable, which may be the current period, and shall make a corresponding adjustment to the opening balance of each affected component of equity for that period.

25

When it is impracticable to determine the cumulative effect, at the beginning of the current period, of applying a new accounting policy to all prior periods, the entity shall adjust the comparative information to apply the new accounting policy prospectively from the earliest date practicable.

26

When an entity applies a new accounting policy retrospectively, it applies the new accounting policy to comparative information for prior periods as far back as is practicable. Retrospective application to a prior period is not practicable unless it is practicable to determine the cumulative effect on the amounts in both the opening and closing balance sheets for that period. The amount of the resulting adjustment relating to periods before those presented in the financial statements is made to the opening balance of each affected component of equity of the earliest prior period presented. Usually the adjustment is made to retained earnings. However, the adjustment may be made to another component of equity (for example, to comply with a standard or an interpretation). Any other information about prior periods, such as historical summaries of financial data, is also adjusted as far back as is practicable.

27

When it is impracticable for an entity to apply a new accounting policy retrospectively, because it cannot determine the cumulative effect of applying the policy to all prior periods, the entity, in accordance with paragraph 25, applies the new policy prospectively from the start of the earliest period practicable. It therefore disregards the portion of the cumulative adjustment to assets, liabilities and equity arising before that date. Changing an accounting policy is permitted even if it is impracticable to apply the policy prospectively for any prior period. Paragraphs 50-53 provide guidance on when it is impracticable to apply a new accounting policy to one or more prior periods.

Disclosure

28

When initial application of a standard or an interpretation has an effect on the current period or any prior period, would have such an effect except that it is impracticable to determine the amount of the adjustment, or might have an effect on future periods, an entity shall disclose:

(a)

the title of the standard or interpretation;

(b)

when applicable, that the change in accounting policy is made in accordance with its transitional provisions;

(c)

the nature of the change in accounting policy;

(d)

when applicable, a description of the transitional provisions;

(e)

when applicable, the transitional provisions that might have an effect on future periods;

(f)

for the current period and each prior period presented, to the extent practicable, the amount of the adjustment:

(i)

for each financial statement line item affected; and

(ii)

if IAS 33 Earnings per share applies to the entity, for basic and diluted earnings per share;

(g)

the amount of the adjustment relating to periods before those presented, to the extent practicable; and

(h)

if retrospective application required by paragraph 19(a) or (b) is impracticable for a particular prior period, or for periods before those presented, the circumstances that led to the existence of that condition and a description of how and from when the change in accounting policy has been applied.

Financial statements of subsequent periods need not repeat these disclosures.

29

When a voluntary change in accounting policy has an effect on the current period or any prior period, would have an effect on that period except that it is impracticable to determine the amount of the adjustment, or might have an effect on future periods, an entity shall disclose:

(a)

the nature of the change in accounting policy;

(b)

the reasons why applying the new accounting policy provides reliable and more relevant information;

(c)

for the current period and each prior period presented, to the extent practicable, the amount of the adjustment:

(i)

for each financial statement line item affected; and

(ii)

if IAS 33 applies to the entity, for basic and diluted earnings per share;

(d)

the amount of the adjustment relating to periods before those presented, to the extent practicable; and

(e)

if retrospective application is impracticable for a particular prior period, or for periods before those presented, the circumstances that led to the existence of that condition and a description of how and from when the change in accounting policy has been applied.

Financial statements of subsequent periods need not repeat these disclosures.

30

When an entity has not applied a new standard or interpretation that has been issued but is not yet effective, the entity shall disclose:

(a)

this fact; and

(b)

known or reasonably estimable information relevant to assessing the possible impact that application of the new standard or interpretation will have on the entity's financial statements in the period of initial application.

31

In complying with paragraph 30, an entity considers disclosing:

(a)

the title of the new standard or interpretation;

(b)

the nature of the impending change or changes in accounting policy;

(c)

the date by which application of the standard or interpretation is required;

(d)

the date as at which it plans to apply the standard or interpretation initially; and

(e)

either:

(i)

a discussion of the impact that initial application of the standard or interpretation is expected to have on the entity's financial statements; or

(ii)

if that impact is not known or reasonably estimable, a statement to that effect.

CHANGES IN ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES

32

As a result of the uncertainties inherent in business activities, many items in financial statements cannot be measured with precision but can only be estimated. Estimation involves judgements based on the latest available, reliable information. For example, estimates may be required of:

(a)

bad debts;

(b)

inventory obsolescence;

(c)

the fair value of financial assets or financial liabilities;

(d)

the useful lives of, or expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in, depreciable assets; and

(e)

warranty obligations.

33

The use of reasonable estimates is an essential part of the preparation of financial statements and does not undermine their reliability.

34

An estimate may need revision if changes occur in the circumstances on which the estimate was based or as a result of new information or more experience. By its nature, the revision of an estimate does not relate to prior periods and is not the correction of an error.

35

A change in the measurement basis applied is a change in an accounting policy, and is not a change in an accounting estimate. When it is difficult to distinguish a change in an accounting policy from a change in an accounting estimate, the change is treated as a change in an accounting estimate.

36

The effect of a change in an accounting estimate, other than a change to which paragraph 37 applies, shall be recognised prospectively by including it in profit or loss in:

(a)

the period of the change, if the change affects that period only; or

(b)

the period of the change and future periods, if the change affects both.

37

To the extent that a change in an accounting estimate gives rise to changes in assets and liabilities, or relates to an item of equity, it shall be recognised by adjusting the carrying amount of the related asset, liability or equity item in the period of the change.

38

Prospective recognition of the effect of a change in an accounting estimate means that the change is applied to transactions, other events and conditions from the date of the change in estimate. A change in an accounting estimate may affect only the current period's profit or loss, or the profit or loss of both the current period and future periods. For example, a change in the estimate of the amount of bad debts affects only the current period's profit or loss and therefore is recognised in the current period. However, a change in the estimated useful life of, or the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in, a depreciable asset affects depreciation expense for the current period and for each future period during the asset's remaining useful life. In both cases, the effect of the change relating to the current period is recognised as income or expense in the current period. The effect, if any, on future periods is recognised as income or expense in those future periods.

Disclosure

39

An entity shall disclose the nature and amount of a change in an accounting estimate that has an effect in the current period or is expected to have an effect in future periods, except for the disclosure of the effect on future periods when it is impracticable to estimate that effect.

40

If the amount of the effect in future periods is not disclosed because estimating it is impracticable, an entity shall disclose that fact.

ERRORS

41

Errors can arise in respect of the recognition, measurement, presentation or disclosure of elements of financial statements. Financial statements do not comply with IFRSs if they contain either material errors or immaterial errors made intentionally to achieve a particular presentation of an entity's financial position, financial performance or cash flows. Potential current period errors discovered in that period are corrected before the financial statements are authorised for issue. However, material errors are sometimes not discovered until a subsequent period, and these prior period errors are corrected in the comparative information presented in the financial statements for that subsequent period (see paragraphs 42-47).

42

Subject to paragraph 43, an entity shall correct material prior period errors retrospectively in the first set of financial statements authorised for issue after their discovery by:

(a)

restating the comparative amounts for the prior period(s) presented in which the error occurred; or

(b)

if the error occurred before the earliest prior period presented, restating the opening balances of assets, liabilities and equity for the earliest prior period presented.

Limitations on retrospective restatement

43

A prior period error shall be corrected by retrospective restatement except to the extent that it is impracticable to determine either the period-specific effects or the cumulative effect of the error.

44

When it is impracticable to determine the period-specific effects of an error on comparative information for one or more prior periods presented, the entity shall restate the opening balances of assets, liabilities and equity for the earliest period for which retrospective restatement is practicable (which may be the current period).

45

When it is impracticable to determine the cumulative effect, at the beginning of the current period, of an error on all prior periods, the entity shall restate the comparative information to correct the error prospectively from the earliest date practicable.

46

The correction of a prior period error is excluded from profit or loss for the period in which the error is discovered. Any information presented about prior periods, including any historical summaries of financial data, is restated as far back as is practicable.

47

When it is impracticable to determine the amount of an error (e.g. a mistake in applying an accounting policy) for all prior periods, the entity, in accordance with paragraph 45, restates the comparative information prospectively from the earliest date practicable. It therefore disregards the portion of the cumulative restatement of assets, liabilities and equity arising before that date. Paragraphs 50-53 provide guidance on when it is impracticable to correct an error for one or more prior periods.

48

Corrections of errors are distinguished from changes in accounting estimates. Accounting estimates by their nature are approximations that may need revision as additional information becomes known. For example, the gain or loss recognised on the outcome of a contingency is not the correction of an error.

Disclosure of prior period errors

49

In applying paragraph 42, an entity shall disclose the following:

(a)

the nature of the prior period error;

(b)

for each prior period presented, to the extent practicable, the amount of the correction:

(i)

for each financial statement line item affected; and

(ii)

if IAS 33 applies to the entity, for basic and diluted earnings per share;

(c)

the amount of the correction at the beginning of the earliest prior period presented; and

(d)

if retrospective restatement is impracticable for a particular prior period, the circumstances that led to the existence of that condition and a description of how and from when the error has been corrected.

Financial statements of subsequent periods need not repeat these disclosures.

IMPRACTICABILITY IN RESPECT OF RETROSPECTIVE APPLICATION AND RETROSPECTIVE RESTATEMENT

50

In some circumstances, it is impracticable to adjust comparative information for one or more prior periods to achieve comparability with the current period. For example, data may not have been collected in the prior period(s) in a way that allows either retrospective application of a new accounting policy (including, for the purpose of paragraphs 51-53, its prospective application to prior periods) or retrospective restatement to correct a prior period error, and it may be impracticable to recreate the information.

51

It is frequently necessary to make estimates in applying an accounting policy to elements of financial statements recognised or disclosed in respect of transactions, other events or conditions. Estimation is inherently subjective, and estimates may be developed after the balance sheet date. Developing estimates is potentially more difficult when retrospectively applying an accounting policy or making a retrospective restatement to correct a prior period error, because of the longer period of time that might have passed since the affected transaction, other event or condition occurred. However, the objective of estimates related to prior periods remains the same as for estimates made in the current period, namely, for the estimate to reflect the circumstances that existed when the transaction, other event or condition occurred.

