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Commission staff working document - Accompanying document to the Report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Progress report on the EU's integrated maritime policy {COM(2009) 540}

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52009SC1343

Commission staff working document - Accompanying document to the Report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Progress report on the EU's integrated maritime policy {COM(2009) 540} /* SEC/2009/1343 final */


EN

(...PICT...)|COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES|

Brussels, 15.10.2009

SEC(2009) 1343 final

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Accompanying document to the REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS PROGRESS REPORT ON THE EU'S INTEGRATED MARITIME POLICY

{COM(2009) 540}

This document contains details of the various actions and activities pursued with regard to the implementation of the Blue Paper Action Plan An Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union, COM(2007) 575 final of 10.10.2007 and SEC(2007) 1278 of 10.10.2007 (AP) under the Integrated Maritime Policy (IMP). Items are given under the general headings of the Action Plan. A heading on sea basin related activities has been added, reflecting the developments since the AP has been adopted by the Commission. [1]

An Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union, COM(2007) 575 final of 10.10.2007 and SEC(2007) 1278 of 10.10.2007

In addition related activities undertaken by the Commission and by Member States in response to the issues raised in the Blue Paper are reported under the same general thematic headings.

A number of issues relevant to the IMP have been addressed in the broader context of other policies (e.g. on climate change or energy). Where this is the case, the relevant documents are identified and the precise reference is given.

A summary table of the specific actions under the Action Plan with document references (with all web links) can be found at the end. The implementation of the Action plan has progressed well: Of the 65 actions in the plan, 56 have been launched or completed (mostly in the form of Commission or Council acts), some with minor delays. On 9 actions no documents are adopted yet. Following the first conceptual phase, the Commission and Member States are now focusing efforts on the concretisation and implementation on the ground, with additional activities in all relevant policy areas pursued where needed.

Table of contents

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I.|Maritime governance|5|

I-1|Communication "Guidelines on an Integrated Approach to Maritime Policy: Towards Best Practices in Integrated Maritime Governance and Stakeholder Consultation"|5|

I-2|Functioning of Commission structures ensuring an integrated governance approach to maritime policy|5|

I-3|Activities of other EU Institutions with regard to integrated maritime governance|6|

I-4|Member States activities on integrated maritime governance|7|

I-5|Stakeholder dialogue|10|

I-6|Horizontal cooperation on governance|11|

I-7|Report on regulatory concerns |13|

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II.|Activities in relation to the sea basins|13|

II-1|Communication on the European Union and the Arctic Region|14|

II-2|EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region|15|

II-3|Communication "Towards an Integrated Maritime Policy for better governance in the Mediterranean"|15|

II-4|Communication on the Outermost Regions|16|

II-5|Implementation of Black Sea Synergy |16|

II-6|Cooperation between the Commission and the regions|17|

II-7|Cooperation within sea-basins|18|

II-8|Report on the application of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive|19|

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III.|Tools for integrated policy making|19|

III-1|Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning|19|

III-2|European maritime surveillance |20|

III-3|Marine knowledge|22|

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IV.|Maximising the sustainable use of the oceans and seas|23|

IV-1|Marine Strategy Framework Directive |23|

IV-2|European Economic Recovery Plan|23|

IV-3|Climate and energy package |24|

IV-4|Off-Shore Wind Energy Communication and off-shore energy supply connections |24|

IV-5|Second Strategic Energy Review|25|

IV-6|Green Paper "Towards a Secure, Sustainable and Competitive European Energy Network"|25|

IV-7|Strategic goals and recommendations for the EU’s maritime transport policy until 2018|25|

IV-8|Communication and action plan with a view to establishing a European maritime transport space without barriers |26|

IV-9|Implementation of the third maritime safety package|26|

IV-10|Commission proposal on amending Directive 2005/35/EC on ship source pollution introducing penalties for infringements|27|

IV-11|Ports Policy|27|

IV-12|Proposal for a Council Directive on the Maritime Labour Convention|28|

IV-13|Proposal for a Council Decision authorising Member States to ratify the ILO "Work in Fishing Convention"|29|

IV-14|Reassessment of the exclusion of maritime workers from parts of the European labour and social legislation|29|

IV-15|Maritime employment, training and certification of seafarers|29|

IV-16|The impact of the economic crisis on shipbuilding and the future of the programme LeaderSHIP 2015|30|

IV-17|Study on the role of Maritime Clusters to enhance the strength and development in maritime sectors|31|

IV-18|Workshop on Maritime Clusters in landlocked countries|32|

IV-19|Prolongation of the existing state aid rules for shipbuilding|32|

IV-20|Competition and state aid rules for maritime transport|33|

IV-21|Antitrust investigations in the ship classification sector|34|

IV-22|Study on tourist facilities in ports|34|

IV-23|Air pollution and GHG emissions from ships |35|

IV-24|Communication on "An EU Strategy for Better Ship Dismantling"|36|

IV-25|Green paper on the Common Fisheries Policy and reform of the fisheries control regulation|36|

IV-26|Regulation against Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing|37|

IV-27|Actions against destructive fishing practices|37|

IV-28|Guardians of the Sea|37|

IV-29|Community initiatives for the protection of marine biodiversity|38|

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V.|Building a knowledge and innovation base for the maritime policy |38|

V-1|European marine and maritime research|38|

V-2|Communication on a Marine and Maritime Research Strategy|39|

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VI.|Delivering the highest quality of life in coastal regions|41|

VI-1|Adapting to Climate Change|41|

VI-2|Study on "The Economics of Climate Change Adaptation in EU Coastal Areas"|41|

VI-3|Community approach on the prevention of natural and man-made disasters|42|

VI-4|Annual bathing water reports|42|

VI-5|Database on projects in maritime regions|43|

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VII.|Promoting Europe's leadership in international maritime affairs |43|

VII-1|Assessment of the EU’s profile in international maritime fora|43|

VII-2|Communication "Developing the international dimension of the Integrated Maritime Policy of the European Union"|43|

VII-3|Commission initiatives for the prevention and suppression of maritime piracy|43|

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VIII.|Raising the visibility of maritime Europe|45|

VIII-1|European Maritime Day 2008 and 2009|45|

VIII-2|European Atlas of the Seas|46|

VIII-3|Workshop on Europe's maritime cultural heritage|46|

VIII-4|Maritime statistics - Key figures for coastal regions and sea areas|47|

I. Maritime governance (AP chapter 2)

I-1 Communication "Guidelines on an Integrated Approach to Maritime Policy: Towards Best Practices in Integrated Maritime Governance and Stakeholder Consultation" - COM(2008) 395 final of 26.06.2008

In June 2008, the Commission adopted the above Communication following the announcement in the Action Plan on an Integrated Maritime Policy that the Commission would issue guidelines to assist Member States in drawing up national integrated maritime policies based on common principles and stakeholder involvement.

This Communication provides guidance on how to introduce integrated maritime governance and stakeholder consultation, based on common elements observed in integrated approaches to maritime affairs in the EU and elsewhere. It also presents an approach for sharing website and contact information on initiatives for maritime governance and stakeholder consultation as a tool for collective learning. It invites Member States to provide information on their approach to maritime governance on the internet. To this end, information sheets have been prepared to support the exchange of best practices in maritime governance.

European affairs ministers discussed the Guidelines at the Ministerial Conference in Brest on 13 July 2008, when they agreed to proceed with the exchange of information and good practice. To this end, they agreed to provide the requested information on national approaches to integrated maritime governance by April 2009.

In a number of Member States and regions integrated approaches and strategies exist or are being developed. More information is given below and on-line http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/memberstates_en.html .[2]

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/memberstates_en.html

I-2 Functioning of Commission structures ensuring an integrated governance approach to maritime policy

Steering Group of Commissioners :

Within the Commission, a Steering Group of Commissioners provides the upstream co-ordination and maximises the impact of the IMP. It was set up in 2005 to develop joint and coherent decision-making in relation to the oceans and seas. This work is led by a coordinating group. Currently 10 Commissioners participate in the Steering Group meeting at least once per year. In 2009, the meeting took place on 28 January. Previous meetings had been held on 10 October 2007 (upon the adoption of the Blue Paper) and on 23 July 2008.

Maritime Policy Interservice Group :

The Interservice Group (ISG), involving 28 Directorates-General of the Commission, supports the Steering Group of Commissioners and monitors day-to-day progress on EU Integrated Maritime Policy. The ISG meets at 6-week intervals and provides the core of the integrative nature of the IMP within the Commission.

Member States Expert Group:

The Member States Expert Group brings together national public servants to exchange information about the organisation of maritime governance nationally and at EU level and to provide a basis for the exchange of best practices. At the first meeting after the presentation of the Blue Paper on 11 March 2008 the new structure and work in progress on the Action Plan was presented, which led to fruitful exchanges on the main projects under way. The MS Experts Group meets regularly every two to three months to discuss progress in implementation of Integrated Maritime Policy at national and EU level.

I-3 Activities of other EU Institutions with regard to integrated maritime governance

The European Council:

The European Council welcomed the Integrated Maritime Policy at its meeting of 14 December 2007 Council document 16616/1/07 REV 1 , and invited the Commission to present a progress report by the end of 2009 and to present a Baltic Sea Regional Strategy by June 2009. [3]

Council document 16616/1/07 REV 1

The Council :

A Friends of the Presidency Group met at the initiative of the French Presidency on 26 November 2008 in order to discuss the draft conclusions of the General Affairs and External Relations Council, focusing on the issues of governance, innovation and surveillance, while encompassing a large number of maritime policy actions. In its conclusions of 8 December 2008 Council document 16503/1/08 REV 1 the Council recognised the IMP's cross-cutting nature. The Council furthermore welcomed specific initiatives announced under this policy, e.g. in its conclusions on a European Strategy for Maritime and Marine Research and on an Arctic Strategy.[4]

Council document 16503/1/08 REV 1

Presidency High-Level Focal Points Group on IMP :

Regular political contacts among Member States and with the Commission are ensured through the High-Level Focal Points Group which provides the strategic orientation of the IMP. The High-Level Focal Points Group was set up at the initiative of a number of Member States under the Portuguese Presidency at the end of 2007. Since the first semester of 2008, it aims to meet at least twice a year, under the chairmanship of the Presidency to discuss the main priorities and overall progress on Integrated Maritime Policy. A first meeting, organised by Slovenia, took place on 22 April 2008. The second meeting was held on 14 October 2008 under the French Presidency. Both meetings took place in Brussels. In 2009, a meeting was held in conjunction with the European Maritime Day on 18 May in Rome, chaired by the Swedish Presidency upon request of the Czech Presidency, with another meeting that took place under the Swedish Presidency on 1 October 2009 in Stockholm.

The European Parliament :

The European Parliament adopted a positive, supportive report A6-0163/2008 (Committee on Transport and Tourism) on the Blue Paper and Action Plan on 20 May 2008 (rapporteur: Willi PIECYK (†), DE/PSE) , welcoming the Commission plans and calling for specific actions in a number of maritime policy areas.[5]

A6-0163/2008 (Committee on Transport and Tourism)

The EP resolution on "The regional development aspects of the impact of tourism on coastal regions" was adopted in plenary on 18 December 2008 Motion for a European Parliament resolution on the regional development aspects of the impact of tourism on coastal regions (2008/2132(INI)) (rapporteur: Jamila MADEIRA, PT/PSE). As part of the development of the report, a study on tourism analysing the potential development of coastal tourism and the consequences for regional policy was presented in the EP's Regional Development Committee on 26 June 2008. Coastal and maritime tourism already provide a high number of jobs and guarantee a high standard of living in the coastal regions. The potential for more and better jobs must be realised by dealing with the particular problems coastal tourism is facing and which are comprehensively described in the study report.[6]

Motion for a European Parliament resolution on the regional development aspects of the impact of tourism on coastal regions (2008/2132(INI))

In its resolution on the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion adopted on 24 March 2009 (rapporteur: Lambert VAN NISTELROOIJ, NL/PPE-DE) PE 415.290v01-00. , the European Parliament emphasises "that territorial cohesion has both a land and a maritime dimension". The report also "stresses the importance of the integrated development of sea basins". [7]

PE 415.290v01-00.

Committee of the Regions:

A positive report on Integrated Maritime Policy was adopted on 9 April 2008 CoR 22/2008 fin, adopted on 9 April 2008 (rapporteur: Saima Kalev, EE/UEN-EA). On 17 June 2009, the CoR adopted an opinion on a "Coastal and Maritime package" CoR 416/2008 fin, adopted on  17 June 2009 (rapporteur: Michel Delebarre, FR/PES), which brings together key IMP developments such as Maritime Governance, the roadmap for maritime spatial planning, a common transport space without barriers, guidelines on state aid to ports, and the maritime transport strategy up to 2018. This cross-sector opinion demonstrates the willingness of regions as key stakeholders of the Integrated Maritime Policy to see Europe working in a more integrated fashion, overcoming policy fragmentation. With regard to territorial cohesion, in its opinion adopted on 11 February 2009 CoR 274/2008 fin., adopted on 11 February 2009 (rapporteur: Yves Le Drian, President of the Brittany Regional Council), the CoR considers that "territorial cohesion is not an exclusively “land-based” notion: also the territories of the European seas - numerously interlinked with land-based activities and since 2005 addressed by the European Maritime Policy - should be included in the policy approach of territorial cohesion; many land-based policies and policy tools are also relevant for the European seas".[8][9][10]

CoR 22/2008 fin, adopted on 9 April 2008

CoR 416/2008 fin, adopted on  17 June 2009

CoR 274/2008 fin., adopted on 11 February 2009

Economic and Social Committee :

A supportive report on Integrated Maritime Policy was adopted on 14 April 2008 O.J. 2008/C 211/07 .[11]

O.J. 2008/C 211/07

I-4 Member States activities on integrated maritime governance

A number of countries have taken steps towards more integrated governance. At the time of the Green Paper, only a few initiatives for integrated approaches in Member States existed. Two countries, France and the Netherlands, reported having the administrative structure in place to organise policy coordination of sea-related matters. Portugal had then already initiated concrete work towards an ocean strategy.