52

Therefore, retrospectively applying a new accounting policy or correcting a prior period error requires distinguishing information that:

(a)

provides evidence of circumstances that existed on the date(s) as at which the transaction, other event or condition occurred; and

(b)

would have been available when the financial statements for that prior period were authorised for issue;

from other information. For some types of estimates (e.g. an estimate of fair value not based on an observable price or observable inputs), it is impracticable to distinguish these types of information. When retrospective application or retrospective restatement would require making a significant estimate for which it is impossible to distinguish these two types of information, it is impracticable to apply the new accounting policy or correct the prior period error retrospectively.

53

Hindsight should not be used when applying a new accounting policy to, or correcting amounts for, a prior period, either in making assumptions about what management's intentions would have been in a prior period or estimating the amounts recognised, measured or disclosed in a prior period. For example, when an entity corrects a prior period error in measuring financial assets previously classified as held-to-maturity investments in accordance with IAS 39 Financial instruments: recognition and measurement, it does not change their basis of measurement for that period if management decided later not to hold them to maturity. In addition, when an entity corrects a prior period error in calculating its liability for employees' accumulated sick leave in accordance with IAS 19 Employee benefits, it disregards information about an unusually severe influenza season during the next period that became available after the financial statements for the prior period were authorised for issue. The fact that significant estimates are frequently required when amending comparative information presented for prior periods does not prevent reliable adjustment or correction of the comparative information.

EFFECTIVE DATE

54

An entity shall apply this standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity applies this standard for a period beginning before 1 January 2005, it shall disclose that fact.

WITHDRAWAL OF OTHER PRONOUNCEMENTS

55

This standard supersedes IAS 8 Net profit or loss for the period, fundamental errors and changes in accounting policies, revised in 1993.

56

This standard supersedes the following interpretations:

(a)

SIC-2 Consistency — capitalisation of borrowing costs; and

(b)

SIC-18 Consistency — alternative methods.

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 10

Events after the balance sheet date

OBJECTIVE

1

The objective of this standard is to prescribe:

(a)

when an entity should adjust its financial statements for events after the balance sheet date; and

(b)

the disclosures that an entity should give about the date when the financial statements were authorised for issue and about events after the balance sheet date.

The standard also requires that an entity should not prepare its financial statements on a going concern basis if events after the balance sheet date indicate that the going concern assumption is not appropriate.

SCOPE

2

This standard shall be applied in the accounting for, and disclosure of, events after the balance sheet date.

DEFINITIONS

3

The following terms are used in this standard with the meanings specified:

Events after the balance sheet date are those events, favourable and unfavourable, that occur between the balance sheet date and the date when the financial statements are authorised for issue. Two types of events can be identified:

(a)

those that provide evidence of conditions that existed at the balance sheet date (adjusting events after the balance sheet date); and

(b)

those that are indicative of conditions that arose after the balance sheet date (non-adjusting events after the balance sheet date).

4

The process involved in authorising the financial statements for issue will vary depending upon the management structure, statutory requirements and procedures followed in preparing and finalising the financial statements.

5

In some cases, an entity is required to submit its financial statements to its shareholders for approval after the financial statements have been issued. In such cases, the financial statements are authorised for issue on the date of issue, not the date when shareholders approve the financial statements.

ExampleThe management of an entity completes draft financial statements for the year to 31 December 20X1 on 28 February 20X2. On 18 March 20X2, the board of directors reviews the financial statements and authorises them for issue. The entity announces its profit and selected other financial information on 19 March 20X2. The financial statements are made available to shareholders and others on 1 April 20X2. The shareholders approve the financial statements at their annual meeting on 15 May 20X2 and the approved financial statements are then filed with a regulatory body on 17 May 20X2.The financial statements are authorised for issue on 18 March 20X2 (date of board authorisation for issue).

6

In some cases, the management of an entity is required to issue its financial statements to a supervisory board (made up solely of non-executives) for approval. In such cases, the financial statements are authorised for issue when the management authorises them for issue to the supervisory board.

ExampleOn 18 March 20X2, the management of an entity authorises financial statements for issue to its supervisory board. The supervisory board is made up solely of non-executives and may include representatives of employees and other outside interests. The supervisory board approves the financial statements on 26 March 20X2. The financial statements are made available to shareholders and others on 1 April 20X2. The shareholders approve the financial statements at their annual meeting on 15 May 20X2 and the financial statements are then filed with a regulatory body on 17 May 20X2.The financial statements are authorised for issue on 18 March 20X2 (date of management authorisation for issue to the supervisory board).

7

Events after the balance sheet date include all events up to the date when the financial statements are authorised for issue, even if those events occur after the public announcement of profit or of other selected financial information.

RECOGNITION AND MEASUREMENT

Adjusting events after the balance sheet date

8

An entity shall adjust the amounts recognised in its financial statements to reflect adjusting events after the balance sheet date.

9

The following are examples of adjusting events after the balance sheet date that require an entity to adjust the amounts recognised in its financial statements, or to recognise items that were not previously recognised:

(a)

the settlement after the balance sheet date of a court case that confirms that the entity had a present obligation at the balance sheet date. The entity adjusts any previously recognised provision related to this court case in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets or recognises a new provision. The entity does not merely disclose a contingent liability because the settlement provides additional evidence that would be considered in accordance with paragraph 16 of IAS 37;

(b)

the receipt of information after the balance sheet date indicating that an asset was impaired at the balance sheet date, or that the amount of a previously recognised impairment loss for that asset needs to be adjusted. For example:

(i)

the bankruptcy of a customer that occurs after the balance sheet date usually confirms that a loss existed at the balance sheet date on a trade receivable and that the entity needs to adjust the carrying amount of the trade receivable; and

(ii)

the sale of inventories after the balance sheet date may give evidence about their net realisable value at the balance sheet date;

(c)

the determination after the balance sheet date of the cost of assets purchased, or the proceeds from assets sold, before the balance sheet date;

(d)

the determination after the balance sheet date of the amount of profit-sharing or bonus payments, if the entity had a present legal or constructive obligation at the balance sheet date to make such payments as a result of events before that date (see IAS 19 Employee benefits);

(e)

the discovery of fraud or errors that show that the financial statements are incorrect.

Non-adjusting events after the balance sheet date

10

An entity shall not adjust the amounts recognised in its financial statements to reflect non-adjusting events after the balance sheet date.

11

An example of a non-adjusting event after the balance sheet date is a decline in market value of investments between the balance sheet date and the date when the financial statements are authorised for issue. The decline in market value does not normally relate to the condition of the investments at the balance sheet date, but reflects circumstances that have arisen subsequently. Therefore, an entity does not adjust the amounts recognised in its financial statements for the investments. Similarly, the entity does not update the amounts disclosed for the investments as at the balance sheet date, although it may need to give additional disclosure under paragraph 21.

Dividends

12

If an entity declares dividends to holders of equity instruments (as defined in IAS 32 Financial instruments: presentation) after the balance sheet date, the entity shall not recognise those dividends as a liability at the balance sheet date.

13

If dividends are declared (i.e. the dividends are appropriately authorised and no longer at the discretion of the entity) after the balance sheet date but before the financial statements are authorised for issue, the dividends are not recognised as a liability at the balance sheet date because they do not meet the criteria of a present obligation in IAS 37. Such dividends are disclosed in the notes in accordance with IAS 1 Presentation of financial statements.

GOING CONCERN

14

An entity shall not prepare its financial statements on a going concern basis if management determines after the balance sheet date either that it intends to liquidate the entity or to cease trading, or that it has no realistic alternative but to do so.

15

Deterioration in operating results and financial position after the balance sheet date may indicate a need to consider whether the going concern assumption is still appropriate. If the going concern assumption is no longer appropriate, the effect is so pervasive that this standard requires a fundamental change in the basis of accounting, rather than an adjustment to the amounts recognised within the original basis of accounting.

16

IAS 1 specifies required disclosures if:

(a)

the financial statements are not prepared on a going concern basis; or

(b)

management is aware of material uncertainties related to events or conditions that may cast significant doubt upon the entity's ability to continue as a going concern. The events or conditions requiring disclosure may arise after the balance sheet date.

DISCLOSURE

Date of authorisation for issue

17

An entity shall disclose the date when the financial statements were authorised for issue and who gave that authorisation. If the entity's owners or others have the power to amend the financial statements after issue, the entity shall disclose that fact.

18

It is important for users to know when the financial statements were authorised for issue, because the financial statements do not reflect events after this date.

Updating disclosure about conditions at the balance sheet date

19

If an entity receives information after the balance sheet date about conditions that existed at the balance sheet date, it shall update disclosures that relate to those conditions, in the light of the new information.

20

In some cases, an entity needs to update the disclosures in its financial statements to reflect information received after the balance sheet date, even when the information does not affect the amounts that it recognises in its financial statements. One example of the need to update disclosures is when evidence becomes available after the balance sheet date about a contingent liability that existed at the balance sheet date. In addition to considering whether it should recognise or change a provision under IAS 37, an entity updates its disclosures about the contingent liability in the light of that evidence.

Non-adjusting events after the balance sheet date

21

If non-adjusting events after the balance sheet date are material, non-disclosure could influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements. Accordingly, an entity shall disclose the following for each material category of non-adjusting event after the balance sheet date:

(a)

the nature of the event; and

(b)

an estimate of its financial effect, or a statement that such an estimate cannot be made.

22

The following are examples of non-adjusting events after the balance sheet date that would generally result in disclosure:

(a)

a major business combination after the balance sheet date (IFRS 3 Business combinations requires specific disclosures in such cases) or disposing of a major subsidiary;

(b)

announcing a plan to discontinue an operation;

(c)

major purchases of assets, classification of assets as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations, other disposals of assets, or expropriation of major assets by government;

(d)

the destruction of a major production plant by a fire after the balance sheet date;

(e)

announcing, or commencing the implementation of, a major restructuring (see IAS 37);

(f)

major ordinary share transactions and potential ordinary share transactions after the balance sheet date (IAS 33 Earnings per share requires an entity to disclose a description of such transactions, other than when such transactions involve capitalisation or bonus issues, share splits or reverse share splits all of which are required to be adjusted under IAS 33);

(g)

abnormally large changes after the balance sheet date in asset prices or foreign exchange rates;

(h)

changes in tax rates or tax laws enacted or announced after the balance sheet date that have a significant effect on current and deferred tax assets and liabilities (see IAS 12 Income taxes);

(i)

entering into significant commitments or contingent liabilities, for example, by issuing significant guarantees; and

(j)

commencing major litigation arising solely out of events that occurred after the balance sheet date.