Since then Member States all over Europe took a considerable number of initiatives towards integration of Maritime Policy and have made remarkable progress See also here for updated information on individual countries: http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/memberstates_en.html :[12]

See also here for updated information on individual countries:

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/memberstates_en.html

In Belgium there is a Minister for North Sea Affairs. Belgium also created a coordinated coastguard system (including maritime rescue coordination service and marine information). Belgium reviewed and modernised its maritime legislation and created a framework for maritime spatial planning.

Bulgaria has created an inter-ministerial committee to coordinate maritime affairs to formulate a strategy on IMP. A draft strategy is currently undergoing consultation with civil society. Bulgaria established a national maritime cluster which she considers an important instrument to trigger innovation and growth. An integrated governance structure as well as awareness-raising (through e.g. workshops, round tables and conferences) are considered important achievements.

The Czech Republic has established an inter-ministerial group led by the Minister for Europe. The integrated approach, the environmental benefits, economic opportunities and enhancing maritime security are considered key achievements of the Integrated Maritime Policy.

Denmark has supported the IMP both at the EU and the international level. Denmark has a long standing tradition of integrating policy and the Deputy Prime Minister leads works to join up all bodies, national and regional, linked to maritime affairs. The Danish policy focuses on governance and growth and employment in harmony with the environment.

Germany underlines two dimensions of governance: the institutional approach and national governance structures, and emphasizes the importance of dialogue, in order to raise citizens' awareness of maritime issues and with regards to the need to look, beyond the current economic crisis, at growth opportunities from the sea.

The Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs (BMVBS) steers the integrated maritime policy. Overall co-ordination and industrial aspects are covered by a Secretary of State in the Federal Ministry for Economy and Technology. The German government adopted, on 1 April 2009, guidelines for an "Entwicklungsplan Meer" (maritime development plan). These guidelines form the basis for an integrated maritime policy of the Federal government. Germany has established inter ministerial working structures for the IMP, created a web based interface to follow recent developments and a structured dialogue with stakeholders.

On 29 April 2009 Ireland announced the creation of a marine coordination group http://www.irishpressreleases.ie/2009/04/29/killeen-announces-inter-departmental-marine-coordinating- group/ . The Irish Taoiseach charged the Minister of State with special responsibility for fisheries and the marine with the establishment of this Inter-Departmental Marine Co-ordinating Group to cooperate on maritime issues, with the support of the Marine Institute for sound knowledge inputs. [13]

http://www.irishpressreleases.ie/2009/04/29/killeen-announces-inter-departmental-marine-coordinating-

group/

Greece has created an inter-ministerial committee to drive the cross-sectoral approach. Governance had been further improved by the merger of responsibilities in the Ministry of Mercantile Marine and the Aegean and the Island Policy, to bring about a change in the way of thinking about policies towards the seas, the coasts and the islands.

Spain has set up a General Secretariat for the Sea in the Ministry for the Environment, which covers a large proportion of maritime issues including fisheries. Two major issues are surveillance and spatial planning. Concerning the latter, the push for renewable energy required a study on the possible location of offshore wind parks. In turn this led to identifying zones used for other purposes and to gathering data on the marine environment. On surveillance, Spain is participating in the pilot project on marine surveillance in the Mediterranean.

France launched the Grenelle de la Mer Rue Grenelle is a street in Paris which became a symbol of social dialogue in 1968. The leading department for the Grenelle is the Ministère de l'Ecologie, de l'Energie, du Développement durable et de L'Aménagement du territoire, assisted by the Secrétariat Général de la Mer. on 27 February 2009, applying the principles from the "Grenelle de l'Environment", its long-term policy vision on ecological and sustainable development For more information see here: http://www.legrenelle-environnement.fr/ , to the oceans, seas and coasts. Representatives of sectors such as education, industry, environment, and research are taking part in the consultation process. There are four working groups: the sea and coasts, the sea and the environment, the economic potential of the sea, and the governance of the seas. The working groups completed their works in mid 2009, proposing a list of measures. Follow-up will be through a meeting of the Inter-ministerial Committee of the Sea led by the Prime Minister to adopt the objectives for an integrated maritime policy. In the office of the Prime Minister, the Secretary-General for the Sea is the key interlocutor on the IMP. In a landmark speech President Sarkozy announced on 16 July 2009 various actions on maritime policy, based on an integrated approach and culminating in a Blue Paper by the end of the year.[14][15]

Rue Grenelle is a street in Paris which became a symbol of social dialogue in 1968. The leading department for the Grenelle is the Ministère de l'Ecologie, de l'Energie, du Développement durable et de L'Aménagement du territoire, assisted by the Secrétariat Général de la Mer.

For more information see here: http://www.legrenelle-environnement.fr/

Italy has established an expert group drawn from the administration and stakeholders which contributed to the Green Paper and the Blue Paper. The work focuses on:

- The sea basin approach which allows acknowledging the particularities of the Mediterranean. Italy is working with other EU countries and with third countries in the region;

- Maritime surveillance, where Italy is participating in the pilot project on surveillance in the Mediterranean;

- Maritime clusters, with the launch of a new Technology Platform of Mediterranean and Black Seas (PTMB) for maritime industry and researchers under FP7.

The Netherlands applies inter-ministerial coordination as regards sea related matters and an integrated management of the sea space. Having reviewed their approach in 2008, assessing the governance structures in terms of the Commission's guidelines and its maritime spatial planning system against the Commission's Roadmap, the government of the Netherlands presented in December 2008 a National Water Plan to protect the country against threats from water and seize the opportunities that derive from it. The plan addresses water management in general, but sea related matters are comprised in it. The Plan will be followed by legislation and a concrete action to invest in flood protection and defence.

In Poland an inter-ministerial committee had been set up to develop an integrated approach to maritime policy. It has produced a first document ("Guidelines on maritime policy of the Republic of Poland"), adopted on 18 March 2009, which sets out the principles and objectives for maritime policy. These guidelines aim at upgrading the maritime dimension in all areas of the country's development and are meant to be a basis for a future regulatory system based on an integrated approach to maritime affairs. The document was submitted for public consultation and has in the meantime been submitted to the Council of Ministers for adoption.

Portugal adopted a National Ocean Strategy in 2006 and policy development is led by an inter-ministerial task force. On the basis of the Portuguese National Strategy for the Sea an inter-ministerial committee took concrete measures. On 7 May 2008, a stakeholder forum was launched.

During its Presidency in the first half of 2008, Slovenia presented a maritime action programme and announced to organise this process through an inter-ministerial Working group.

Finland has embraced the integration of maritime policy with an inter-ministerial working group led by the Prime Minister's office. The working group discusses maritime affairs in both European and national terms. The government has issued a statement on Baltic Sea policy also in light of the EU's strategic approach.

Sweden has advanced its integrated approach to maritime affairs with a Bill, adopted on 5 March 2009 and proposing "A coherent Swedish maritime policy". The principles largely follow those of the EU Blue Paper:

- Resources must be used sustainably, restoring natural resources while enabling industrial competitiveness and growth;

- There must be cross-sectoral integration and integrated policy solutions;

- Regional and international cooperation in the Baltic Sea Basin must be strengthened;

- The involvement of maritime stakeholders should be encouraged.

The Bill presents an all-encompassing vision on how to achieve sustainable use of maritime and coastal resources through an integrated approach. It has a strong focus on EU and regional co-operation and stakeholder involvement with the aim of creating a sense of partnership, working together for sustainable growth in coastal regions and maritime sectors.

In the United Kingdom a "Marine and Coastal Access Bill" is currently before the British Parliament. This Bill represents all-encompassing framework legislation for integrated management of the sea in an environmentally sustainable way, including the creation of a marine management organisation, licensing and conservation measures. The "high level" objectives were published in April 2009. These are "achieving a sustainable marine economy", "ensuring a strong, healthy and just society", "living within environmental limits", "promoting good governance", and "using sound science responsibly". The next step is to translate these objectives into a "Marine Policy Statement" which the UK Government and Devolved Administrations will be developing over the next two years.

Many of such integrated initiatives are coordinated or combined with requirements such as those under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive or the Recommendation on Integrated Coastal Zone Management.

I-5 Stakeholder dialogue

The consultation process that followed the Green Paper on Maritime Policy demonstrated the endorsement by all stakeholders of an integrated, inter-sectoral approach. The Blue Paper and the Communication outlining the main components for integrated maritime governance laid down that the principle of stakeholder participation is a key prerequisite for a proper maritime governance framework. Dialogue with stakeholders remains a key issue during the implementation phase, for example stakeholder involvement is one of the ten principles of Maritime Spatial Planning as set out in the Roadmap on this subject.

As a follow up to the Blue Paper, stakeholders took the initiative of setting up a platform of different stakeholder groups in the spirit of the integrated, all-embracing approach. In November 2008, the European Coastal and Marine Union launched the Venice Platform initiative http://www.eucc.nl/veniceplatform/ , as a first step towards such an overarching forum. The initiative is headed by Johan Vande Lanotte, the former deputy Prime Minister of Belgium. The proposed stakeholder platform was further discussed at EMD Conference in Rome on 18-20 May 2009. To prepare for the next phase, a steering group, composed of representatives from industry, regions, environmental NGOs, science communities and users of the sea, has been set up to define the objectives, working methods and future actions of the platform.[16]

http://www.eucc.nl/veniceplatform/

The European Commission pursues an intensive dialogue with a great number of maritime stakeholders at EU and regional (sea-basin) levels. In the Blue Paper the Commission undertook to organise a stakeholder consultation structure.

The European Maritime Day (see VIII-1), set out in the Joint Tripartite Declaration signed by the Presidents of the European Parliament, the Council of the EU and the European Commission on 20 May 2008, is a key element of this dialogue. A project started in January 2009 to develop an interactive web tool which will serve as a common web-based platform to facilitate communication and to publish and access information and services devoted to those in the European Commission and Member States concerned with maritime policy.

I-6 Horizontal cooperation on governance (industry, regions, NGOs, science communities and others)

Maritime Industries:

The Commission is engaged in a structural dialogue with industry through the Maritime Industries Forum (MIF) and the European Network of Maritime Clusters. The MIF http://www.mif-eu.org/ brings together 25 European maritime sector associations. It conducts specific work in working groups on the Environment, Human Resources, RTD, Rules and Regulations, and Transport. General co-ordination is provided by a Co-ordination Group. The MIF plenary forum brings its members together roughly every two years and it is planned to have a full MIF Plenary meeting along European Maritime Day 2010 in Gijon, Spain. [17]

http://www.mif-eu.org/

The European Network of Maritime Clusters (ENMC) http://www.european-network-of-maritime-clusters.eu/ , with Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom participating, was founded on 4 November 2005 in Paris by maritime organisations of ten countries, with the objective to learn from each other and to promote and strengthen the maritime clusters of Member States and Europe as a whole. The basis for this founding session was created during a first meeting which took place in The Hague on 26-27 April 2004, and a joint-presentation of the various maritime clusters at the Maritime Industries Forum Plenary Session on 26 January 2005 in Bremen. The ENMC has organised itself as a flexible network in which members cooperate on a voluntary basis for issues related to their national agendas, and in a more structured way for actions at the European level.[18]

http://www.european-network-of-maritime-clusters.eu/

Coastal regions:

The Conference of Peripheral Maritime Regions (CPMR) http://www.crpm.org/ , which brings together ca. 160 European coastal regions, closely follows the progress of the Action Plan through regular discussion/reporting at the meetings of the Aquamarina working group, set up to monitor IMP actions at regional level. The CPMR is an important partner of the Commission in the development of the regional aspects of the IMP. As a vast network, the CPMR facilitates the development of cooperation projects between its members. It helps to bring them into being and run them, and directly invests in some of them. As a political forum, the CPMR helps to articulate the common interests of peripheral and maritime regions at European level. Being the first body to have brought European regions together for discussion and debate, it has acquired an increasingly large audience over the years. [19]

http://www.crpm.org/

The CPMR has acknowledged expertise and privileged access to information. It provides its member regions and European partners with sharp analysis on topics of concern for their territories and it works to ensure that the interests of its member regions are taken into account when EU legislation is being prepared.

Regional stakeholders very much welcomed the recognition of the regions as fully fledged partners in the IMP. Regions have also taken some major initiatives towards integrated maritime governance, including for example:

- The first regional action plans on Integrated Maritime Policy — the Asturias Maritime Plan and the Schleswig-Holstein Maritime Action Plan — were presented in a 2007 publication of the Commission See "inforegio panorama", No. 23 of September 2007, ISSN 1608-389X and in Brussels on 16 November 2008 Landesinitiative Zukunft Meer, see http://www.schleswig-holstein.de , respectively.[20][21]

See "inforegio panorama", No. 23 of September 2007, ISSN 1608-389X

Landesinitiative Zukunft Meer, see http://www.schleswig-holstein.de

- A similar presentation of the Brittany coast charter was held in Brussels on 3 March 2009 Charte des espaces côtiers Bretons, see http://www.bretagne.fr/ . [22]

Charte des espaces côtiers Bretons, see http://www.bretagne.fr/

- The atlas "Channel Spaces — A world within Europe" Espace Manche : un monde en Europe, see http://www.arcmanche.com , produced by Arc Manche and supported by the EU through the INTERREG IIIB NWE programme, was presented in Brussels on 26 November 2008, and can be considered an example of best practice in the documentation of transnational maritime relations. [23]

Espace Manche : un monde en Europe, see http://www.arcmanche.com

The Commission's dialogue with stakeholder in the sea basins is built on the basis of existing regional sea fora, such as OSPAR http://www.ospar.org/ , HELCOM http://www.helcom.fi/ etc.. [24][25]

http://www.ospar.org/

http://www.helcom.fi/

Stakeholder relations are also an important component in the development of regional sea strategies, as presented already for the Baltic Sea and the Arctic and in the strategy for governance of maritime affairs in the Mediterranean (see II-3).

Maritime and marine research community:

The dialogue with marine and maritime research is well developed, following a strong commitment of the research community already since the launch of the Green Paper in 2007. Existing mechanisms for dialogue, including the Waterborne Technology Platform http://www.waterborne-tp.org/ and the Marine Board of the European Science Foundation http://www.esf.org/ , issued together the ‘Aberdeen Declaration’ http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/declaration_en.html endorsing the idea for integration among marine and maritime research. [26][27][28]

http://www.waterborne-tp.org/

http://www.esf.org/

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/declaration_en.html

Building on this, the Marine and Maritime Research Strategy introduces a partnership for scientists, policy-makers, industry and civil society to define shared research priorities, to facilitate joint research and to find ways of improving the scientific evidence as input to maritime policies.

Environmental NGOs and sea users:

The NGO "Seas at Risk" has been a critical partner in the development and the implementation of the IMP http://www.seas-at-risk.org/n2.php?page=44 . This organisation is now pushing for an environmentally sound implementation of the Action Plan, in full compliance with the provisions of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.[29]

http://www.seas-at-risk.org/n2.php?page=44

Several NGOs have set up the "European Seas Environmental Cooperation" (ESEC) platform, in response to marine environmental challenges. The ESEC issued a joint statement on 20 October 2008 http://www.seas-at-risk.org/1mages/Joint%20Statement%20Final.pdf , mainly relating to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.[30]

http://www.seas-at-risk.org/1mages/Joint%20Statement%20Final.pdf

The dialogue with the users of the sea (e.g. European Surfrider Foundation http://www.surfrider.eu/ , European Anglers Alliance http://www.eaa-europe.org/ etc.) is gaining momentum and has been a particular achievement during the European Maritime Day 2009 in Rome where sea users organised a number of side events.[31][32]

http://www.surfrider.eu/

http://www.eaa-europe.org/

I-7 Report on regulatory concerns - SEC(2008) 2993 of 2.12.2008

In the Green Paper the Commission invited interested parties to report regulations that conflict with the goals of maritime policy. The response rate turned out to be very low. A report, in the form of a Staff Working Document, was published on 2 December 2008.

In the light of the results, the Commission will not repeat this exercise, unless a specific need is brought to its attention.

II. Activities in relation to the sea basins

The Action Plan initially only foresaw a report on strategic issues for the EU relating to the Arctic Ocean, under the heading of external relations. However, the Blue Paper made clear that the IMP must respond to regional specificities. The European Council explicitly asked that those specificities are taken into account and requested a strategy for the Baltic Sea Region Council document 16616/1/07 REV 1 of 14.02.2008 . In this context, the Commission then also developed a Communication on the implementation of Integrated Maritime Policy in the Mediterranean focussing on Maritime Governance (see II-3), in order to address specific issues in the Mediterranean, in particular with regard to governance challenges. Therefore, these activities are presented here together.[33]

Council document 16616/1/07 REV 1 of 14.02.2008

II-1 Communication on the European Union and the Arctic Region - COM(2008) 763 final of 20.11.2008

Further to the Action Plan, which called for a report on the EU’s strategic interests in the Arctic Ocean by the end of 2008, the Commission adopted a Communication on "The European Union and the Arctic Region" in November 2008.

The Communication deals with the new challenges and opportunities facing an Arctic Ocean that has to cope with a rapidly warming climate and increased human activity. The Commission proposes three broad objectives for the EU: protecting and preserving the Arctic, promoting the sustainable exploitation of its resources, and improving multilateral governance of the Arctic. The Communication recommends a series of steps to achieve these objectives in the areas of the environment, hydrocarbons, fisheries, shipping, research, indigenous peoples, the Arctic legal/political framework and cooperation with regional organisations.

On 9-10 November 2008 in Monaco, the French Presidency co-organised a Ministerial Conference on the Arctic together with the principality of Monaco. The conference focused on the issue of Arctic observatories and monitoring. The principal objective was to give impetus to the creation of a network of Arctic observation stations.

In its specific conclusions on the Arctic, which were adopted on 8 December 2008 Council document 16826/08. , the General Affairs Council welcomed the Commission’s Communication on the European Union and the Arctic region, considering it to be "a first layer of an EU Arctic policy". It recognised that the Communication is also an important contribution to implementing the EU Integrated Maritime Policy. The Council agreed that the proposals for action contained in the Communication should be the subject of more detailed reflection and looked forward to further examining them in the first half of 2009. The Swedish Presidency will finish the work begun in the first semester of 2009.[34]

Council document 16826/08.

The request for permanent observer status for the European Commission was postponed by the Arctic Council at its Tromsø meeting in April 2009. The Commission intends to nevertheless enhance its input to the Arctic Council and to contribute to the substantive work of its specialised groups. Dialogue with the Arctic States and with indigenous communities, inter alia with the Inuit, has been intensified.

Under the existing framework contract, the Commission commissioned two studies in December 2008 and July 2009 on national legal regimes applicable to shipping activities in the Arctic and the compatibility of these regimes with the international law. Moreover, the Commission is funding the Arctic TRANSFORM project http://arctic-transform.org/ whose objectives is to develop transatlantic policy options for supporting adaptation in the marine Arctic environment. It places a special emphasis on involving a broad range of stakeholders to address the major climate issues facing the region.[35]

http://arctic-transform.org/

II-2 EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region - COM(2009) 248 final of 10.06.2009

In June 2009, under the request of the European Council and after an extensive consultation with national and regional governments, business, NGOs, academia, the Commission adopted an EU strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. This is the first EU macro-regional strategy, addressing environmental challenges, energy and transport related issues, economic growth potential as well as health, safety and security issues. The Commission recognises that many of the challenges in the region can only be met by good cooperation with Russia and recommends boosting cooperation through existing initiatives, such as Northern Dimension. The strategy takes the form of a communication and an action plan with a list of 80 flagship projects, some of which have already been launched. The Strategy will be a living document, with a first review already foreseen in 2011.

With its strong maritime dimension the strategy also constitutes an important first step towards the regional implementation of the IMP in the Baltic. More than 1/3 of the actions are of maritime nature. In addition to a series of actions for the protection of the marine environment, highlighted as a priority by the Environmental Council in December 2007, other priorities for maritime actions are maritime spatial planning, sustainable fisheries, clean shipping and integration of maritime surveillance systems. In addition, the Action Plan contains actions such as the development of integrated maritime governance structures, strengthening maritime clusters, implementation of the motorways of the sea and short-sea shipping as well as maritime transport space without barriers, enhanced cooperation in maritime research and education, sustainable tourism, including cruise tourism, and reinforced protection from major emergencies at sea.

The coherent and pro-active implementation of maritime actions in the strategy will be an important test case for the sea-basin approach. The implementation of a large number of the maritime actions will benefit from strengthened internal coordination within Member States in the Baltic Sea Region, as well as cross-border networks between these integrated maritime functions. Thus development of the integrated maritime governance structures in the Baltic Sea Region is one of the horizontal actions.

II-3 Communication "Towards an Integrated Maritime Policy for better governance in the Mediterranean", COM(2009) 466 final of 11.09.2009

As a first step in preparing an IMP approach to the Mediterranean Sea basin, a high-level conference, organised by the Commission, the Slovenian Presidency and the new University Centre for Euro-Mediterranean Studies (EMUNI) http://www.emuni.si/en/ , was held in Piran (Slovenia) on 10 June 2008 http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/events/piran-conference-communique-10-June-2008.pdf . , following the official launch of the EMUNI centre. This conference addressed Integrated Maritime Policy in the Mediterranean, with workshops focusing on themes such as governance, environment, sea transport, surveillance and research, and also involved representatives of non-EU countries. [36][37]

http://www.emuni.si/en/

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/events/piran-conference-communique-10-June-2008.pdf .

A Communication entitled "Towards an Integrated Maritime Policy for better governance in the Mediterranean" was adopted by the Commission on 11 September 2009, aiming at promoting a regional/sea-basin approach to the implementation of IMP, provide a reference framework for the launching of such a process, and stimulating dialogue and cooperation between EU Member States and between the EU and the Mediterranean partners on maritime governance across the whole Mediterranean sea basin. The Communication brings out key challenges inherent to the basin and proposes actions for the improvement of governance and the effective application of integrated governance tools.

II-4 Communication on the Outermost Regions - COM(2008) 642 final of 24.10.2008

On 24 October 2008, the Commission adopted a Communication on "The Outermost Regions: an asset for Europe". The communication responds to the European Council conclusions of December 2007, which called for maritime policy to take account of the specificities of the Member States and maritime regions calling for greater cooperation, including the islands and outermost regions. The communication strives to exploit to the full the strengths and comparative advantages enjoyed by the outermost regions compared to the European Union as a whole and neighbouring countries (e.g. a unique geostrategic situation, specific potential for renewable energy, observation and monitoring of the effects of climate change, and biodiversity).

Maritime policy is one of the four pillars of the strategy. The Commission will continue whenever possible to adapt the EU’s Integrated Maritime Policy to the specific characteristics of the outermost regions. It is currently working on the following priorities to expand the role of these regions in implementing the IMP:

- Increasing knowledge of the marine environment in the outermost regions in the context of the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) and promoting research under the Seventh RTD Framework Programme;

- Promoting and developing the outermost regions as ideal observatories for the marine environment in Europe as part of the new Marine and Maritime Research Strategy;

- Encouraging the outermost regions to play a strategic role in maritime governance and monitoring in their respective regions, specifically by developing their own integrated regional maritime policies and maritime spatial plans and through joint activities with third countries;

II-5 Implementation of Black Sea Synergy

The Black Sea Synergy Communication was adopted in April 2007 COM(2007) 160 final of 11.04.2007 . It includes several objective related to the sea, such as the amendment of the Bucharest Convention to allow the EC to accede to it. The first progress report on its implementation was adopted on 20 June 2008 COM(2008) 391 final of 19.06.2008 . Other work on the Black Sea and fisheries includes the second set of EU fisheries management measures in the Black Sea, designed to fix fishing opportunities and attached conditions for certain fish stocks in the Black Sea for 2009 (continuation of the 2008 measures in Regulation 1579/2007). [38][39]

COM(2007) 160 final of 11.04.2007

COM(2008) 391 final of 19.06.2008

The adoption of the measures for 2009 was accompanied by the following Council and Commission statement: "Cooperation in fisheries matters with third countries bordering the Black Sea should be promoted through a regional fisheries management organisation. Steps will be taken to this end, involving in particular the Member States of the European Union and the candidate countries which border the Black Sea."

A decision was taken recently to establish Sectoral Partnerships in the framework of the BSSynergy in order to facilitate the implementation of regional projects by pooling together resources from the Community budget, interested EU Member States, International Financial Institutions and other actors, including private investors. In this context, Romania expressed its interest to be the lead partner for the Environmental Partnership, Greece for the Transport Partnership and Bulgaria for the Energy Partnership.

Finally, there are ongoing negotiations of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement which includes under the Title VIII: Cooperation policies the chapter on fisheries and maritime policy. This chapter was discussed for the first time during the 10th negotiation round held in Kiev on 4-5 November 2008. After that the draft legal text was presented and discussed during the next negotiation round in Brussels on 26 February 2009. To speed up the negotiation process a series of videoconferences on fisheries and maritime policy was organised throughout April/July 2009. A common agreement on the text on fisheries and maritime policy has been reached. A formal negotiation session to finalise the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement is scheduled for October 2009.

II-6 Cooperation between the Commission and the regions

Atlantic, outermost regions and Arctic

With regard to the Arctic region, the Communication on the European Union and the Arctic Region emphasises the inclusion of indigenous communities and encourages stakeholders to provide feedback on the EU’s Arctic-related activities via the maritime policy website. Dialogue is also ensured through the Arctic Council.

Stakeholder dialogue is also ongoing with the outermost regions, mainly in the follow-up of the Communication on Outermost Regions.

Mediterranean and the Black Sea

In order to identify a strategy to implement an integrated maritime policy in the Mediterranean, the Commission has embarked on a series of meetings with stakeholders. These involved missions to the main Mediterranean capitals. The meetings are organised by or in close cooperation with the national focal point for maritime affairs in the specific EU Member State and involve discussions with government representatives, NGOs, academia and industry on the various activities that impact on the sea, e.g. maritime transport, protection of the marine environment, clusters, marine research, etc..