EFFECTIVE DATE

23

An entity shall apply this standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity applies this standard for a period beginning before 1 January 2005, it shall disclose that fact.

WITHDRAWAL OF IAS 10 (REVISED 1999)

24

This standard supersedes IAS 10 Events after the balance sheet date (revised in 1999).

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 11

Construction contracts

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment of revenue and costs associated with construction contracts. Because of the nature of the activity undertaken in construction contracts, the date at which the contract activity is entered into and the date when the activity is completed usually fall into different accounting periods. Therefore, the primary issue in accounting for construction contracts is the allocation of contract revenue and contract costs to the accounting periods in which construction work is performed. This standard uses the recognition criteria established in the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements to determine when contract revenue and contract costs should be recognised as revenue and expenses in the income statement. It also provides practical guidance on the application of these criteria.

SCOPE

1

This standard shall be applied in accounting for construction contracts in the financial statements of contractors.

2

This standard supersedes IAS 11 Accounting for construction contracts approved in 1978.

DEFINITIONS

3

The following terms are used in this standard with the meanings specified:

A construction contract is a contract specifically negotiated for the construction of an asset or a combination of assets that are closely interrelated or interdependent in terms of their design, technology and function or their ultimate purpose or use.

A fixed price contract is a construction contract in which the contractor agrees to a fixed contract price, or a fixed rate per unit of output, which in some cases is subject to cost escalation clauses.

A cost plus contract is a construction contract in which the contractor is reimbursed for allowable or otherwise defined costs, plus a percentage of these costs or a fixed fee.

4

A construction contract may be negotiated for the construction of a single asset such as a bridge, building, dam, pipeline, road, ship or tunnel. A construction contract may also deal with the construction of a number of assets which are closely interrelated or interdependent in terms of their design, technology and function or their ultimate purpose or use; examples of such contracts include those for the construction of refineries and other complex pieces of plant or equipment.

5

For the purposes of this standard, construction contracts include:

(a)

contracts for the rendering of services which are directly related to the construction of the asset, for example, those for the services of project managers and architects; and

(b)

contracts for the destruction or restoration of assets, and the restoration of the environment following the demolition of assets.

6

Construction contracts are formulated in a number of ways which, for the purposes of this standard, are classified as fixed price contracts and cost plus contracts. Some construction contracts may contain characteristics of both a fixed price contract and a cost plus contract, for example in the case of a cost plus contract with an agreed maximum price. In such circumstances, a contractor needs to consider all the conditions in paragraphs 23 and 24 in order to determine when to recognise contract revenue and expenses.

COMBINING AND SEGMENTING CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS

7

The requirements of this standard are usually applied separately to each construction contract. However, in certain circumstances, it is necessary to apply the standard to the separately identifiable components of a single contract or to a group of contracts together in order to reflect the substance of a contract or a group of contracts.

8

When a contract covers a number of assets, the construction of each asset shall be treated as a separate construction contract when:

(a)

separate proposals have been submitted for each asset;

(b)

each asset has been subject to separate negotiation and the contractor and customer have been able to accept or reject that part of the contract relating to each asset; and

(c)

the costs and revenues of each asset can be identified.

9

A group of contracts, whether with a single customer or with several customers, shall be treated as a single construction contract when:

(a)

the group of contracts is negotiated as a single package;

(b)

the contracts are so closely interrelated that they are, in effect, part of a single project with an overall profit margin; and

(c)

the contracts are performed concurrently or in a continuous sequence.

10

A contract may provide for the construction of an additional asset at the option of the customer or may be amended to include the construction of an additional asset. The construction of the additional asset shall be treated as a separate construction contract when:

(a)

the asset differs significantly in design, technology or function from the asset or assets covered by the original contract; or

(b)

the price of the asset is negotiated without regard to the original contract price.

CONTRACT REVENUE

11

Contract revenue shall comprise:

(a)

the initial amount of revenue agreed in the contract; and

(b)

variations in contract work, claims and incentive payments:

(i)

to the extent that it is probable that they will result in revenue; and

(ii)

they are capable of being reliably measured.

12

Contract revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. The measurement of contract revenue is affected by a variety of uncertainties that depend on the outcome of future events. The estimates often need to be revised as events occur and uncertainties are resolved. Therefore, the amount of contract revenue may increase or decrease from one period to the next. For example:

(a)

a contractor and a customer may agree variations or claims that increase or decrease contract revenue in a period subsequent to that in which the contract was initially agreed;

(b)

the amount of revenue agreed in a fixed price contract may increase as a result of cost escalation clauses;

(c)

the amount of contract revenue may decrease as a result of penalties arising from delays caused by the contractor in the completion of the contract; or

(d)

when a fixed price contract involves a fixed price per unit of output, contract revenue increases as the number of units is increased.

13

A variation is an instruction by the customer for a change in the scope of the work to be performed under the contract. A variation may lead to an increase or a decrease in contract revenue. Examples of variations are changes in the specifications or design of the asset and changes in the duration of the contract. A variation is included in contract revenue when:

(a)

it is probable that the customer will approve the variation and the amount of revenue arising from the variation; and

(b)

the amount of revenue can be reliably measured.

14

A claim is an amount that the contractor seeks to collect from the customer or another party as reimbursement for costs not included in the contract price. A claim may arise from, for example, customer caused delays, errors in specifications or design, and disputed variations in contract work. The measurement of the amounts of revenue arising from claims is subject to a high level of uncertainty and often depends on the outcome of negotiations. Therefore, claims are included in contract revenue only when:

(a)

negotiations have reached an advanced stage such that it is probable that the customer will accept the claim; and

(b)

the amount that it is probable will be accepted by the customer can be measured reliably.

15

Incentive payments are additional amounts paid to the contractor if specified performance standards are met or exceeded. For example, a contract may allow for an incentive payment to the contractor for early completion of the contract. Incentive payments are included in contract revenue when:

(a)

the contract is sufficiently advanced that it is probable that the specified performance standards will be met or exceeded; and

(b)

the amount of the incentive payment can be measured reliably.

CONTRACT COSTS

16

Contract costs shall comprise:

(a)

costs that relate directly to the specific contract;

(b)

costs that are attributable to contract activity in general and can be allocated to the contract; and

(c)

such other costs as are specifically chargeable to the customer under the terms of the contract.

17

Costs that relate directly to a specific contract include:

(a)

site labour costs, including site supervision;

(b)

costs of materials used in construction;

(c)

depreciation of plant and equipment used on the contract;

(d)

costs of moving plant, equipment and materials to and from the contract site;

(e)

costs of hiring plant and equipment;

(f)

costs of design and technical assistance that is directly related to the contract;

(g)

the estimated costs of rectification and guarantee work, including expected warranty costs; and

(h)

claims from third parties.

These costs may be reduced by any incidental income that is not included in contract revenue, for example income from the sale of surplus materials and the disposal of plant and equipment at the end of the contract.

18

Costs that may be attributable to contract activity in general and can be allocated to specific contracts include:

(a)

insurance;

(b)

costs of design and technical assistance that are not directly related to a specific contract; and

(c)

construction overheads.

Such costs are allocated using methods that are systematic and rational and are applied consistently to all costs having similar characteristics. The allocation is based on the normal level of construction activity. Construction overheads include costs such as the preparation and processing of construction personnel payroll. Costs that may be attributable to contract activity in general and can be allocated to specific contracts also include borrowing costs when the contractor adopts the allowed alternative treatment in IAS 23 Borrowing costs.

19

Costs that are specifically chargeable to the customer under the terms of the contract may include some general administration costs and development costs for which reimbursement is specified in the terms of the contract.

20

Costs that cannot be attributed to contract activity or cannot be allocated to a contract are excluded from the costs of a construction contract. Such costs include:

(a)

general administration costs for which reimbursement is not specified in the contract;

(b)

selling costs;

(c)

research and development costs for which reimbursement is not specified in the contract; and

(d)

depreciation of idle plant and equipment that is not used on a particular contract.

21

Contract costs include the costs attributable to a contract for the period from the date of securing the contract to the final completion of the contract. However, costs that relate directly to a contract and are incurred in securing the contract are also included as part of the contract costs if they can be separately identified and measured reliably and it is probable that the contract will be obtained. When costs incurred in securing a contract are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred, they are not included in contract costs when the contract is obtained in a subsequent period.

RECOGNITION OF CONTRACT REVENUE AND EXPENSES

22

When the outcome of a construction contract can be estimated reliably, contract revenue and contract costs associated with the construction contract shall be recognised as revenue and expenses respectively by reference to the stage of completion of the contract activity at the balance sheet date. An expected loss on the construction contract shall be recognised as an expense immediately in accordance with paragraph 36.

23

In the case of a fixed price contract, the outcome of a construction contract can be estimated reliably when all the following conditions are satisfied:

(a)

total contract revenue can be measured reliably;

(b)

it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the contract will flow to the entity;

(c)

both the contract costs to complete the contract and the stage of contract completion at the balance sheet date can be measured reliably; and

(d)

the contract costs attributable to the contract can be clearly identified and measured reliably so that actual contract costs incurred can be compared with prior estimates.

24

In the case of a cost plus contract, the outcome of a construction contract can be estimated reliably when all the following conditions are satisfied:

(a)

it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the contract will flow to the entity; and

(b)

the contract costs attributable to the contract, whether or not specifically reimbursable, can be clearly identified and measured reliably.

25

The recognition of revenue and expenses by reference to the stage of completion of a contract is often referred to as the percentage of completion method. Under this method, contract revenue is matched with the contract costs incurred in reaching the stage of completion, resulting in the reporting of revenue, expenses and profit which can be attributed to the proportion of work completed. This method provides useful information on the extent of contract activity and performance during a period.

26

Under the percentage of completion method, contract revenue is recognised as revenue in the income statement in the accounting periods in which the work is performed. Contract costs are usually recognised as an expense in the income statement in the accounting periods in which the work to which they relate is performed. However, any expected excess of total contract costs over total contract revenue for the contract is recognised as an expense immediately in accordance with paragraph 36.