There has also been outreach to coastal regions, in particular Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Catalonia, Andalusia and Sicily. The goal is to have a permanent structural dialogue with the regions, in particular those that have specific responsibilities in dealing with the sea.

Baltic and North Sea

The Commission maintains regular contacts with stakeholders. Most of these contacts focus on the main dossiers: the European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region, the Communication on Maritime Spatial Planning and maritime employment.

The stakeholders met or to be met include government representatives from all relevant Member States, stakeholder organisations including environment organisations, Regional Advisory Councils , and business representatives, and also a significant number of organisations representing local and regional interests ranging from EU level (CPMR, Committee of the Regions) to local level (e.g. representatives of Baltic Sea islands).

A significant challenge continues to be the efficient organisation of contacts with stakeholders and treatment of their input, including in areas that overlap with other geographical responsibilities. The establishment of a cross-cutting database of stakeholders, and tools to facilitate the exchange of documents and information with stakeholders, will therefore be an asset.

II-7 Cooperation within sea-basins

A number of initiatives are also taken to develop stakeholder dialogue within the different sea basins, through bi-lateral contacts in EU Member States and third countries (especially in the Mediterranean), and through dialogue within maritime regions. Cooperation within marine regions is also required in the context of the MSFD (see IV-1), including in the framework of regional sea conventions See Article 4 of Directive 2008/56/EC of 17 June 2008 . [40]

See Article 4 of Directive 2008/56/EC of 17 June 2008

Atlantic, outermost regions and Arctic

Concerning the Channel area, activities undertaken by Normandy with their UK counterparts (notably West Sussex) through the "Channel Arc Manche network" and their EMDI project (Espace Manche Development Initiative), financed under Interreg with more than €1 million (EMDI provides for partnerships between operators and universities from both sides of the Channel), are closely followed. A major output of this collaboration is the recent publication of a Channel Atlas, which may provide an excellent platform for ideas for the project on the Atlas of the Seas.

Arc Manche can be considered a front-runner in transnational maritime cooperation, and a good model for further developing a regionalised approach towards IMP. Similarly, embryonic activities to integrate policies around the Irish Sea basin are taking place. The Commission actively encourages these developments and contributes to them.

Mediterranean and the Black Sea

Interesting ideas as to how the regions may be the drivers of an integrated approach, also in collaboration with regions from Mediterranean third countries, have emerged (e.g. Sicilian Distretto Produttivo della Pesca led by Mazzara del Vallo in collaboration with Tunisia and Egypt).

Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea has, with the Council of Baltic Sea States http://www.cbss.org/ and with the Baltic Sea States Sub-Regional Co-operation (BSSSC) http://www.bsssc.com/ , two established structures for co-operation which have been undertaking work on the development and implementation of the IMP in the Baltic Sea region. In particular, the Council of Baltic Sea States has set up an Expert Group on Maritime Policy. [41][42]

http://www.cbss.org/

http://www.bsssc.com/

II-8 Report on the application of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive – COM(2009) 378 final of 23.07.2009

The Report stresses in chapter 3.4 a number of difficulties in relation to projects which are carried out in areas under jurisdiction of more than one Member State, for example across sea basins (e.g. pipelines).

The difficulties include risks of duplication of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures, inconsistencies and thus unnecessary administrative burdens. Also, there is a risk that the impacts of such projects are not assessed fully in the relation to the whole ecosystem of the sea basin in question.

Co-operation for sustainable growth in sea basins could be underpinned by, as the report points out, improving the efficiency of EIAs through better coordinated, harmonised or joint/single EIA procedures for multi-jurisdiction projects.

III. Tools for integrated policy making (AP chapter 3)

III-1 Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: Achieving Common Principles in the EU - COM(2008) 791 final of 25.11.2008 and Integrated Coastal Zone Management

Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) is an important tool for the sustainable use of oceans and seas. It facilitates cross-border co-operation, thus creating certainty for investors and unleashing economic activity. http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/spatial_planning_en.html[43]

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/spatial_planning_en.html

In preparation of the above Communication, a study http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/legal_aspects_msp_report_en.pdf . analysing prevailing legal systems and constraints regarding maritime spatial planning has been carried out. This study presents different European and international constraints on planning at sea and proposes indicators to assess the progress of planning. [44]

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/legal_aspects_msp_report_en.pdf .

In November 2008, the Communication entitled "Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: Achieving Common Principles in the EU" was adopted. This followed the Commission’s announcement of a roadmap on spatial planning in the IMP Action Plan.

The roadmap identifies 10 key principles for maritime spatial planning, derived from existing approaches as well as international and EU instruments covering maritime spatial planning, with the aim of achieving the development of a common approach across the EU. The Communication, which was followed by the launch of two preparatory actions, has been received with great interest and now forms the basis for the wider debate to follow. In order to structure this debate, the Commission has organised four workshops between February and October 2009 to get stakeholders’ views and needs regarding maritime spatial planning, focusing on the 10 key principles presented in the roadmap. The kick-off conference took place in Brussels on 26 February (while the others are spread across the EU). The workshops discussed the implementation of maritime spatial planning in the EU. The Commission has launched pilot projects on maritime spatial planning in regional sea basins in July 2009, for the North Sea/North East Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, the latter as part of the Baltic Sea Strategy.

Together with MSP, the Blue Paper referred also to Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), an already existing policy instrument, and indicated that, as a follow-up to the existing EU Recommendation Recommendation 2002/413/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2002, concerning the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Europe. See also Commission Communication on the evaluation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Europe, COM(2007)308 final, 7 June 2007 . , the Commission will set up of a system for the exchange of best practice among authorities in ICZM. The Commission launched in 2009 a support project (OURCOAST http://ec.europa.eu/environment/iczm/ourcoast.htm ) to stimulate the sharing of best-practice and effective implementation of ICZM. For the Mediterranean, a significant step forward in the promotion of ICZM was achieved with the Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (Barcelona Convention), which was signed by the EC at the end of 2008 Council Decision 2009/89/EC, OJ L34 of 4.2.2009 .[45][46][47]

Recommendation 2002/413/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2002, concerning the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Europe. See also Commission Communication on the evaluation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Europe, COM(2007)308 final, 7 June 2007 .

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/iczm/ourcoast.htm

Council Decision 2009/89/EC, OJ L34 of 4.2.2009

III-2 European maritime surveillance

Commission Staff Working Document on maritime surveillance – SEC(2008) 2337 of 3.11.2008

The Action Plan announced a Communication to present a work plan towards integration of European maritime surveillance systems in the second half of 2008. The adoption of this Communication was rescheduled for 2009, and on 3 November 2008 a Commission Staff Working Document on maritime surveillance was published http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/maritime_surveillance_non_paper.pdf . . [48]

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/maritime_surveillance_non_paper.pdf .

This document describes the current state of play as regards the surveillance, monitoring, tracking, identification and reporting systems put in place by Member States and agencies. It also identifies the next steps and challenges to be resolved in order to achieve an integrated maritime surveillance network for Europe. The Commission document draws attention to the fact that while the majority of threats and challenges facing Member States at sea - from illegal immigration to maritime security and safety - are transnational and trans-sectoral in nature, maritime surveillance issues are dealt with by a myriad of different authorities, to the detriment of overall efficiency. Information does not flow easily even within single Member States, and few have a global overview of what is being undertaken in other Member States and at EU level, and how that can impact on their work. To improve the effectiveness of the authorities responsible for maritime activities and to facilitate their cross-sectoral and cross-border integration, the Commission document undertook to convene a Member State Expert Group on maritime policy to discuss, exchange information and increase transparency on maritime surveillance and to work towards an information network linking national authorities. This group will convene at least twice a year, and the outcome of its discussions has been fed into the Commission’s Communication on maritime surveillance.

Projects on improving interoperability in maritime surveillance

A study completed in November 2008 examined current legislation governing the use and re-use of data obtained for the monitoring or surveillance of maritime traffic. The results indicate that it is possible in principle to improve information sharing among different authorities provided that clear rules on the use of data and a secure communication environment can guarantee compliance with Europe’s data protection rules. Two pilot projects on maritime surveillance began in 2009, covering the Western Mediterranean and the Atlantic approaches on the one hand, and the Northern European Sea basins on the other (the latter may only start at the end of 2009). All Member States have been invited to make proposals in the context of these grant awarding procedures. These projects are of great importance since they will enable Member States to start co-operation in an area where integration is considered necessary and which will very likely bring benefits to all parties.

In addition, a preparatory action has begun to assess the degree to which Automatic Identification System (AIS) signals sent by vessels can be picked up from space and how such a system could develop into a shared European asset. This project is being undertaken in parallel with ongoing complementary efforts by the European Space Agency, and is monitored by a steering group of Commission services and EU agencies. Synergies and complementarities with the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) will be ensured.

Commission Communication "Towards the integration of maritime surveillance in the EU" – COM(2009) 538 final of 14.10.2009 and SEC(2009) 1341

The Commission has adopted the above Communication to the Council and the Parliament in October 2009. Its objectives are to:

- Explain the rationale of the ongoing process towards integrating maritime surveillance at national and EU level;

- Propose a number of principles that will allow moving progressively from a sectoral to an integrated approach with regard to maritime surveillance at the EU and national level;

- Provide an update of surveillance actions undertaken at Commission level.

Communication on the European Border Surveillance System - COM(2008) 68 final of 13.02.2008

The IMP is referred to in a Communication on the creation of a European Border Surveillance System (EUROSUR) MEMO/08/86 which the Commission presented in February 2008 See page 2 of the Communication: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2008:0068:FIN:EN:PDF . The main aim is preventing unauthorised border crossings through better border surveillance, reducing the number of illegal immigrants losing their lives at sea, and increasing the internal security of the EU by contributing to the prevention of cross-border crime. EUROSUR will provide a common technical framework to support Member States' authorities in reaching full situational awareness at the southern and eastern EU external borders and increase the reaction capability of their border control authorities. A decentralised system of (existing) systems will be established in three phases. In particular, phase 3 aims to create a common information-sharing environment for the EU maritime domain by integrating all existing reporting and monitoring systems in sea areas under the jurisdiction of the Member States and in adjacent high seas within a broader network. This will allow border control authorities to use all these systems in combination.[49][50]

MEMO/08/86

See page 2 of the Communication:

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2008:0068:FIN:EN:PDF

III-3 Marine knowledge

It is now well-known that the rhythms and cycles of the marine world influence human activity in a multitude of ways. Since the industrial revolution humans have begun to exert an increasing influence on the marine world. This circle of interdependence between the human and marine domains is accelerating. But the magnitude of future changes in oceanic systems, their impact on human activity and the feedbacks on the ocean from these changes in human behaviour cannot be forecast without understanding the way the system works now and how it worked in the past. Scientists, regulators and commercial bodies need reliable observations and data if they are to contribute towards a sustainable development of the maritime economy. At present most data collection is focused on meeting the needs of a single purpose - as part of a regulatory requirement, for operational purposes or to further scientific understanding. The challenge is to develop a system that will allow a better identification of what is being collected, that will facilitate access to coherent data sets, that will permit the recognition of data gaps and that will shape a data collection and monitoring infrastructure directly suited to multiple applications.

The Commission aims to increase marine knowledge through a European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNET), better mapping of sea beds and a European marine habitats map.

Legal issues (e.g. intellectual property rights) are one of the key obstacles for access to marine knowledge. A study was therefore commissioned on the legal aspects of environmental data http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/study_lamed_en.html .[51]

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/study_lamed_en.html

An ur-EMODNET is being developed through preparatory actions. These projects started in April 2009 and, by the end of 2010, will have produced layers for the main hydrographical, geological, chemical and biological parameters for complete sea basins. Based on these parameters, a harmonised mapping of marine habitats is beginning on a broad scale over complete sea basins using a unified classification. A further preparatory action has been launched in 2009 focusing on high-resolution multi-beam mapping.

The Commission is being ably assisted in these matters by a specially constituted Marine Observation and Data Expert Group, which met three times in 2008 and twice in 2009. A Commission Staff Working Document, setting out the steps towards a final operational EMODNET and a more accurate seabed map for Europe, was issued in April 2009 SEC(2009) 499 final of 7.04.2009 . [52]

SEC(2009) 499 final of 7.04.2009

This confirms the broad consensus among Commission services, gives some useful feedback on a possible legal framework, and provides the background information for the public consultation which closed in June 2009 after having gathered 300 replies in two months. It showed an almost universal dissatisfaction with the current marine data infrastructure amongst all stakeholders (authorities, industry and research) and 97% agreement that intervention at EU level is appropriate. The impact assessment showed that EMODNET would reduce operational costs, increase competition and reduce uncertainty on the state of the ocean.

IV. Maximising the sustainable use of the oceans and seas (AP chapter 4)

IV-1 Marine Strategy Framework Directive - Directive 2008/56/EC of 17 June 2008

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) aims to protect more effectively the marine environment. Its objective is to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020 and to protect the resource base upon which marine-related economic and social activities depend. It constitutes the vital environmental component of the IMP. The MSFD establishes European marine regions on the basis of geographical and environmental criteria. Each Member State - cooperating with other Member States and non-EU countries within a marine region – is required to develop strategies which must contain a detailed assessment of the state of the environment, a definition of "good environmental status" at regional level and the establishment of clear targets and monitoring programmes.