27

A contractor may have incurred contract costs that relate to future activity on the contract. Such contract costs are recognised as an asset provided it is probable that they will be recovered. Such costs represent an amount due from the customer and are often classified as contract work in progress.

28

The outcome of a construction contract can only be estimated reliably when it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the contract will flow to the entity. However, when an uncertainty arises about the collectability of an amount already included in contract revenue, and already recognised in the income statement, the uncollectable amount or the amount in respect of which recovery has ceased to be probable is recognised as an expense rather than as an adjustment of the amount of contract revenue.

29

An entity is generally able to make reliable estimates after it has agreed to a contract which establishes:

(a)

each party's enforceable rights regarding the asset to be constructed;

(b)

the consideration to be exchanged; and

(c)

the manner and terms of settlement.

It is also usually necessary for the entity to have an effective internal financial budgeting and reporting system. The entity reviews and, when necessary, revises the estimates of contract revenue and contract costs as the contract progresses. The need for such revisions does not necessarily indicate that the outcome of the contract cannot be estimated reliably.

30

The stage of completion of a contract may be determined in a variety of ways. The entity uses the method that measures reliably the work performed. Depending on the nature of the contract, the methods may include:

(a)

the proportion that contract costs incurred for work performed to date bear to the estimated total contract costs;

(b)

surveys of work performed; or

(c)

completion of a physical proportion of the contract work.

Progress payments and advances received from customers often do not reflect the work performed.

31

When the stage of completion is determined by reference to the contract costs incurred to date, only those contract costs that reflect work performed are included in costs incurred to date. Examples of contract costs which are excluded are:

(a)

contract costs that relate to future activity on the contract, such as costs of materials that have been delivered to a contract site or set aside for use in a contract but not yet installed, used or applied during contract performance, unless the materials have been made specially for the contract; and

(b)

payments made to subcontractors in advance of work performed under the subcontract.

32

When the outcome of a construction contract cannot be estimated reliably:

(a)

revenue shall be recognised only to the extent of contract costs incurred that it is probable will be recoverable; and

(b)

contract costs shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

An expected loss on the construction contract shall be recognised as an expense immediately in accordance with paragraph 36.

33

During the early stages of a contract it is often the case that the outcome of the contract cannot be estimated reliably. Nevertheless, it may be probable that the entity will recover the contract costs incurred. Therefore, contract revenue is recognised only to the extent of costs incurred that are expected to be recoverable. As the outcome of the contract cannot be estimated reliably, no profit is recognised. However, even though the outcome of the contract cannot be estimated reliably, it may be probable that total contract costs will exceed total contract revenues. In such cases, any expected excess of total contract costs over total contract revenue for the contract is recognised as an expense immediately in accordance with paragraph 36.

34

Contract costs that are not probable of being recovered are recognised as an expense immediately. Examples of circumstances in which the recoverability of contract costs incurred may not be probable and in which contract costs may need to be recognised as an expense immediately include contracts:

(a)

that are not fully enforceable, i.e. their validity is seriously in question;

(b)

the completion of which is subject to the outcome of pending litigation or legislation;

(c)

relating to properties that are likely to be condemned or expropriated;

(d)

where the customer is unable to meet its obligations; or

(e)

where the contractor is unable to complete the contract or otherwise meet its obligations under the contract.

35

When the uncertainties that prevented the outcome of the contract being estimated reliably no longer exist, revenue and expenses associated with the construction contract shall be recognised in accordance with paragraph 22 rather than in accordance with paragraph 32.

RECOGNITION OF EXPECTED LOSSES

36

When it is probable that total contract costs will exceed total contract revenue, the expected loss shall be recognised as an expense immediately.

37

The amount of such a loss is determined irrespective of:

(a)

whether work has commenced on the contract;

(b)

the stage of completion of contract activity; or

(c)

the amount of profits expected to arise on other contracts which are not treated as a single construction contract in accordance with paragraph 9.

CHANGES IN ESTIMATES

38

The percentage of completion method is applied on a cumulative basis in each accounting period to the current estimates of contract revenue and contract costs. Therefore, the effect of a change in the estimate of contract revenue or contract costs, or the effect of a change in the estimate of the outcome of a contract, is accounted for as a change in accounting estimate (see IAS 8 Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors). The changed estimates are used in the determination of the amount of revenue and expenses recognised in the income statement in the period in which the change is made and in subsequent periods.

DISCLOSURE

39

An entity shall disclose:

(a)

the amount of contract revenue recognised as revenue in the period;

(b)

the methods used to determine the contract revenue recognised in the period; and

(c)

the methods used to determine the stage of completion of contracts in progress.

40

An entity shall disclose each of the following for contracts in progress at the balance sheet date:

(a)

the aggregate amount of costs incurred and recognised profits (less recognised losses) to date;

(b)

the amount of advances received; and

(c)

the amount of retentions.

41

Retentions are amounts of progress billings that are not paid until the satisfaction of conditions specified in the contract for the payment of such amounts or until defects have been rectified. Progress billings are amounts billed for work performed on a contract whether or not they have been paid by the customer. Advances are amounts received by the contractor before the related work is performed.

42

An entity shall present:

(a)

the gross amount due from customers for contract work as an asset; and

(b)

the gross amount due to customers for contract work as a liability.

43

The gross amount due from customers for contract work is the net amount of:

(a)

costs incurred plus recognised profits; less

(b)

the sum of recognised losses and progress billings;

for all contracts in progress for which costs incurred plus recognised profits (less recognised losses) exceeds progress billings.

44

The gross amount due to customers for contract work is the net amount of:

(a)

costs incurred plus recognised profits; less

(b)

the sum of recognised losses and progress billings;

for all contracts in progress for which progress billings exceed costs incurred plus recognised profits (less recognised losses).

45

An entity discloses any contingent liabilities and contingent assets in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets. Contingent liabilities and contingent assets may arise from such items as warranty costs, claims, penalties or possible losses.

EFFECTIVE DATE

46

This standard becomes operative for financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 1995.

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 12

Income taxes

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for income taxes. The principal issue in accounting for income taxes is how to account for the current and future tax consequences of:

(a)

the future recovery (settlement) of the carrying amount of assets (liabilities) that are recognised in an entity's balance sheet; and

(b)

transactions and other events of the current period that are recognised in an entity's financial statements.

It is inherent in the recognition of an asset or liability that the reporting entity expects to recover or settle the carrying amount of that asset or liability. If it is probable that recovery or settlement of that carrying amount will make future tax payments larger (smaller) than they would be if such recovery or settlement were to have no tax consequences, this standard requires an entity to recognise a deferred tax liability (deferred tax asset), with certain limited exceptions.

This standard requires an entity to account for the tax consequences of transactions and other events in the same way that it accounts for the transactions and other events themselves. Thus, for transactions and other events recognised in profit or loss, any related tax effects are also recognised in profit or loss. For transactions and other events recognised directly in equity, any related tax effects are also recognised directly in equity. Similarly, the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities in a business combination affects the amount of goodwill arising in that business combination or the amount of any excess of the acquirer's interest in the net fair value of the acquiree's identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the cost of the combination.

This standard also deals with the recognition of deferred tax assets arising from unused tax losses or unused tax credits, the presentation of income taxes in the financial statements and the disclosure of information relating to income taxes.

SCOPE

1

This standard shall be applied in accounting for income taxes.

2

For the purposes of this standard, income taxes include all domestic and foreign taxes which are based on taxable profits. Income taxes also include taxes, such as withholding taxes, which are payable by a subsidiary, associate or joint venture on distributions to the reporting entity.

3

[Deleted]

4

This standard does not deal with the methods of accounting for government grants (see IAS 20 Accounting for government grants and disclosure of government assistance) or investment tax credits. However, this standard does deal with the accounting for temporary differences that may arise from such grants or investment tax credits.

DEFINITIONS

5

The following terms are used in this standard with the meanings specified:

Accounting profit is profit or loss for a period before deducting tax expense.

Taxable profit (tax loss) is the profit (loss) for a period, determined in accordance with the rules established by the taxation authorities, upon which income taxes are payable (recoverable).

Tax expense (tax income) is the aggregate amount included in the determination of profit or loss for the period in respect of current tax and deferred tax.

Current tax is the amount of income taxes payable (recoverable) in respect of the taxable profit (tax loss) for a period.

Deferred tax liabilities are the amounts of income taxes payable in future periods in respect of taxable temporary differences.

Deferred tax assets are the amounts of income taxes recoverable in future periods in respect of:

(a)

deductible temporary differences;

(b)

the carryforward of unused tax losses; and

(c)

the carryforward of unused tax credits.

Temporary differences are differences between the carrying amount of an asset or liability in the balance sheet and its tax base. Temporary differences may be either:

(a)

taxable temporary differences, which are temporary differences that will result in taxable amounts in determining taxable profit (tax loss) of future periods when the carrying amount of the asset or liability is recovered or settled; or

(b)

deductible temporary differences, which are temporary differences that will result in amounts that are deductible in determining taxable profit (tax loss) of future periods when the carrying amount of the asset or liability is recovered or settled.

The tax base of an asset or liability is the amount attributed to that asset or liability for tax purposes.

6

Tax expense (tax income) comprises current tax expense (current tax income) and deferred tax expense (deferred tax income).

Tax base

7

The tax base of an asset is the amount that will be deductible for tax purposes against any taxable economic benefits that will flow to an entity when it recovers the carrying amount of the asset. If those economic benefits will not be taxable, the tax base of the asset is equal to its carrying amount.

Examples

1.

A machine cost 100. For tax purposes, depreciation of 30 has already been deducted in the current and prior periods and the remaining cost will be deductible in future periods, either as depreciation or through a deduction on disposal. Revenue generated by using the machine is taxable, any gain on disposal of the machine will be taxable and any loss on disposal will be deductible for tax purposes. The tax base of the machine is 70.

2.

Interest receivable has a carrying amount of 100. The related interest revenue will be taxed on a cash basis. The tax base of the interest receivable is nil.

3.

Trade receivables have a carrying amount of 100. The related revenue has already been included in taxable profit (tax loss). The tax base of the trade receivables is 100.

4.

Dividends receivable from a subsidiary have a carrying amount of 100. The dividends are not taxable. In substance, the entire carrying amount of the asset is deductible against the economic benefits. Consequently, the tax base of the dividends receivable is 100 (1).