Each Member State must draw up a programme of cost-effective measures. Prior to any new measure an impact assessment which contains a detailed cost-benefit analysis of the proposed measures is required. Where Member States cannot reach the environmental targets specific measures tailored to the particular context of the area and situation will be drawn up.

The goal of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is in line with the objectives of the Water Framework Directive which requires surface freshwater and ground water bodies - such as lakes, streams, rivers, estuaries, and in particular coastal waters - to be ecologically sound by 2015.

In view of the long time span for implementation, and following the approach developed for the Water Framework Directive, an informal Common Implementation Strategy, involving the Commission and Member States has been set up to co-ordinate the implementation of the MSFD. This activity is carried out under the high level guidance of Marine Directors (who meet once for each EU Presidency), who are also regularly informed about the Commission work with regard to IMP activities, including Maritime Spatial Planning as an important tool related to the MSFD implementation. The analysis of human activities on the seas required under the MSFD will also serve to improve the knowledge on economic situation and social aspects in coastal regions and ultimately help to reach the objective of the protection and a sustainable use of oceans and seas.

IV-2 European Economic Recovery Plan – COM(2008) 800 final of 26.11.2008

As a response to the financial crisis and as an attempt to reinforce the EU's energy supply, the Commission proposed in November 2008 a European Economic Recovery Plan (EERP) that was endorsed by European Council in December. The plan contains a number of elements relevant to the sustainable use of oceans and seas See Action No. 5 of the EERP: http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/president/pdf/Comm_20081126.pdf . [53]

See Action No. 5 of the EERP:

http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/president/pdf/Comm_20081126.pdf

In particular, the off-shore grid connections in the North Sea and the Baltic, offshore wind energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be relevant for the coastal regions or will be realised, at least in part, o n the sea. In particular, offshore grid development for wind energy projects will receive €565 million under this package. Maritime Spatial Planning will be an important tool in ensuring the sustainable realization of the off-shore wind energy strategy of the EU, including the particular projects referred to.

On 18 of May 2009 the Commission launched a call for proposals. Project promoters were invited to submit their proposals by 15 July 2009.

IV-3 Climate and energy package

The impact of climate change is particularly felt in the maritime world as the oceans and seas are the drivers of our climate and coastal regions are particularly affected. Consequently, the IMP is closely linked to actions related to climate change while at the same time the integrated approach to maritime policy can make an important contribution to addressing the challenges.

In December 2008, the Council and Parliament adopted the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy, following the proposal of the Commission COM(2008) 30 final of 23.01.2008 . The legislative package includes the following items with maritime relevance: [54]

COM(2008) 30 final of 23.01.2008

- revision of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS, with maritime transport being directly affected as a candidate for inclusion in the ETS);

- equipping power plants with CO 2 capture and underground storage technology (with undersea storage sites being considered, directly linked with Maritime Spatial Planning);

- reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fuels (with efforts made to allow gas as a fuel in international maritime transport);

- national targets for increasing the share of renewables in the EU's energy mix (with renewable energy from the seas and oceans playing an increasing role).

Every EU member States will have to draw a national plan for renewables by June 2010 detailing per sector the contribution of different renewable energy technologies, in particular marine renewable energy. Spatial planning will be a tool to create investment certainty and ensure sustainability in the development of off-shore energy, while the marine and maritime research strategy supports the further development of off-shore energy technologies, including non-wind off shore energy production.

IV-4 Off-Shore Wind Energy Communication (COM(2008) 768 final of 13.11.2008) and off-shore energy supply connections

On 13 November 2008, the Commission adopted a Communication on offshore wind energy which identifies the challenges to be tackled to exploit Europe’s potential for offshore wind energy. A key point in this communication is the contribution marine spatial planning will make to the sustainable development of off-shore energy. This Communication, included in the energy package, was endorsed by the heads of state and government at the Spring European Council on 19-20 March 2009 Conclusions of the European Council of 19-20 March 2009: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/106809.pdf .[55]

Conclusions of the European Council of 19-20 March 2009:

http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/106809.pdf

IV-5 Second Strategic Energy Review

Five of the six actions of the EU Energy Security and Solidarity Action plan COM(2008) 781 final of 13.11.2008 have a partly maritime dimension (the Southern Gas Corridor, LNG supply for Europe, the Baltic Interconnection Plan, and the Mediterranean Energy Ring) or a wholly maritime dimension (the North Sea Offshore Grid). The IMP contributes, through its elements related to the sustainable use of the seas, Maritime Spatial Planning, port and maritime transport development, to the realization of these projects. Coordinated or possibly joint Environmental Impact Assessment procedures for multi-country projects could have a positive impact on streamlining permitting and authorization process and would facilitate the realisation of these projects.[56]

COM(2008) 781 final of 13.11.2008

The Commission in its Second Strategic Energy Review argued that a blueprint for a North Sea Offshore Grid should be developed. The blueprint should identify the steps and schedule that need to be established and any specific actions that need to be adopted. It should be developed by the Member States and regional actors involved and facilitated where necessary by action at Community level. In the Conclusions of the Energy Council on 19 February, the plans for the blueprint were endorsed with the small change that the scope was changed from North Sea to "the North Sea and North West Offshore Grid", to cover also the Irish Sea. The blueprint, most likely in the format of a Communication, is planned for adoption in 2010.

IV-6 Green Paper "Towards a Secure, Sustainable and Competitive European Energy Network"- COM(2008) 782 final of 13.11.2008

Islands and outermost regions, as well as some remote coastal areas, face challenges to create economic activity and improve the quality of life due to a lack of connections with Europe's main economic strongholds, and in particular with communication and energy networks.

The Trans-European Energy Networks (TEN-E) instrument and its budget are a major EU instrument for energy networks. But they were conceived and developed when the EU was considerably smaller and faced energy challenges of a completely different dimension compared to today. Therefore, the Green Paper has launched a discussion on how the existing TEN-E instrument could be replaced by a new EU Energy Security and Infrastructure Instrument.

It is important that islands and coastal regions get the necessary level of attention and can benefit from the investments made by public bodies and private operators under the TEN instruments, as explicitly stated in the Commission decision of 16 February 2009, establishing the 2009 annual work programme for grants in the field of trans-European networks - area of energy infrastructures. See p.4 of C(2009) 868 of 16.02.2009[57]

See p.4 of C(2009) 868 of 16.02.2009

IV-7 Strategic goals and recommendations for the EU’s maritime transport policy until 2018 - COM(2009) 8 final of 21.01.2009

Further to the announcement in the Action Plan on an Integrated Maritime Policy, the Commission adopted an EU Maritime Transport Strategy 2009-2018 following continuous dialogue with the heads of the EEA maritime transport administrations, the independent advice of a group of senior shipping professionals, and an analytical study (the OPTIMAR Study OPTIMAR - Benchmarking strategic options for European shipping and for the European maritime transport system in the horizon 2008-2018 study) giving different scenarios for future trends in maritime transport. It presents the main strategic goals for the European maritime transport system up to 2018 and identifies key areas for action by the EU. The proposed actions build upon an all-inclusive approach, which lies at the heart of the EU Integrated Maritime Policy, and are based on the core principles of sustainable development, competitiveness and economic growth, maritime safety, high environmental and social standards, and open markets in fair competition. The Communication sets out measures to support the long-term competitiveness of European shipping and related maritime industries: safe, secure and quality shipping on clean oceans; qualified human resources and enhanced maritime know-how, technological development, maritime research and innovation; enhanced role of Europe in the international scene; more integrated logistics and short-sea shipping; and RTD and innovation.[58]

Study OPTIMAR - Benchmarking strategic options for European shipping and for the European maritime transport system in the horizon 2008-2018

Council conclusions endorsing the Communication have been adopted at the Transport Council on 30 March 2009 Council press release 8176/09 (Presse 73) . In its conclusions, the Council requests the Commission to "elaborate, together with Member States and all relevant stakeholders, a detailed road map as soon as possible and in any case no later than by the end of 2009, and conduct a mid-term review of the implementation of the European maritime transport policy by the end of 2013."[59]

Council press release 8176/09 (Presse 73)

IV-8 Communication and action plan with a view to establishing a European maritime transport space without barriers - COM(2009) 10 final of 21.01.2009

This initiative will simplify and speed up administrative procedures for sea transport between ports located in the EU. The existing barriers put maritime transport at a disadvantage compared to other modes of transport. In an effort to eliminate and simplify the administrative procedures in intra-EU maritime transport and to extend the internal market to this area, the Commission has proposed a set of measures to establish a "European Maritime Transport Space without Barriers". The Commission agreed to modify the implementing provisions of the Community customs code by early 2009 and adopted a proposal for a Directive on reporting formalities for ships arriving in or departing from Member State ports. Regarding legislation on veterinary and phyto-sanitary products, guidelines should be agreed in 2009 in order to speed up the documentary checks in Directives 89/662/EEC, 90/425/EEC and 2000/29/EC. These will simplify and speed up administrative procedures or requirements for sea transport between ports located in the EU.

Efforts shall be pursued to put all foreseen actions in place in the different sectors. Works shall also start to simplify administrative procedures for vessels involved in Short Sea Shipping but having a call in a neighbouring third country.

IV-9 Implementation of the third maritime safety package

After the accidents of the tankers "Erika" and "Prestige", the EU adopted an important number of legislative acts on the basis of Commission proposals, in order to enhance maritime safety. With the same objective and with a proactive attitude, the Commission issued in late 2005 a third set of proposals (3 rd maritime safety package) containing seven draft legislative instruments. In doing so the Commission took into account the experience acquired in implementing the Community legislation on maritime safety (ERIKA I and ERIKA II) and the concerns expressed on several occasions by the European Parliament, the European Council and the Ministers of Transport.

Three years later, political agreement was reached between the Council and Parliament on the totality of the package under the conciliation procedure on 8 December 2008, leading to the final adoption on 23 April 2009 Published in the OJ on 28.5.2009 .[60]

Published in the OJ on 28.5.2009

As adopted, the package contains 8 legislative measures (6 Directives and 2 Regulations) in the following areas: Flag State responsibility, Classification societies (a Directive and a Regulation, following the splitting of the Commission's original proposal), monitoring of maritime traffic, port state control, accidents investigation, compensation of passengers in case of accidents and insurance of ship owners for maritime claims.

With the adoption of the Third Maritime Safety package of measures, the EU has one of the most comprehensive and advanced regulatory frameworks on maritime safety and prevention of accidental pollution from ships.

IV-10 Commission proposal on amending Directive 2005/35/EC on ship source pollution introducing penalties for infringements

In March 2008 the Commission proposed an amendment to the Directive on ship source pollution COM(2008) 134 final of 11.03.2008 , proposing the introduction of criminal penalties for illicit ship-source discharges of polluting substances. A first reading took place in May 2009 in the Council and the Parliament.[61]

COM(2008) 134 final of 11.03.2008

IV-11 Ports Policy

The European Commission is currently in the process of taking initiatives and measures with a view to implementing and meeting key objectives of its Communication on a European Ports Policy (COM(2007) 616 final of 18.10.2007) and realising its action plan.

One of the Communication's key actions includes the production of guidelines on the application of Community environment legislation to port development. A working group with Member States, environmental NGOs and port industry under the leadership of the Commission is working to deliver guidelines which will help the sector to implement the Birds http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/birdsdirective/index_en.htm , Habitats http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/index_en.htm and Water Framework http://www.euwfd.com/ Directives in estuaries and coastal zones with particular attention to ports. It is foreseen that the Guidance document will be adopted by the end of 2009.[62][63][64]

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/birdsdirective/index_en.htm

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/index_en.htm

http://www.euwfd.com/

In addition, in its Communication, the Commission made also a commitment to adopt Guidelines on State aid to ports. These Guidelines are to be adopted in 2010 .

IV-12 Proposal for a Council Directive on the Maritime Labour Convention

The maritime shipping sector is an industry operating worldwide. In this context it is essential to define and effectively enforce global minimum standards of employment and health and safety conditions for seafarers employed or working on board a seagoing ship.

The International Labour Organisation addressed this issue in the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006. This Convention incorporates the conventions and recommendations on maritime labour by the ILO since 1919 into a single consolidated text to serve as a basis for the first universal Maritime Labour Code. The Commission actively participated in the works on the Maritime Labour Convention from the outset.

European legislation currently in force already covers most of the topics regulated by the Maritime Labour Convention. In fact, in most of the cases the European legislation establishes higher standards in comparison with those of the Convention. However, in a few cases the Maritime Labour Convention proposes a more specific regulation or working conditions which are more favourable for seafarers.

Following an agreement Agreement concluded by ECSA and ETF on the Maritime Labour Convention 2006, 19.05.08. concluded by the social partners in the maritime transport sector - the European Community Ship-Owners’ Association (ECSA) http://www.ecsa.be/ and the European Transport Workers’ Federation (ETF) http://www.itfglobal.org/ETF/ - the Commission adopted on 2 July 2008 a proposal COM(2008) 422 final of 2.07.2008 for a Council Directive incorporating elements of the Maritime Labour Convention 2006 into Community law and amending Directive 1999/63/EC, in accordance with Article 139 of the Treaty. This proposal was adopted by the Council as Directive 2009/13/EC OJ L 124, 20.5.2009, p.30 .[65][66][67][68][69]

Agreement concluded by ECSA and ETF on the Maritime Labour Convention 2006, 19.05.08.

http://www.ecsa.be/

http://www.itfglobal.org/ETF/

COM(2008) 422 final of 2.07.2008

OJ L 124, 20.5.2009, p.30

The incorporation of elements of the Maritime Labour Convention of 2006 into Community law contributes to updating the European legislation in force with those standards of the Convention which are more favourable for seafarers. It is expected that the working conditions of seafarers will be improved, particularly as regards employment agreements, hours of work, repatriation, careers and skill development, accommodation and recreation facilities, food and catering, health and safety protection and medical care, and complaint procedures.