5.

A loan receivable has a carrying amount of 100. The repayment of the loan will have no tax consequences. The tax base of the loan is 100.

8

The tax base of a liability is its carrying amount, less any amount that will be deductible for tax purposes in respect of that liability in future periods. In the case of revenue which is received in advance, the tax base of the resulting liability is its carrying amount, less any amount of the revenue that will not be taxable in future periods.

Examples

1.

Current liabilities include accrued expenses with a carrying amount of 100. The related expense will be deducted for tax purposes on a cash basis. The tax base of the accrued expenses is nil.

2.

Current liabilities include interest revenue received in advance, with a carrying amount of 100. The related interest revenue was taxed on a cash basis. The tax base of the interest received in advance is nil.

3.

Current liabilities include accrued expenses with a carrying amount of 100. The related expense has already been deducted for tax purposes. The tax base of the accrued expenses is 100.

4.

Current liabilities include accrued fines and penalties with a carrying amount of 100. Fines and penalties are not deductible for tax purposes. The tax base of the accrued fines and penalties is 100  (2).

5.

A loan payable has a carrying amount of 100. The repayment of the loan will have no tax consequences. The tax base of the loan is 100.

9

Some items have a tax base but are not recognised as assets and liabilities in the balance sheet. For example, research costs are recognised as an expense in determining accounting profit in the period in which they are incurred but may not be permitted as a deduction in determining taxable profit (tax loss) until a later period. The difference between the tax base of the research costs, being the amount the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods, and the carrying amount of nil is a deductible temporary difference that results in a deferred tax asset.

10

Where the tax base of an asset or liability is not immediately apparent, it is helpful to consider the fundamental principle upon which this standard is based: that an entity shall, with certain limited exceptions, recognise a deferred tax liability (asset) whenever recovery or settlement of the carrying amount of an asset or liability would make future tax payments larger (smaller) than they would be if such recovery or settlement were to have no tax consequences. Example C following paragraph 52 illustrates circumstances when it may be helpful to consider this fundamental principle, for example, when the tax base of an asset or liability depends on the expected manner of recovery or settlement.

11

In consolidated financial statements, temporary differences are determined by comparing the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the consolidated financial statements with the appropriate tax base. The tax base is determined by reference to a consolidated tax return in those jurisdictions in which such a return is filed. In other jurisdictions, the tax base is determined by reference to the tax returns of each entity in the group.

RECOGNITION OF CURRENT TAX LIABILITIES AND CURRENT TAX ASSETS

12

Current tax for current and prior periods shall, to the extent unpaid, be recognised as a liability. If the amount already paid in respect of current and prior periods exceeds the amount due for those periods, the excess shall be recognised as an asset.

13

The benefit relating to a tax loss that can be carried back to recover current tax of a previous period shall be recognised as an asset.

14

When a tax loss is used to recover current tax of a previous period, an entity recognises the benefit as an asset in the period in which the tax loss occurs because it is probable that the benefit will flow to the entity and the benefit can be reliably measured.

RECOGNITION OF DEFERRED TAX LIABILITIES AND DEFERRED TAX ASSETS

TAXABLE TEMPORARY DIFFERENCES

15

A deferred tax liability shall be recognised for all taxable temporary differences, except to the extent that the deferred tax liability arises from:

(a)

the initial recognition of goodwill; or

(b)

the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction which:

(i)

is not a business combination; and

(ii)

at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).

However, for taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint ventures, a deferred tax liability shall be recognised in accordance with paragraph 39.

16

It is inherent in the recognition of an asset that its carrying amount will be recovered in the form of economic benefits that flow to the entity in future periods. When the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its tax base, the amount of taxable economic benefits will exceed the amount that will be allowed as a deduction for tax purposes. This difference is a taxable temporary difference and the obligation to pay the resulting income taxes in future periods is a deferred tax liability. As the entity recovers the carrying amount of the asset, the taxable temporary difference will reverse and the entity will have taxable profit. This makes it probable that economic benefits will flow from the entity in the form of tax payments. Therefore, this standard requires the recognition of all deferred tax liabilities, except in certain circumstances described in paragraphs 15 and 39.

ExampleAn asset which cost 150 has a carrying amount of 100. Cumulative depreciation for tax purposes is 90 and the tax rate is 25 %.The tax base of the asset is 60 (cost of 150 less cumulative tax depreciation of 90). To recover the carrying amount of 100, the entity must earn taxable income of 100, but will only be able to deduct tax depreciation of 60. Consequently, the entity will pay income taxes of 10 (40 at 25 %) when it recovers the carrying amount of the asset. The difference between the carrying amount of 100 and the tax base of 60 is a taxable temporary difference of 40. Therefore, the entity recognises a deferred tax liability of 10 (40 at 25 %) representing the income taxes that it will pay when it recovers the carrying amount of the asset.

17

Some temporary differences arise when income or expense is included in accounting profit in one period but is included in taxable profit in a different period. Such temporary differences are often described as timing differences. The following are examples of temporary differences of this kind which are taxable temporary differences and which therefore result in deferred tax liabilities:

(a)

interest revenue is included in accounting profit on a time proportion basis but may, in some jurisdictions, be included in taxable profit when cash is collected. The tax base of any receivable recognised in the balance sheet with respect to such revenues is nil because the revenues do not affect taxable profit until cash is collected;

(b)

depreciation used in determining taxable profit (tax loss) may differ from that used in determining accounting profit. The temporary difference is the difference between the carrying amount of the asset and its tax base which is the original cost of the asset less all deductions in respect of that asset permitted by the taxation authorities in determining taxable profit of the current and prior periods. A taxable temporary difference arises, and results in a deferred tax liability, when tax depreciation is accelerated (if tax depreciation is less rapid than accounting depreciation, a deductible temporary difference arises, and results in a deferred tax asset); and

(c)

development costs may be capitalised and amortised over future periods in determining accounting profit but deducted in determining taxable profit in the period in which they are incurred. Such development costs have a tax base of nil as they have already been deducted from taxable profit. The temporary difference is the difference between the carrying amount of the development costs and their tax base of nil.

18

Temporary differences also arise when:

(a)

the cost of a business combination is allocated by recognising the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their fair values, but no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes (see paragraph 19);

(b)

assets are revalued and no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes (see paragraph 20);

(c)

goodwill arises in a business combination (see paragraph 21);

(d)

the tax base of an asset or liability on initial recognition differs from its initial carrying amount, for example when an entity benefits from non-taxable government grants related to assets (see paragraphs 22 and 33); or

(e)

the carrying amount of investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates or interests in joint ventures becomes different from the tax base of the investment or interest (see paragraphs 38-45).

Business combinations

19

The cost of a business combination is allocated by recognising the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their fair values at the acquisition date. Temporary differences arise when the tax bases of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed are not affected by the business combination or are affected differently. For example, when the carrying amount of an asset is increased to fair value but the tax base of the asset remains at cost to the previous owner, a taxable temporary difference arises which results in a deferred tax liability. The resulting deferred tax liability affects goodwill (see paragraph 66).

Assets carried at fair value

20

IFRSs permit or require certain assets to be carried at fair value or to be revalued (see, for example, IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment, IAS 38 Intangible assets, IAS 39 Financial instruments: recognition and measurement and IAS 40 Investment property). In some jurisdictions, the revaluation or other restatement of an asset to fair value affects taxable profit (tax loss) for the current period. As a result, the tax base of the asset is adjusted and no temporary difference arises. In other jurisdictions, the revaluation or restatement of an asset does not affect taxable profit in the period of the revaluation or restatement and, consequently, the tax base of the asset is not adjusted. Nevertheless, the future recovery of the carrying amount will result in a taxable flow of economic benefits to the entity and the amount that will be deductible for tax purposes will differ from the amount of those economic benefits. The difference between the carrying amount of a revalued asset and its tax base is a temporary difference and gives rise to a deferred tax liability or asset. This is true even if:

(a)

the entity does not intend to dispose of the asset. In such cases, the revalued carrying amount of the asset will be recovered through use and this will generate taxable income which exceeds the depreciation that will be allowable for tax purposes in future periods; or

(b)

tax on capital gains is deferred if the proceeds of the disposal of the asset are invested in similar assets. In such cases, the tax will ultimately become payable on sale or use of the similar assets.

Goodwill

21

Goodwill arising in a business combination is measured as the excess of the cost of the combination over the acquirer's interest in the net fair value of the acquiree's identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities. Many taxation authorities do not allow reductions in the carrying amount of goodwill as a deductible expense in determining taxable profit. Moreover, in such jurisdictions, the cost of goodwill is often not deductible when a subsidiary disposes of its underlying business. In such jurisdictions, goodwill has a tax base of nil. Any difference between the carrying amount of goodwill and its tax base of nil is a taxable temporary difference. However, this standard does not permit the recognition of the resulting deferred tax liability because goodwill is measured as a residual and the recognition of the deferred tax liability would increase the carrying amount of goodwill.

21A

Subsequent reductions in a deferred tax liability that is unrecognised because it arises from the initial recognition of goodwill are also regarded as arising from the initial recognition of goodwill and are therefore not recognised under paragraph 15(a). For example, if goodwill acquired in a business combination has a cost of 100 but a tax base of nil, paragraph 15(a) prohibits the entity from recognising the resulting deferred tax liability. If the entity subsequently recognises an impairment loss of 20 for that goodwill, the amount of the taxable temporary difference relating to the goodwill is reduced from 100 to 80, with a resulting decrease in the value of the unrecognised deferred tax liability. That decrease in the value of the unrecognised deferred tax liability is also regarded as relating to the initial recognition of the goodwill and is therefore prohibited from being recognised under paragraph 15(a).

21B

Deferred tax liabilities for taxable temporary differences relating to goodwill are, however, recognised to the extent they do not arise from the initial recognition of goodwill. For example, if goodwill acquired in a business combination has a cost of 100 that is deductible for tax purposes at a rate of 20 per cent per year starting in the year of acquisition, the tax base of the goodwill is 100 on initial recognition and 80 at the end of the year of acquisition. If the carrying amount of goodwill at the end of the year of acquisition remains unchanged at 100, a taxable temporary difference of 20 arises at the end of that year. Because that taxable temporary difference does not relate to the initial recognition of the goodwill, the resulting deferred tax liability is recognised.