The Directive will enter into force simultaneously with the ILO Maritime Labour Convention. It is expected to contribute to a quicker ratification of the Convention by the Member States.

As the next step, following the request of the social partners expressed in a letter dated 13 November 2007, the Commission will consider presenting a proposal for an enforcement directive. The objective of this directive would be to define the Member States' responsibilities to enforce the relevant provisions of the ILO Maritime Labour Convention taken up in the social agreement and check their application on board all ships calling at EU ports, regardless of the flag.

IV-13 Proposal for a Council Decision authorising Member States to ratify, in the interest of the European Community, the ILO "Work in Fishing Convention"

In line with the 2006 Communication on Decent Work for All (COM (2006) 249 of 24.05.2009), in which the Commission committed to the promotion of up-to-date ILO Conventions, the Commission adopted in May 2008 a proposal COM (2008) 320 of 27.05.2008 for a Council decision authorizing Member States to ratify, in the interests of the European Community, the "Work in Fishing Convention 2007" of the International Labour Organization (Convention 188) http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C188 .[70][71]

COM (2008) 320 of 27.05.2008

http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C188

IV-14 Reassessment of the exclusion of maritime workers from parts of the European labour and social legislation

Together with the maritime policy package, a Communication "Reassessing the regulatory social framework for more and better seafaring jobs in the EU" was adopted COM(2007) 591 final of 10.10.2007 . The Communication reviewed the pertinent legislation in order to identify exclusions or derogations affecting workers in maritime professions, problems raised by practical application and difficulties of interpretation of such legislation. It sought to determine to what extent action might be needed to improve legal protection for maritime professions in the EU. [72]

COM(2007) 591 final of 10.10.2007

In view of the highly globalised context of most maritime sectors, it undertook such analysis against the background of the already extensive body of international conventions and standards.

By means of this first stage consultation the social partners were invited to take position regarding the analysis proposed by the Commission and in particular to assess the priorities of action and whether a specific legislation for the sector might be warranted instead of suppressing certain exclusions. Furthermore they were requested to provide an input regarding other, non legislative, means of action in the field of coordination of social security systems and health and safety on board.

The social partners consulted were the European Community Shipowners' Associations (ECSA) and the European Transport Workers’ Federation (ETF) in maritime transport sector, and Europeche http://www.europeche.org/ , Cogeca http://www.copa-cogeca.be/ and ETF for the sea fisheries sector. On 2 April 2009 the Commission initiated a second stage consultation of the social partners "Reassessing the regulatory social framework for more and better seafaring jobs in the EU: Second consultation of the European social partners on the revision of exclusions concerning seafaring workers contained in Directives 2008/94/EC, 94/45/EC, 2002/14/EC, 98/59/EC, 2001/23/EC and 96/71/EC", C(2009) 2211 . At the same time an impact assessment study was commissioned in view of a future initiative.[73][74][75]

http://www.europeche.org/

http://www.copa-cogeca.be/

"Reassessing the regulatory social framework for more and better seafaring jobs in the EU: Second consultation of the European social partners on the revision of exclusions concerning seafaring workers contained in Directives 2008/94/EC, 94/45/EC, 2002/14/EC, 98/59/EC, 2001/23/EC and 96/71/EC", C(2009) 2211

IV-15 Maritime employment, training and certification of seafarers

The need to increase the attractiveness of maritime careers and improve education and training was repeated in Commission's Communication on the Maritime Transport Strategy 2018. Regarding maritime employment the following ideas are put forward: Adopt positive measures facilitating lifelong career prospects in the maritime clusters; enhance the image of shipping and careers at sea, improve awareness of job opportunities, facilitate labour mobility in the maritime industries; support the work of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) on the fair treatment of seafarers; p romote better use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for improving quality of life at sea.

In relation to the training and certification of seafarers, the Communication stresses the need to: e nsure thorough enforcement of international and Community requirements under the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW); make a substantial contribution to the revision of the STCW Convention currently under way in the IMO; promote cooperation between European maritime training institutions for upgrading seafarers’ competences and adapting requirements to the prerequisites of today’s shipping industry; work in partnership with training institutions and the industry towards establishing ‘maritime certificates of excellence’ (European maritime postgraduate courses); introduce, for the education of officers, an ‘Erasmus’-type model for exchanges between the maritime training institutions of the Member States; promote in partnership with industry the provision of places, where necessary backed by incentives, for cadets to be taken on board during their studies in EU training institutes

The Commission highlighted also in this Communication the need to strike the right balance between the employment conditions of EU seafarers and the competitiveness of the European fleet and announced its intention to set up a Task Force to identify ways of achieving this objective.

Academic centres and coastal regions have also expressed their interest to work on employment and careers, bringing forward ideas on certificates of excellence for maritime education, mobility, networks of maritime academies and cooperation with maritime industries.

A Communication on the establishment of a sustainable European maritime labour force of quality, including possibly legislative initiative(s), is planned for 2010.

IV-16 The impact of the financial and economic crises on shipbuilding and the future of the programme LeaderSHIP 2015

To mitigate the effects of the financial and economic crises on shipbuilding, the EU is taking steps to ensure a global level playing field, as state aid and support policies in other parts of the world are not as strict as in Europe. The Commission is pushing for a global shipbuilding agreement with enforceable disciplines for subsidies and prices in the framework of the OECD. Work on a guarantee scheme is also gaining in importance, since investors have become more reluctant.

LeaderSHIP 2015, presented in 2003, is the EU shipbuilding sector's response to competitive challenges up to 2015 http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/maritime/documents/shipbuilding/index_en.htm . It addresses establishing a level playing field in world shipbuilding, improving RTD and innovation investment, developing advanced financing and guarantee schemes, promoting safer and more environment-friendly ships, developing a European approach to naval shipbuilding needs, protecting intellectual property rights, securing access to a skilled workforce, and building a sustainable industry structure.[76]

http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/maritime/documents/shipbuilding/index_en.htm

In 2007 the Commission issued a progress report on the LeaderSHIP 2015 initiative COM(2007) 220 final of 25.04.2007 .[77]

COM(2007) 220 final of 25.04.2007

Halfway through the LeaderSHIP agenda, and in the face of the crisis, the challenges under LeaderSHIP 2015 are being reviewed. To this end, a high-level meeting between the Commission, Member States ministers and senior industry representatives was held in Bremerhaven on 11 September 2009.

IV-17 Study "The role of Maritime Clusters to enhance the strength and development in maritime sectors" (cluster study)

Under the EU's Integrated Maritime Policy, the Commission encourages the formation of multi-sectoral clusters and promotes networking among maritime clusters. In this context, the study on the role of maritime clusters http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/clusters_en.html aimed to identify the location of maritime activities and the characteristics of maritime cluster organisations with a view to create an evidence-base and a better understanding of the functioning of clusters. [78]

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/clusters_en.html

The study mapped the maritime clusters within Europe based on the methodology developed for the European Cluster Observatory http://www.clusterobservatory.eu/ . It covered a range of sea-related activities, including maritime transport, offshore energy, maritime manufacturing, fisheries and tourism. It analysed key features of maritime clusters, including strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats of various cluster approaches, trends and policies and provided recommendations on future policy steps.[79]

http://www.clusterobservatory.eu/

The study results show that maritime activities in Europe account for a production value of some € 450 billion and direct added value of € 186,8 billion. About 4,78 million persons are directly employed in these sectors. In most European countries with a high concentration of maritime activities, maritime cluster organisations are already active.

These clusters vary in terms of leadership, membership and organisational matters, but in spite of their differences, they tend to be set up for similar reasons, namely to increase competitiveness, promote the maritime sectors and coordinate their activities. In light of that, clusters can benefit from cooperation at European level to discuss best practice and lessons learned.

Seven countries (Malta, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Denmark, Greece and Norway) show a relatively high importance of maritime activities in their national economy, with more than 3% of maritime added value in national GDP and more than 5% of maritime jobs (the EU averages).The strongest concentration of activities in the traditional maritime sectors occurs in the North Sea region, followed, in the Mediterranean, by Southern France and North West Italy. Tourism activities are mostly concentrated in the Mediterranean and the UK South coast. Fisheries presence is strongest in the Atlantic and (especially in terms of employment) in the Baltic States.

In most European countries with a high concentration of maritime activities (in terms of value added and employment), maritime cluster organisations are already active. Most of them are privately driven, whereas others are government driven; some are the result of a joint effort. Regional clusters exist in e.g. France, the UK, Germany and Norway. Traditional maritime and offshore activities tend to be represented across the board; in some cases fisheries and tourism are also included.

The Commission also undertakes activities in support of clusters under its innovation policy.

IV-18 Workshop on Maritime Clusters in landlocked countries

On 27 April 2009 the Czech Presidency and the European Commission held an international conference and workshop on Maritime Clusters in Landlocked Countries http://www.cz2009.eu/event/1/3312/ . The event was staged in the context of the European Maritime Day 2009 and it was the first event ever addressing the maritime supply chain in landlocked EU countries.[80]

http://www.cz2009.eu/event/1/3312/

The Prague conference brought together about 100 delegates from the private sector and public authorities of the EU Member States. The conference primarily addressed the question how landlocked EU countries can contribute as subcontractors to the innovative development of the maritime industry in Europe. Concrete examples from maritime engineering and logistics show that initiatives in the maritime sector in landlocked countries have potential and could be very successful. The opportunities offered by the maritime industry are far from limited to coastal regions. Examples in Austria and Luxembourg as well as the activities of Czech engineering companies show that there is also a potential for developing compact networks of maritime subcontractors in countries without a coastline.

IV-19 Prolongation of the existing State aid rules for shipbuilding

On 3 July 2008 European Commission has prolonged the Framework on State aid rules for shipbuilding for three more years, until 31 December 2011 See Commission press release IP/08/1097 . This extension follows an earlier extension in 2006. [81]

See Commission press release IP/08/1097

The Commission has concluded that the Framework, which came into effect on 1 January 2004, has been applied without any problems and does not need to be revised at this stage. The Framework's main principle is that horizontal state aid rules apply to shipbuilding except where specific provisions apply that reflect the specific characteristics of the shipbuilding industry and market. The specific provisions contained in the Framework concern regional aid, closure aid, export credits, development aid, employment aid and aid for research, development and innovation. The Framework's rules on innovation aid are specific to the shipbuilding industry and as yet have limited application. The Commission wishes to continue applying these rules and assess their impact on fostering innovation in the sector Individual state aid decisions can be consulted on-line: http://ec.europa.eu/competition/state_aid/register/ .[82]

Individual state aid decisions can be consulted on-line: http://ec.europa.eu/competition/state_aid/register/

IV-20 Competition and State aid rules for maritime transport

The competitiveness of Maritime Transport is fostered not only by Transport Policy and technical and economic developments, but also by EU competition and State aid rules.

With effect from 18 October 2008, the exemption for liner conferences contained in Council Regulation (EEC) No 4056/86 was repealed by Council Regulation (EC) No 1419/2006 OJ L 269, 28.9.2006, p.1. as the four cumulative conditions for exempting agreements, decisions and concerted practices under Article 81(3) EC were no longer met. This means that liner conference activities such as price fixing and capacity regulation previously allowed by that regulation are no longer block exempted. In order to assist firms with this transition, the Commission adopted Guidelines on the application of Article 81 of the EC Treaty to maritime transport services on 1 July 2008 OJ C 245, 26.09.2008, p.2 .[83][84]

OJ L 269, 28.9.2006, p.1.

OJ C 245, 26.09.2008, p.2

Regulation (EC) No 1419/2006 also extended the scope of Regulation (EC) No 1/2003 so as to include cabotage and tramp vessel services. This means that the Commission now has the normal enforcement powers at its disposal when applying the competition rules to firms operating in these areas.

Council Regulation (EC) No 246/2009 of 26 February 2009 on the application of Article 81(3) of the Treaty to certain categories of agreements, decisions and concerted practices between liner shipping companies (consortia) replaced Council Regulation (EEC) No 479/92 which empowers the Commission to adopt block exemption regulations in this area OJ L 79, 25.3.2009, p.1. . [85]

OJ L 79, 25.3.2009, p.1.

On 28 September 2009 the Commission adopted Regulation (EC) No 906/2009 on the application of Article 81(3) of the Treaty to certain categories of agreements, decisions and concerted practices between liner shipping companies (consortia) which allows operational co-operation to provide a joint liner shipping service subject to certain conditions. This regulation renews the block exemption provided in Commission Regulation (EC) No 823/2000 which expires on 25 April 2010, for a further 5 years.

The Commission scrutinises aid schemes throughout the maritime transport sector Including towage and dredging activities in order to maintain a level playing field within Europe Individual decisions 2007-2009 are available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/stateaid/decisions_en.htm . Member States and firms operating in this sector are assisted by specific State aid guidelines Community guidelines on State aid to maritime transport, OJ C 13, 17.1.2004, p.3. These provide for example that State aid given in respect of the social contributions of community seafarers can only be given to those working on vessels registered in the EU Member States. . These guidelines are due to be reviewed in 2011-2012. In the meantime, the Commission has adopted two communications in this field in order to complement the existing guidelines, one on motorways of the sea Communication from the Commission providing guidance on State aid complementary to Community funding for the launching of the motorways of the sea, OJ C 317, 12.12.2008, p. 10 and one on ship management companies Communication providing guidance on State aid to ship management companies, OJ C 132, 11.6.2009, p. 6 .[86][87][88][89][90]

Including towage and dredging activities

Individual decisions 2007-2009 are available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/stateaid/decisions_en.htm

Community guidelines on State aid to maritime transport, OJ C 13, 17.1.2004, p.3. These provide for example that State aid given in respect of the social contributions of community seafarers can only be given to those working on vessels registered in the EU Member States.

Communication from the Commission providing guidance on State aid complementary to Community funding for the launching of the motorways of the sea, OJ C 317, 12.12.2008, p. 10

Communication providing guidance on State aid to ship management companies, OJ C 132, 11.6.2009, p. 6

IV-21 Antitrust investigations in the ship classification sector

In January 2008 Commission officials carried out unannounced inspections at the premises of several providers of ship classification services and an association of such providers. The Commission had reason to believe that the companies and the association concerned may have violated the competition rules of the EC Treaty and the EEA Agreement that outlaw restrictive business practices. The fact that the European Commission carries out such inspections does not mean that the companies or association are guilty of anti-competitive behaviour nor does it prejudge the outcome of the investigation itself.

In June 2009 the European Commission invited comments from interested parties on commitments offered by the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) to meet concerns that it may have infringed Article 81 of the EC Treaty and Article 53 of the EEA Agreement, prohibiting restrictive business practices. The Commission's concerns related to the ship classification market, in particular that IACS prevented classification societies which are not members of IACS from joining IACS, from participating in IACS' technical working groups and from accessing technical background documents. To address these concerns, IACS proposed a series of commitments, including the establishment of qualitative membership criteria and guidance for their application, the possibility for non-IACS classification societies to participate in ICAS' working groups and full access to IACS' technical resolutions and related background documents. A summary of the commitments accepted by the Commission has been published in the EU Official Journal OJ C 131 of 10 June 2009 . Following a period of market testing, the Commission has now adopted a decision under Article 9(1) of Regulation 1/2003, making the commitments legally binding on IACS.[91]

OJ C 131 of 10 June 2009

IV-22 Study on tourist facilities in ports

Following the Action Plan on Integrated Maritime Policy, the Commission launched an external study to analyse the benefits for ports to invest in infrastructure and facilities for receiving tourists, notably through cruise tourism. This study examined the potential benefits and risks associated with such investments from a market perspective as well as the impact of costs to comply with environmental legislation and of measures to ensure sustainable development. The study results allow coastal regions to better understand the economics of the cruise sector and make informed investment decisions.

The lack of clarity about the real benefit of tourist facilities in ports may leave an important source of income and job creation for ports and tourism businesses in coastal regions and islands untapped. In view of this, the study sought the answers about the real benefits and costs of investing in tourist facilities in ports in the light of promoting quality of life and competitiveness in maritime regions. It provides an overview of the additional costs to comply with environmental obligations in relation to building tourist facilities in ports and the added value of investments in sustainable infrastructure and equipment (e.g. the use of shore-side electricity See also the Commission recommendation on the promotion of shore-side electricity for use by ships at berth in Community ports (2006/339/EC). ).[92]

See also the Commission recommendation on the promotion of shore-side electricity for use by ships at berth in Community ports (2006/339/EC).

The study also estimated the economic rationale for investing in tourism facilities in ports, on the basis of existing good practices, market trends and SWOT (strength and weaknesses, opportunities and risks) analysis. The parameters analysed included e.g. berths, terminals, guides, excursions, hospitality services, shops, tug boat and land transport services, berthing fees and taxes.

The study developed an indicator estimating return on investments for ports and tourism operators in their surroundings. This indicator calculates the average European return on investment for every 1€ spent, taking into consideration the direct, indirect and induced –positive and negative- economic impacts (notably in terms of growth and job creation) on the port infrastructure. In case of significant differences between the various sea basins, the European indicator is complemented with region-specific information.

IV-23 Air pollution and GHG emissions from ships

Whilst shipping is a relatively clean mode of transport, based on actual transport performance, emissions from ships are a problem in absolute terms. The Commission gives particular importance to this problem.

The 58 th meeting of the IMO's Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) http://www.imo.org/Environment/mainframe.asp?topic_id=197 was held in October 2008. It was considered successful in that modifications to MARPOL ( 1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 ), Annex VI (Prevention of air pollution from ships), were unanimously adopted by the MEPC. These modifications cover sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The revised Annex VI will enter into force on 1 July 2010. The Commission plans to present a proposal to amend Directive 1999/32/EC on the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels in 2010. The amendment will, among other things, implement the amendments to MARPOL Annex VI adopted in October 2008.[93]

http://www.imo.org/Environment/mainframe.asp?topic_id=197

To support the amendment, a number of studies have been carried out, or will be soon, in order to provide insight into a number of issues relating to the proposal for the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels, including a cost-benefit analysis and a study on the impact of the IMO agreement and additional measures in terms of the effects on refineries and the availability of fuels. The relevant parts of these studies will be incorporated in the Impact Assessment to accompany the proposal to amend the Directive.

A Commission proposal on GHG emissions from freight transport (including shipping) is included in the Commission’s Annual Policy Strategy (APS) for 2009. The Commission has a strong preference for a global solution. However, in the absence of significant progress achieved by 31 December 2011 in the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), the Commission should make a new proposal for European action with the aim of its entry into force by 2013 . An initiative on how to reduce GHG emissions from ships was taken at the 59 th meeting of the MEPC in July 2009. This is done in the context of the post-Kyoto 2012 agreement on climate change, to be adopted at the end of 2009 in Copenhagen.

With regard to GHG emissions from ships the Commission launched a second study in order to assess and evaluate the policy options proposed by a first study conducted in 2006 (CE Delft) CE Delft et al.: "Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Shipping and Implementation for the Marine Fuel Sulphur Directive", Publication number 06 4103 61 and to provide technical support for European action to reduce GHG emissions from shipping if there is no global agreement to reduce GHG emissions. All action options are still under consideration, including an option for the inclusion of shipping in the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) has become clear. Industry has been asked to outline green technology solutions that could also be helpful in creating new market opportunities for the EU shipbuilding industry in the face of the economic crisis.[94]

CE Delft et al.: "Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Shipping and Implementation for the Marine Fuel Sulphur Directive", Publication number 06 4103 61

IV-24 Communication on "An EU Strategy for better ship dismantling" –

COM(2008) 767 final of 19.11.2008

The European Commission has developed various policy documents to support the environmentally sound management of ship dismantling. On 22 May 2007, the European Commission adopted a Green Paper COM(2007) 269 final of 22.05.2007 on better ship dismantling.[95]

COM(2007) 269 final of 22.05.2007

On 19 November 2008 a Communication on "An EU strategy for better ship dismantling" was adopted by the Commission further to the Maritime Policy Action Plan.

Both policy documents have been followed by discussions with stakeholders on the basis of the options proposed therein. The general objective of the Strategy is to ensure that ships with a strong link to the EU in terms of flag or ownership are dismantled only in safe and environmentally sound facilities worldwide. The Strategy aims to support and supplement the IMO Ship Recycling Convention See here: http://www.imo.org/About/mainframe.asp?topic_id=1773&doc_id=11368 , particularly for the interim period, until this Convention enters into force. The convention was adopted by a diplomatic conference held in Hong Kong in May 2009 and is now awaiting ratification. Other European institutions, such as the European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee, have adopted opinions on these documents.[96]

See here: http://www.imo.org/About/mainframe.asp?topic_id=1773&doc_id=11368

The Strategy also proposes measures to encourage voluntary action by the shipping industry and better enforcement of current EU waste shipment law. The Commission is to further assess the feasibility of certain instruments which may assist in ensuring a better ship dismantling, such as a certification and audit scheme for ship recycling facilities, and a ship dismantling fund.

IV-25 Green paper on the Common Fisheries Policy - COM(2009) 163 final of 22.04.2009 and reform of the fisheries control regulation

The Green Paper on the Reform of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) was adopted in April 2009. It launched a public consultation until 31 December 2009 as a basis for formulating reform proposals in the course of 2010. The Green Paper highlights the urgent need for a fundamental reform of the CFP. It sets out the key shortcomings of the Common Fisheries Policy so far, and asks questions on how to address them. The areas that are to be tackled include fleet overcapacity, a lack of clear objectives of the policy and a decision framework prone to ignore long term core principles. Questions are also asked as to how to encourage the industry to take more responsibility in implementing the CFP and how to create a culture of compliance.

Key options for the improvement of fisheries management are discussed, including the option of a differentiated regime to protect small scale coastal fleets, how to maximise revenue from fisheries and ensure viability, how to deal with the principle of relative stability and how to regulate better trade and markets.

Among other things, this debate should cover links with the IMP and the relationship between fisheries and regional development, spatial planning, economic and social issues, environmental protection and climate change.

The proposal of the Commission on the reform of the Fisheries Control Regulation contains important provisions of relevance to the integration of surveillance of the seas. It was adopted by the Commission in November 2008 COM(2008) 721 final of 14.11.2008; see also http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/control_enforcement/reform_control_en.htm .[97]

COM(2008) 721 final of 14.11.2008; see also http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/control_enforcement/reform_control_en.htm

IV-26 Regulation against Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing

The Regulation against Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) Fishing was adopted on 29 September 2008 Council Regulation No 1005/2008, OJ L/286/1 of 29.09.2008. . This regulation introduces a system of import controls and catch certification unique in the world which ensures that fish put on the EU market are legally fished. The system of enforcement, in cooperation with third countries and EU customs authorities, is presently being set up, with a view to its entry into force on 1 January 2010. [98]

Council Regulation No 1005/2008, OJ L/286/1 of 29.09.2008.

At this point in time, the EU will be the only entity world wide with a comprehensive system to fight Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported Fisheries. Implementing rules have been adopted by the European Commission in September 2009. Numerous seminars with third countries have been organised, covering all the oceans, in order to ensure a smooth implementation, which will require a cross sectoral cooperation among customs and fisheries authorities.

IV-27 Actions against destructive fishing practices

The implementation of the 2006 UN General Assembly Resolution on the protection of fragile high-seas ecosystems has prompted Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) to adopt new regimes for the management of bottom fishing in high seas under their responsibility (e.g. new rules were adopted in NAFO in May 2008 and discussed in NEAFC in July 2008). For high-seas areas not covered by any RFMO, the proposal for a Regulation on destructive fishing practices in the high seas and the protection of vulnerable deep-sea ecosystems, presented in October 2007 COM(2007) 604 and COM(2007) 605 of 17.10.07. , was adopted by the Council in June 2008 Council Regulation No 734/2008, OJ L/201/8 of 15.07.08. . [99][100]

COM(2007) 604 and COM(2007) 605 of 17.10.07.

Council Regulation No 734/2008, OJ L/201/8 of 15.07.08.

In this context, it is noteworthy that with the adoption of that Regulation, the European Community is the only entity to have adopted a Regulation on the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems in the high seas from the adverse impacts of bottom fishing gears Regulation (EC) N° 734/2008 .[101]

Regulation (EC) N° 734/2008

IV-28 Guardians of the Sea

A Commission initiative on Guardians of the Sea could provide support for Common Fisheries Policy reform by addressing what possibilities there are for fishermen to contribute to the sustainable use of the seas and, at the same time, reduce fishing activities. The Commission is reflecting on how to take this initiative forward.

IV-29 Community initiatives for the protection of marine biodiversity

The EU continues to call for an integrated approach to protect marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction, and tabled an ambitious set of proposals to this end at the informal UN meeting on this matter from 28 April to 2 May 2008.

Further discussions took place at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in May 2008 and in November 2008 on the protection of marine biodiversity in connection with the UNGA Resolution on Sustainable Fisheries. Since the objective of creating a representative network of Marine Protected Areas is far from being achieved, work therefore continued on the elaboration of scientific criteria for the identification and establishment of Marine Protected Areas both in areas within and beyond national jurisdiction, as well as on impact assessment in areas beyond national jurisdiction and on restrictions on certain practices that are likely to damage marine biodiversity such as ocean fertilisation. A Communication on the role of the Common Fisheries Policy in implementing an ecosystem approach to marine management was adopted on 11 April 2008. COM(2008) 187 final of 11.04.2008[102]

COM(2008) 187 final of 11.04.2008

Since 2006, the Commission has taken the lead in ensuring a coordinated EU position on whaling, in particular within the IWC. In March 2009 the Council has established its position with regard to proposals for amendments to the International Convention on the Regulation of Whaling and its schedule COM (2008) 711 final of 6.11.2008 . The Commission will continue to strongly support all initiatives that aim to ensure a high level of protection for all species of cetaceans. [103]

COM (2008) 711 final of 6.11.2008

In February 2009 COM(2009) 40 final of 5.02.2009 , the Commission has approved Action plan for the Conservation and Management of Sharks, based on the International Plan of Action adopted by FAO in 1999. [104]

COM(2009) 40 final of 5.02.2009

On marine Natura 2000 sites, in particular offshore, a first assessment seminar took place in March 2009 for the Atlantic marine region. The Commission will continue to monitor the efforts undertaken by the Member States in order to complete Natura 2000 in the marine in the light of previous commitments.