Initial recognition of an asset or liability

22

A temporary difference may arise on initial recognition of an asset or liability, for example if part or all of the cost of an asset will not be deductible for tax purposes. The method of accounting for such a temporary difference depends on the nature of the transaction which led to the initial recognition of the asset or liability:

(a)

in a business combination, an entity recognises any deferred tax liability or asset and this affects the amount of goodwill or the amount of any excess over the cost of the combination of the acquirer's interest in the net fair value of the acquiree's identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities (see paragraph 19);

(b)

if the transaction affects either accounting profit or taxable profit, an entity recognises any deferred tax liability or asset and recognises the resulting deferred tax expense or income in the income statement (see paragraph 59);

(c)

if the transaction is not a business combination, and affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit, an entity would, in the absence of the exemption provided by paragraphs 15 and 24, recognise the resulting deferred tax liability or asset and adjust the carrying amount of the asset or liability by the same amount. Such adjustments would make the financial statements less transparent. Therefore, this standard does not permit an entity to recognise the resulting deferred tax liability or asset, either on initial recognition or subsequently (see example below). Furthermore, an entity does not recognise subsequent changes in the unrecognised deferred tax liability or asset as the asset is depreciated.

Example illustrating paragraph 22(c)An entity intends to use an asset which cost 1 000 throughout its useful life of five years and then dispose of it for a residual value of nil. The tax rate is 40 %. Depreciation of the asset is not deductible for tax purposes. On disposal, any capital gain would not be taxable and any capital loss would not be deductible.As it recovers the carrying amount of the asset, the entity will earn taxable income of 1 000 and pay tax of 400. The entity does not recognise the resulting deferred tax liability of 400 because it results from the initial recognition of the asset. In the following year, the carrying amount of the asset is 800. In earning taxable income of 800, the entity will pay tax of 320. The entity does not recognise the deferred tax liability of 320 because it results from the initial recognition of the asset.

23

In accordance with IAS 32 Financial instruments: presentation the issuer of a compound financial instrument (for example, a convertible bond) classifies the instrument's liability component as a liability and the equity component as equity. In some jurisdictions, the tax base of the liability component on initial recognition is equal to the initial carrying amount of the sum of the liability and equity components. The resulting taxable temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of the equity component separately from the liability component. Therefore, the exception set out in paragraph 15(b) does not apply. Consequently, an entity recognises the resulting deferred tax liability. In accordance with paragraph 61, the deferred tax is charged directly to the carrying amount of the equity component. In accordance with paragraph 58, subsequent changes in the deferred tax liability are recognised in the income statement as deferred tax expense (income).

Deductible temporary differences

24

A deferred tax asset shall be recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary difference can be utilised, unless the deferred tax asset arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that:

(a)

is not a business combination; and

(b)

at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).

However, for deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint ventures, a deferred tax asset shall be recognised in accordance with paragraph 44.

25

It is inherent in the recognition of a liability that the carrying amount will be settled in future periods through an outflow from the entity of resources embodying economic benefits. When resources flow from the entity, part or all of their amounts may be deductible in determining taxable profit of a period later than the period in which the liability is recognised. In such cases, a temporary difference exists between the carrying amount of the liability and its tax base. Accordingly, a deferred tax asset arises in respect of the income taxes that will be recoverable in the future periods when that part of the liability is allowed as a deduction in determining taxable profit. Similarly, if the carrying amount of an asset is less than its tax base, the difference gives rise to a deferred tax asset in respect of the income taxes that will be recoverable in future periods.

ExampleAn entity recognises a liability of 100 for accrued product warranty costs. For tax purposes, the product warranty costs will not be deductible until the entity pays claims. The tax rate is 25 %.The tax base of the liability is nil (carrying amount of 100, less the amount that will be deductible for tax purposes in respect of that liability in future periods). In settling the liability for its carrying amount, the entity will reduce its future taxable profit by an amount of 100 and, consequently, reduce its future tax payments by 25 (100 at 25 %). The difference between the carrying amount of 100 and the tax base of nil is a deductible temporary difference of 100. Therefore, the entity recognises a deferred tax asset of 25 (100 at 25 %), provided that it is probable that the entity will earn sufficient taxable profit in future periods to benefit from a reduction in tax payments.

26

The following are examples of deductible temporary differences which result in deferred tax assets:

(a)

retirement benefit costs may be deducted in determining accounting profit as service is provided by the employee, but deducted in determining taxable profit either when contributions are paid to a fund by the entity or when retirement benefits are paid by the entity. A temporary difference exists between the carrying amount of the liability and its tax base; the tax base of the liability is usually nil. Such a deductible temporary difference results in a deferred tax asset as economic benefits will flow to the entity in the form of a deduction from taxable profits when contributions or retirement benefits are paid;

(b)

research costs are recognised as an expense in determining accounting profit in the period in which they are incurred but may not be permitted as a deduction in determining taxable profit (tax loss) until a later period. The difference between the tax base of the research costs, being the amount the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods, and the carrying amount of nil is a deductible temporary difference that results in a deferred tax asset;

(c)

the cost of a business combination is allocated by recognising the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their fair values at the acquisition date. When a liability assumed is recognised at the acquisition date but the related costs are not deducted in determining taxable profits until a later period, a deductible temporary difference arises which results in a deferred tax asset. A deferred tax asset also arises when the fair value of an identifiable asset acquired is less than its tax base. In both cases, the resulting deferred tax asset affects goodwill (see paragraph 66); and

(d)

certain assets may be carried at fair value, or may be revalued, without an equivalent adjustment being made for tax purposes (see paragraph 20). A deductible temporary difference arises if the tax base of the asset exceeds its carrying amount.

27

The reversal of deductible temporary differences results in deductions in determining taxable profits of future periods. However, economic benefits in the form of reductions in tax payments will flow to the entity only if it earns sufficient taxable profits against which the deductions can be offset. Therefore, an entity recognises deferred tax assets only when it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which the deductible temporary differences can be utilised.

28

It is probable that taxable profit will be available against which a deductible temporary difference can be utilised when there are sufficient taxable temporary differences relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity which are expected to reverse:

(a)

in the same period as the expected reversal of the deductible temporary difference; or

(b)

in periods into which a tax loss arising from the deferred tax asset can be carried back or forward.

In such circumstances, the deferred tax asset is recognised in the period in which the deductible temporary differences arise.

29

When there are insufficient taxable temporary differences relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity, the deferred tax asset is recognised to the extent that:

(a)

it is probable that the entity will have sufficient taxable profit relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity in the same period as the reversal of the deductible temporary difference (or in the periods into which a tax loss arising from the deferred tax asset can be carried back or forward). In evaluating whether it will have sufficient taxable profit in future periods, an entity ignores taxable amounts arising from deductible temporary differences that are expected to originate in future periods, because the deferred tax asset arising from these deductible temporary differences will itself require future taxable profit in order to be utilised; or

(b)

tax planning opportunities are available to the entity that will create taxable profit in appropriate periods.

30

Tax planning opportunities are actions that the entity would take in order to create or increase taxable income in a particular period before the expiry of a tax loss or tax credit carryforward. For example, in some jurisdictions, taxable profit may be created or increased by:

(a)

electing to have interest income taxed on either a received or receivable basis;

(b)

deferring the claim for certain deductions from taxable profit;

(c)

selling, and perhaps leasing back, assets that have appreciated but for which the tax base has not been adjusted to reflect such appreciation; and

(d)

selling an asset that generates non-taxable income (such as, in some jurisdictions, a government bond) in order to purchase another investment that generates taxable income.

Where tax planning opportunities advance taxable profit from a later period to an earlier period, the utilisation of a tax loss or tax credit carryforward still depends on the existence of future taxable profit from sources other than future originating temporary differences.

31

When an entity has a history of recent losses, the entity considers the guidance in paragraphs 35 and 36.

32

[Deleted]

Initial recognition of an asset or liability

33

One case when a deferred tax asset arises on initial recognition of an asset is when a non-taxable government grant related to an asset is deducted in arriving at the carrying amount of the asset but, for tax purposes, is not deducted from the asset's depreciable amount (in other words its tax base); the carrying amount of the asset is less than its tax base and this gives rise to a deductible temporary difference. Government grants may also be set up as deferred income in which case the difference between the deferred income and its tax base of nil is a deductible temporary difference. Whichever method of presentation an entity adopts, the entity does not recognise the resulting deferred tax asset, for the reason given in paragraph 22.

Unused tax losses and unused tax credits

34

A deferred tax asset shall be recognised for the carryforward of unused tax losses and unused tax credits to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses and unused tax credits can be utilised.

35

The criteria for recognising deferred tax assets arising from the carryforward of unused tax losses and tax credits are the same as the criteria for recognising deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences. However, the existence of unused tax losses is strong evidence that future taxable profit may not be available. Therefore, when an entity has a history of recent losses, the entity recognises a deferred tax asset arising from unused tax losses or tax credits only to the extent that the entity has sufficient taxable temporary differences or there is convincing other evidence that sufficient taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised by the entity. In such circumstances, paragraph 82 requires disclosure of the amount of the deferred tax asset and the nature of the evidence supporting its recognition.

36

An entity considers the following criteria in assessing the probability that taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised:

(a)

whether the entity has sufficient taxable temporary differences relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity, which will result in taxable amounts against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised before they expire;

(b)

whether it is probable that the entity will have taxable profits before the unused tax losses or unused tax credits expire;

(c)

whether the unused tax losses result from identifiable causes which are unlikely to recur; and

(d)

whether tax planning opportunities (see paragraph 30) are available to the entity that will create taxable profit in the period in which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised.

To the extent that it is not probable that taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised, the deferred tax asset is not recognised.

Reassessment of unrecognised deferred tax assets

37

At each balance sheet date, an entity reassesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. The entity recognises a previously unrecognised deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profit will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered. For example, an improvement in trading conditions may make it more probable that the entity will be able to generate sufficient taxable profit in the future for the deferred tax asset to meet the recognition criteria set out in paragraph 24 or 34. Another example is when an entity reassesses deferred tax assets at the date of a business combination or subsequently (see paragraphs 67 and 68).

Investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and interests in joint ventures

38

Temporary differences arise when the carrying amount of investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates or interests in joint ventures (namely the parent or investor's share of the net assets of the subsidiary, branch, associate or investee, including the carrying amount of goodwill) becomes different from the tax base (which is often cost) of the investment or interest. Such differences may arise in a number of different circumstances, for example:

(a)

the existence of undistributed profits of subsidiaries, branches, associates and joint ventures;

(b)

changes in foreign exchange rates when a parent and its subsidiary are based in different countries; and

(c)

a reduction in the carrying amount of an investment in an associate to its recoverable amount.

In consolidated financial statements, the temporary difference may be different from the temporary difference associated with that investment in the parent's separate financial statements if the parent carries the investment in its separate financial statements at cost or revalued amount.

39

An entity shall recognise a deferred tax liability for all taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint ventures, except to the extent that both of the following conditions are satisfied:

(a)

the parent, investor or venturer is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference; and

(b)

it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

40

As a parent controls the dividend policy of its subsidiary, it is able to control the timing of the reversal of temporary differences associated with that investment (including the temporary differences arising not only from undistributed profits but also from any foreign exchange translation differences). Furthermore, it would often be impracticable to determine the amount of income taxes that would be payable when the temporary difference reverses. Therefore, when the parent has determined that those profits will not be distributed in the foreseeable future the parent does not recognise a deferred tax liability. The same considerations apply to investments in branches.

41

The non-monetary assets and liabilities of an entity are measured in its functional currency (see IAS 21 The effects of changes in foreign exchange rates). If the entity's taxable profit or tax loss (and, hence, the tax base of its non-monetary assets and liabilities) is determined in a different currency, changes in the exchange rate give rise to temporary differences that result in a recognised deferred tax liability or (subject to paragraph 24) asset. The resulting deferred tax is charged or credited to profit or loss (see paragraph 58).

42

An investor in an associate does not control that entity and is usually not in a position to determine its dividend policy. Therefore, in the absence of an agreement requiring that the profits of the associate will not be distributed in the foreseeable future, an investor recognises a deferred tax liability arising from taxable temporary differences associated with its investment in the associate. In some cases, an investor may not be able to determine the amount of tax that would be payable if it recovers the cost of its investment in an associate, but can determine that it will equal or exceed a minimum amount. In such cases, the deferred tax liability is measured at this amount.

43

The arrangement between the parties to a joint venture usually deals with the sharing of the profits and identifies whether decisions on such matters require the consent of all the venturers or a specified majority of the venturers. When the venturer can control the sharing of profits and it is probable that the profits will not be distributed in the foreseeable future, a deferred tax liability is not recognised.

44

An entity shall recognise a deferred tax asset for all deductible temporary differences arising from investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint ventures, to the extent that, and only to the extent that, it is probable that:

(a)

the temporary difference will reverse in the foreseeable future; and

(b)

taxable profit will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilised.

45

In deciding whether a deferred tax asset is recognised for deductible temporary differences associated with its investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and its interests in joint ventures, an entity considers the guidance set out in paragraphs 28 to 31.

MEASUREMENT

46

Current tax liabilities (assets) for the current and prior periods shall be measured at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from) the taxation authorities, using the tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

47

Deferred tax assets and liabilities shall be measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

48

Current and deferred tax assets and liabilities are usually measured using the tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted. However, in some jurisdictions, announcements of tax rates (and tax laws) by the government have the substantive effect of actual enactment, which may follow the announcement by a period of several months. In these circumstances, tax assets and liabilities are measured using the announced tax rate (and tax laws).

49

When different tax rates apply to different levels of taxable income, deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the average rates that are expected to apply to the taxable profit (tax loss) of the periods in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse.

50

[Deleted]

51

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets shall reflect the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the entity expects, at the balance sheet date, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

52

In some jurisdictions, the manner in which an entity recovers (settles) the carrying amount of an asset (liability) may affect either or both of:

(a)

the tax rate applicable when the entity recovers (settles) the carrying amount of the asset (liability); and

(b)

the tax base of the asset (liability).

In such cases, an entity measures deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets using the tax rate and the tax base that are consistent with the expected manner of recovery or settlement.

Example AAn asset has a carrying amount of 100 and a tax base of 60. A tax rate of 20 % would apply if the asset were sold and a tax rate of 30 % would apply to other income.The entity recognises a deferred tax liability of 8 (40 at 20 %) if it expects to sell the asset without further use and a deferred tax liability of 12 (40 at 30 %) if it expects to retain the asset and recover its carrying amount through use.Example BAn asset with a cost of 100 and a carrying amount of 80 is revalued to 150. No equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes. Cumulative depreciation for tax purposes is 30 and the tax rate is 30 %. If the asset is sold for more than cost, the cumulative tax depreciation of 30 will be included in taxable income but sale proceeds in excess of cost will not be taxable.The tax base of the asset is 70 and there is a taxable temporary difference of 80. If the entity expects to recover the carrying amount by using the asset, it must generate taxable income of 150, but will only be able to deduct depreciation of 70. On this basis, there is a deferred tax liability of 24 (80 at 30 %). If the entity expects to recover the carrying amount by selling the asset immediately for proceeds of 150, the deferred tax liability is computed as follows:

 

Taxable Temporary Difference

Tax Rate

Deferred Tax Liability

Cumulative tax depreciation

30

30 %

9

Proceeds in excess of cost

50

nil

Total

80

 

9

(note: in accordance with paragraph 61, the additional deferred tax that arises on the revaluation is charged directly to equity)Example CThe facts are as in example B, except that if the asset is sold for more than cost, the cumulative tax depreciation will be included in taxable income (taxed at 30 %) and the sale proceeds will be taxed at 40 %, after deducting an inflation-adjusted cost of 110.If the entity expects to recover the carrying amount by using the asset, it must generate taxable income of 150, but will only be able to deduct depreciation of 70. On this basis, the tax base is 70, there is a taxable temporary difference of 80 and there is a deferred tax liability of 24 (80 at 30 %), as in example B. If the entity expects to recover the carrying amount by selling the asset immediately for proceeds of 150, the entity will be able to deduct the indexed cost of 110. The net proceeds of 40 will be taxed at 40 %. In addition, the cumulative tax depreciation of 30 will be included in taxable income and taxed at 30 %. On this basis, the tax base is 80 (110 less 30), there is a taxable temporary difference of 70 and there is a deferred tax liability of 25 (40 at 40 % plus 30 at 30 %). If the tax base is not immediately apparent in this example, it may be helpful to consider the fundamental principle set out in paragraph 10. (note: in accordance with paragraph 61, the additional deferred tax that arises on the revaluation is charged directly to equity)

52A

In some jurisdictions, income taxes are payable at a higher or lower rate if part or all of the net profit or retained earnings is paid out as a dividend to shareholders of the entity. In some other jurisdictions, income taxes may be refundable or payable if part or all of the net profit or retained earnings is paid out as a dividend to shareholders of the entity. In these circumstances, current and deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rate applicable to undistributed profits.

52B

In the circumstances described in paragraph 52A, the income tax consequences of dividends are recognised when a liability to pay the dividend is recognised. The income tax consequences of dividends are more directly linked to past transactions or events than to distributions to owners. Therefore, the income tax consequences of dividends are recognised in profit or loss for the period as required by paragraph 58 except to the extent that the income tax consequences of dividends arise from the circumstances described in paragraph 58(a) and (b).

Example illustrating paragraphs 52A and 52BThe following example deals with the measurement of current and deferred tax assets and liabilities for an entity in a jurisdiction where income taxes are payable at a higher rate on undistributed profits (50 %) with an amount being refundable when profits are distributed. The tax rate on distributed profits is 35 %. At the balance sheet date, 31 December 20X1, the entity does not recognise a liability for dividends proposed or declared after the balance sheet date. As a result, no dividends are recognised in the year 20X1. Taxable income for 20X1 is 100 000. The net taxable temporary difference for the year 20X1 is 40 000.The entity recognises a current tax liability and a current income tax expense of 50 000. No asset is recognised for the amount potentially recoverable as a result of future dividends. The entity also recognises a deferred tax liability and deferred tax expense of 20 000 (40 000 at 50 %) representing the income taxes that the entity will pay when it recovers or settles the carrying amounts of its assets and liabilities based on the tax rate applicable to undistributed profits.Subsequently, on 15 March 20X2 the entity recognises dividends of 10 000 from previous operating profits as a liability.On 15 March 20X2, the entity recognises the recovery of income taxes of 1 500 (15 % of the dividends recognised as a liability) as a current tax asset and as a reduction of current income tax expense for 20X2.

53

Deferred tax assets and liabilities shall not be discounted.

54

The reliable determination of deferred tax assets and liabilities on a discounted basis requires detailed scheduling of the timing of the reversal of each temporary difference. In many cases such scheduling is impracticable or highly complex. Therefore, it is inappropriate to require discounting of deferred tax assets and liabilities. To permit, but not to require, discounting would result in deferred tax assets and liabilities which would not be comparable between entities. Therefore, this standard does not require or permit the discounting of deferred tax assets and liabilities.

55

Temporary differences are determined by reference to the carrying amount of an asset or liability. This applies even where that carrying amount is itself determined on a discounted basis, for example in the case of retirement benefit obligations (see IAS 19 Employee benefits).

56

The carrying amount of a deferred tax asset shall be reviewed at each balance sheet date. An entity shall reduce the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow the benefit of part or all of that deferred tax asset to be utilised. Any such reduction shall be reversed to the extent that it becomes probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available.

RECOGNITION OF CURRENT AND DEFERRED TAX

57

Accounting for the current and deferred tax effects of a transaction or other event is consistent with the accounting for the transaction or event itself. Paragraphs 58 to 68C implement this principle.

Income statement

58

Current and deferred tax shall be recognised as income or an expense and included in profit or loss for the period, except to the extent that the tax arises from:

(a)

a transaction or event which is recognised, in the same or a different period, directly in equity (see paragraphs 61 to 65); or

(b)

a business combination (see paragraphs 66 to 68).

59

Most deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets arise where income or expense is included in accounting profit in one period, but is included in taxable profit (tax loss) in a different period. The resulting deferred tax is recognised in the income statement. Examples are when:

(a)

interest, royalty or dividend revenue is received in arrears and is included in accounting profit on a time apportionment basis in accordance with IAS 18 Revenue, but is included in taxable profit (tax loss) on a cash basis; and

(b)

costs of intangible assets have been capitalised in accordance with IAS 38 and are being amortised in the income statement, but were deducted for tax purposes when they were incurred.

60

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets and liabilities may change even though there is no change in the amount of the related temporary differences. This can result, for example, from:

(a)

a change in tax rates or tax laws;

(b)

a reassessment of the recoverability of deferred tax assets; or

(c)

a change in the expected manner of recovery of an asset.

The resulting deferred tax is recognised in the income statement, except to the extent that it relates to items previously charged or credited to equity (see paragraph 63).

Items credited or charged directly to equity

61

Current tax and deferred tax shall be charged or credited directly to equity if the tax relates to items that are credited or charged, in the same or a different period, directly to equity.

62

International financial reporting standards require or permit certain items to be credited or charged directly to equity. Examples of such items are:

(a)

a change in carrying amount arising from the revaluation of property, plant and equipment (see IAS 16);

(b)

an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings resulting from either a change in accounting policy that is applied retrospectively or the correction of an error (see IAS 8 Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors);

(c)

exchange differences arising on the translation of the financial statements of a foreign operation (see IAS 21); and

(d)

amounts arising on initial recognition of the equity component of a compound financial instrument (see paragraph 23).

63

In exceptional circumstances it may be difficult to determine the amount of current and deferred tax that relates to items credited or charged to equity. This may be the case, for example, when:

(a)

there are graduated rates of income tax and it is impossible to determine the rate at which a specific component of taxable profit (tax loss) has been taxed;

(b)

a change in the tax rate or other tax rules affects a deferred tax asset or liability relating (in whole or in part) to an item that was previously charged or credited to equity; or

(c)

an entity determines that a deferred tax asset should be recognised, or should no longer be recognised in full, and the deferred tax asset relates (in whole or in part) to an item that was previously charged or credited to equity.

In such cases, the current and deferred tax related to items that are credited or charged to equity is based on a reasonable pro rata allocation of the current and deferred tax of the entity in the tax jurisdiction concerned, or other method that achieves a more appropriate allocation in the circumstances.

64

IAS 16 does not specify whether an entity should transfer each year from revaluation surplus to retained earnings an amount equal to the difference between the depreciation or amortisation on a revalued asset and the depreciation or amortisation based on the cost of that asset. If an entity makes such a transfer, the amount transferred is net of any related deferred tax. Similar considerations apply to transfers made on disposal of an item of property, plant or equipment.

65

When an asset is revalued for tax purposes and that revaluation is related to an accounting revaluation of an earlier period, or to one that is expected to be carried out in a future period, the tax effects of both the asset revaluation and the adjustment of the tax base are credited or charged to equity in the periods in which they occur. However, if the revaluation for tax purposes is not related to an accounting revaluation of an earlier period, or to one that is expected to be carried out in a future period, the tax effects of the adjustment of the tax base are recognised in the income statement.

65A

When an entity pays dividends to its shareholders, it may be required to pay a portion of the dividends to taxation authorities on behalf of shareholders. In many jurisdictions, this amount is referred to as a withholding tax. Such an amount paid or payable to taxation authorities is charged to equity as a part of the dividends.

Deferred tax arising from a business combination

66

As explained in paragraphs 19 and 26(c), temporary differences may arise in a business combination. In accordance with IFRS 3 Business combinations, an entity recognises any resulting deferred tax assets (to the extent that they meet the recognition criteria in paragraph 24) or deferred tax liabilities as identifiable assets and liabilities at the acquisition date. Consequently, those deferred tax assets and liabilities affect goodwill or the amount of any excess of the acquirer's interest in the net fair value of the acquiree's identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the cost of the combination. However, in accordance with paragraph 15(a), an entity does not recognise deferred tax liabilities arising from the initial recognition of goodwill.

67

As a result of a business combination, an acquirer may consider it probable that it will recover its own deferred tax asset that was not recognised before the business combination. For example, the acquirer may be able to utilise the benefit of its unused tax losses against the future taxable profit of the acquiree. In such cases, the acquirer recognises a deferred tax asset, but does not include it as part of the accounting for the business combination, and therefore does not take it into account in determining the goodwill or the amount of any excess of the acquirer's interest in the net fair value of the acquiree's identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the cost of the combination.

68

If the potential benefit of the acquiree's income tax loss carryforwards or other deferred tax assets did not satisfy the criteria in IFRS 3 for separate recognition when a business combination is initially accounted for but is subsequently realised, the acquirer shall recognise the resulting deferred tax income in profit or loss. In addition, the acquirer shall:

(a)

reduce the carrying amount of goodwill to the amount that would have been recognised if the deferred tax asset had been recognised as an identifiable asset from the acquisition date; and

(b)

recognise the reduction in the carrying amount of goodwill as an expense.

However, this procedure shall not result in the creation of an excess of the acquirer's interest in the net fair value of the acquiree's identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the cost of the combination, nor shall it increase the amount previously recognised for any such excess.

ExampleAn entity acquired a subsidiary that had deductible temporary differences of 300. The tax rate at the time of the acquisition was 30 per cent. The resulting deferred tax asset of 90 was not recognised as an identifiable asset in determining the goodwill of 500 that resulted from the business combination. Two years after the combination, the entity assessed that future taxable profit should be sufficient to recover the benefit of all the deductible temporary differences.The entity recognises a deferred tax asset of 90 and, in profit or loss, deferred tax income of 90. The entity also reduces the carrying amount of goodwill by 90 and recognises an expense for this amount in profit or loss. Consequently, the cost of the goodwill is reduced to 410, being the amount that would have been recognised had the deferred tax asset of 90 been recognised as an identifiable asset at the acquisition date. If the tax rate had increased to 40 per cent, the entity would have recognised a deferred tax asset of 120 (300 at 40 per cent) and, in profit or loss, deferred tax income of 120. If the tax rate had decreased to 20 per cent, the entity would have recognised a deferred tax asset of 60 (300 at 20 per cent) and deferred tax income of 60. In both cases, the entity would also reduce the carrying amount of goodwill by 90 and recognise an expense for that amount in profit or loss.

Current and deferred tax arising from share-based payment transactions

68A

In some tax jurisdictions, an entity receives a tax deduction (i.e. an amount that is deductible in determining taxable profit) that relates to remuneration paid in shares, share options or other equity instruments of the entity. The amount of that tax deduction may differ from the related cumulative remuneration expense, and may arise in a later accounting period. For example, in some jurisdictions, an entity may recognise an expense for the consumption of employee services received as consideration for share options granted, in accordance with IFRS 2 Share-based payment, and not receive a tax deduction until the share options are exercised, with the measurement of the tax deduction based on the entity's share price at the date of exercise.

68B

As with the research costs discussed in paragraphs 9 and 26(b) of this standard, the difference between the tax base of the employee services received to date (being the amount the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods), and the carrying amount of nil, is a deductible temporary difference that results in a deferred tax asset. If the amount the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods is not known at the end of the period, it shall be estimated, based on information available at the end of the period. For example, if the amount that the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods is dependent upon the entity's share price at a future date, the measurement of the deductible temporary difference should be based on the entity's share price at the end of the period.

68C

As noted in paragraph 68A, the amount of the tax deduction (or estimated future tax deduction, measured in accordance with paragraph 68B) may differ from the related cumulative remuneration expense. Paragraph 58 of the standard requires that current and deferred tax should be recognised as income or an expense and included in profit or loss for the period, except to the extent that the tax arises from (a) a transaction or event which is recognised, in the same or a different period, directly in equity, or (b) a business combination. If the amount of the tax deduction (or estimated future tax deduction) exceeds the amount of the related cumulative remuneration expense, this indicates that the tax deduction relates not only to remuneration expense but also to an equity item. In this situation, the excess of the associated current or deferred tax should be recognised directly in equity.

PRESENTATION

Tax assets and tax liabilities

69

[Deleted]

70

[Deleted]

Offset

71

An entity shall offset current tax assets and current tax liabilities if, and only if, the entity:

(a)

has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts; and

(b)

intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

72

Although current tax assets and liabilities are separately recognised and measured they are offset in the balance sheet subject to criteria similar to those established for financial instruments in IAS 32. An entity will normally have a legally enforceable right to set off a current tax asset against a current tax liability when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the taxation authority permits the entity to make or receive a single net payment.

73

In consolidated financial statements, a current tax asset of one entity in a group is offset against a current tax liability of another entity in the group if, and only if, the entities concerned have a legally enforceable right to make or receive a single net payment and the entities intend to make or receive such a net payment or to recover the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

74

An entity shall offset deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if, and only if:

(a)

the entity has a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities; and

(b)

the deferred tax assets and the deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on either:

(i)

the same taxable entity; or

(ii)

different taxable entities which intend either to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis, or to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously, in each future period in which significant amounts of deferred tax liabilities or assets are expected to be settled or recovered.

75

To avoid the need for detailed scheduling of the timing of the reversal of each temporary difference, this standard requires an entity to set off a deferred tax asset against a deferred tax liability of the same taxable entity if, and only if, they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the entity has a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities.

76

In rare circumstances, an entity may have a legally enforceable right of set-off, and an intention to settle net, for some periods but not for others. In such rare circumstances, detailed scheduling may be required to establish reliably whether the deferred tax liability of one taxable entity will result in increased tax payments in the same period in which a deferred tax asset of another taxable entity will result in decreased payments by that second taxable entity.

Tax expense

Tax expense (income) related to profit or loss from ordinary activities

77

The tax expense (income) related to profit or loss from ordinary activities shall be presented on the face of the income statement.

Exchange differences on deferred foreign tax liabilities or assets

78

IAS 21 requires certain exchange differences to be recognised as income or expense but does not specify where such differences should be presented in the income statement. Accordingly, where exchange differences on deferred foreign tax liabilities or assets are recognised in the income statement, such differences may be classified as deferred tax expense (income) if that presentation is considered to be the most useful to financial statement users.

DISCLOSURE

79

The major components of tax expense (income) shall be disclosed separately.

80

Components of tax expense (income) may include:

(a)

current tax expense (income);

(b)

any adjustments recognised in the period for current tax of prior periods;