V. Building a knowledge and innovation base for the maritime policy (AP chapter 5)

V-1 European marine and maritime research

An integrated approach to Maritime Policy in the EU requires an interdisciplinary scientific and technological knowledge base. Thus, the European Commission has committed to developing a Marine and Maritime Research Strategy, in partnership with Member States and stakeholders.

The first milestone of this action has been the adoption of the Communication on a European Strategy for Marine and Maritime Research COM(2008) 534 final of 3.09.2008 (see V-2). The aim of the research strategy is to propose the means to create better integration between marine and maritime research. The role of the European Commission in the implementation of this strategy is: i) to make full use of all Community instruments, including the 7th Research Framework Programme, as leverage to achieve the objectives of the strategy; ii) to facilitate a coordinated approach between Member States contributing to the objectives of the strategy; iii) to oversee the implementation and continuous adaptation of the strategy, in partnership with Member States and the marine and maritime scientific communities. The launch of the European Maritime Observation and Data Network (EMODNET) in November 2009 is an integral component of the strategy.[105]

COM(2008) 534 final of 3.09.2008

Under FP7, an estimated EC-contribution of 424 million € has been dedicated so far to 115 projects concerning marine and maritime issues, through calls for proposals launched in 2007 and 2008 by the different Cooperation themes concerned: Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and Biotechnology - Energy - Environment (including climate change) - Transport.

V-2 Communication on a Marine and Maritime Research Strategy –

COM(2008) 534 final of 3.09.2008

Further to the Action Plan, this Communication was adopted on 3 September 2008. The Competitiveness Council, in its conclusions on the strategy in December 2008 Council document 16019/08. , essentially endorsed the Communication and its foreseen actions. The Council welcomed the Communication as important for sustainable economic development and management of the seas and oceans, noting that it addresses the complexity of marine and maritime research and puts forward an innovative model of governance for this research field. [106]

Council document 16019/08.

The Council furthermore endorsed the aims, which are to boost the overall potential of European marine and maritime research and to reduce its fragmentation through increased integration and through cooperation between all actors in this area in the EU and internationally. It recognised that the proposed strategy represents significant progress towards the development of a European Research Area (ERA). The strategy calls for actions to be implemented in cooperation with stakeholders and Member States through a partnership approach.

Development of the Implementation plan

The implementation phase of the marine and maritime research strategy initiated shortly after its adoption by the Commission. The roadmap for the implementation has been finalised in May 2009. The roadmap contains the actions foreseen to implement the strategy. The most immediate actions include: the organisation of an expert group on marine research infrastructures; identifying funding opportunities for research infrastructures, particularly with structural finds; streamlining existing ERA-Nets into a single large one; use CIP to boost eco-innovation and knowledge transfer; make use of the "Regions of knowledge" initiative to promote regional maritime clusters; promote partnership in regional basins and international scientific cooperation.

Integration across scientific disciplines

The first actions carried out under the implementation of the strategy mainly concern the integration across scientific disciplines.

A coordinated call for proposals with a view of promoting a "sustainable use of seas and oceans" has been launched in 2008 (WP 2009) within three different thematic priorities (Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and Biotechnology; Environment including climate change; Energy), through the following topics:

- In theme 2 (Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology): Integration of aquaculture and fisheries in the coastal zone; Importance of foraging fish in the ecosystem; Biomass from micro- and macro-algae for industrial applications.

- In theme 5 (Energy): Deep off-shore multi-purpose renewable energy conversion platforms for wind/ocean energy conversion; Coordination action on off-shore renewable energy conversion platforms; Algal and other suitable non-food aquatic biomass feedstock for second generation bio-fuel production.

- In theme 6 (Environment including climate change): Options for ecosystem based management; Towards integrated European marine research strategy and programmes; Support to "Maritime Partnership"; Integrated coastal zone management; Climate change impacts on the marine environment: research results and public perception.

In WP2010, for the first time, a specific cross-thematic call on ocean management " The ocean of tomorrow: joining research forces to meet challenges in ocean management" has been launched with an indicative budget of €34 million. The call involves various cooperation themes: Theme 2 – Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology, Theme 5 - Energy, Theme 6 – Environment (including climate change), Theme 7 - Transport and Theme 8 – Socio-economic sciences and Humanities. It aims to fund large multidisciplinary research projects involving partners from different countries and research fields.[107]

" The ocean of tomorrow: joining research forces to meet challenges in ocean management"

Marine and Maritime Research Infrastructures

At the level of research infrastructures, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) has updated in 2008 ESFRI, 2008. European Roadmap for research infrastructures – roadmap 2008. its roadmap which defines the scientific needs for research Infrastructure. The ESFRI roadmap contains 5 marine-related research infrastructures: [108]

ESFRI, 2008. European Roadmap for research infrastructures – roadmap 2008.

- Aurora Borealis (European Research Icebreaker with Deep-Sea Drilling Capability ) http://www.eri-aurora-borealis.eu/ ;[109]

http://www.eri-aurora-borealis.eu/

- EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation) http://www.esonet-emso.org/ ;[110]

http://www.esonet-emso.org/

- Euro-Argo (global array of floats throughout the ice-free areas of the deep ocean) http://www.euro-argo.eu/ ;[111]

http://www.euro-argo.eu/

- Lifewatch (e-Science and Technology Infrastructure for Biodiversity Research ) http://www.lifewatch.eu/ ;[112]

http://www.lifewatch.eu/

- EMBRC (European Marine Biological Resource Centre ) http://www.embrc.eu/ . [113]

http://www.embrc.eu/

In addition, the commission of a study on the financing opportunities under structural funds for marine and maritime research infrastructures and the set up of an expert group on the financing of marine and maritime research infrastructures, are foreseen in the second half of 2009.

VI. Delivering the highest quality of life in coastal regions (AP chapter 6)

VI-1 Adapting to Climate Change – COM(2009) 147 final of 1.04.2009

The White Paper on Adapting to the Climate Change was adopted on 2 April 2009 in time for the Informal Environmental Council in April. The document points at the need for an economic perspective in EU adaptation policy to allocate resources between different adaptation strategies efficiently. It highlights that climate change effects and impacts will be severe on the coasts and marine ecosystems and therefore it directly relates to the IMP See p.4 of the White Paper: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0147:FIN:EN:PDF .[114]

See p.4 of the White Paper:

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0147:FIN:EN:PDF

The White Paper acknowledges the severe impacts to be suffered by certain regions and sectors as consequence of climate change and gives special attention to coastal and marine environments. The strategy proposed in the White Paper commits the Commission to ensure that adaptation in coastal and marine areas is taken into account in the framework of the Integrated Maritime Policy, in the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and in the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy.

The EU is also working with developing countries to facilitate effective adaptation policies. The EU will support developing countries, in particular Least Developed Countries (LDCS) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS), through the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA), launched in 2008 and through other programmes.

Special attention will be given to supporting adaptation measures to sea related impacts of climate change on SIDS. The Commission will contribute to exchange of best practices in this respect through the Global Forum for Oceans, Coasts and Islands.

VI-2 Study on "The Economics of Climate Change Adaptation in EU Coastal Areas"

The Commission conducted a study on the "Economics of climate change adaptation in EU coastal areas" in the framework of the series of "Socio-economic studies in the field of Maritime Affairs" http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/climate_change_en.html . The study provides insights in the state-of-play and financial dimension of the actions undertaken to prepare Europe’s coastal zones as well as the outermost regions for the effects of climate change. Furthermore, this study compares the different climate change adaptation aspects from an empirical perspective with results drawn from dedicated scientific literature. The Study includes 23 specific reports for each of the 22 coastal Member States and the Outermost Regions. A comprehensive compilation of documentation on climate change adaptation in coastal and marine areas can be found in an on-line library, including specific information for each coastal Member State and the Outermost Regions.[115]

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/climate_change_en.html

In the empirical investigation, information was systematically collected on:

- Climate change vulnerability of European coastal areas;

- Level of responsibility and key actors;

- Adaptation plans and practices in European coastal areas at (sub-) national level;

- Coastal protection and climate change adaptation expenditure in European coastal areas at (sub-) national level for the period 1998-2015.

Based on the analysis carried out, the study makes a number of recommendations.

The Commission is analysing the study results and will, together with Member States, determine the possible follow-up.

VI-3 Community approach on the prevention of natural and man-made disasters –

COM(2009) 82 final of 23.02.2009

As foreseen in chapter 6.3 of the AP - Action on Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change – the Commission is developing a Disaster Prevention Strategy. In order to improve the consistency and comprehensiveness of preventive action at EU level, and following a broad stakeholder consultation process, the Commission adopted in February 2009 a Communication on the Community approach to reducing the impact of natural and man-made disasters within the EU.

The Communication focuses on areas where a common approach is more effective than separate national approaches, such as developing knowledge, linking actors and policies, and improving the performance of existing Community disaster prevention instruments. Specific reference is made to floods (also coastal floods See p.7 of the Communication: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0082:FIN:EN:PDF ) and the previous Communication on this particular natural risk Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks .[116][117]

See p.7 of the Communication:

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0082:FIN:EN:PDF

Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks

VI-4 Annual bathing water reports

On 11 June 2009 the Commission and the European Environment Agency presented t he annual bathing water report http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-bathing/report_2009.html which revealed that the large majority of bathing sites across the European Union met EU hygiene standards in 2008. During that bathing season some 96% of coastal bathing areas and 92% of bathing sites in rivers and lakes complied with minimum standards. The report provides useful water quality information for the millions of people who visit Europe's beaches every summer.[118]

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-bathing/report_2009.html

In 2008 the number of bathing waters monitored increased by some 75 sites. Of the 21.400 bathing areas monitored throughout the European Union in 2008 two thirds were on the coast and the rest were along rivers and lakes. The overall quality of bathing waters in the EU has markedly improved since 1990. Compliance with mandatory values (minimum quality requirements) increased over the 1990 to 2008 period from 80% to 96% and from 52% to 92% in coastal and inland waters respectively. From 2007 to 2008 compliance increased both for inland and coastal waters (1,1 and 3,3 percentage points respectively). To determine their quality bathing waters are tested against a number of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters for which the Bathing Water Directive Directive 76/160/EEC on the quality of bathing water sets out mandatory values. Member States must comply with the mandatory values but may adopt the stricter standards and non-binding guide values.[119]

Directive 76/160/EEC on the quality of bathing water

In 2006 a new bathing water directive Directive 2006/7/EC on the management of bathing water quality took effect which updated the parameters and monitoring provisions in line with the latest scientific knowledge. The new Directive places greater emphasis on providing information to the public on the quality of bathing areas. Member States have until 2015 to fully implement the new Directive but twelve Member States (Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden) already monitored their bathing areas during the 2008 bathing season according to the parameters of the new Directive.[120]

Directive 2006/7/EC on the management of bathing water quality

VI-5 Database on projects in maritime regions

As foreseen in the IMP Action Plan, the Commission is setting up a database on projects in Maritime regions. The collection of the necessary data to fill the database is advancing well and will be completed by end of 2009. Europe's coastal regions have been active in developing projects to strengthen their maritime economy and its sustainable development, which have benefited from support of EU funds. The Commission considers that more transparency on projects funded by the EU funds would provide a good source of inspiration for coastal regions in their future regional development strategies.

VII. Promoting Europe's leadership in international maritime affairs (AP chapter 7)

VII-1 Assessment of the EU’s profile in international maritime fora

The Commission has agreed to undertake an assessment of the situation of the EU’s role in international maritime organisations.

In 2008, it commissioned a study on this subject to provide an overview of how the relevant interests of the EC and its Member States are represented and promoted in the maritime international organisations. The results of the study were made available mid-2009. This study will feed into a policy document on the international dimension of the IMP, which should also cover dialogue on maritime issues with strategic partners.

VII-2 Communication "Developing the international dimension of the Integrated Maritime Policy of the European Union" - COM(2009)536 final of 14.10.2009

The overall objective of this policy document is to set out ways of promoting the role played by the EU in international maritime affairs through better coordination of European interests in key international fora and inclusion of maritime matters in dialogues with strategic partners in order to work towards more efficient international governance of maritime affairs and effective enforcement of international maritime law.

VII-3 Commission initiatives for the prevention and suppression of maritime piracy

Piracy and other forms of organised crime at sea are of great concern to the Commission, as maritime transport carries 80   % of world trade and 40   % of the world’s merchant fleet is controlled by companies from EU Member States. The EU has been heavily involved in the fight against piracy off the coast of Somalia.

Maritime security under Regulation (EC) No. 725/2004 OJ L 129, 29.4.2008 , and in particular preventive measures against piracy and armed robbery at sea, are a matter of Community competence, notably by virtue of article 1, article 1.2, article 2.5, article 2.13 as well as recital 2 and recital 5 of the said Regulation. Therefore preventive measures against those threats must deserve an univocal effort from the Community and its Member States in close liaison with the lessons learned notably by the shipping industry[121]

OJ L 129, 29.4.2008

Operation EU NAVFOR Atalanta http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx?id=1518&lang=en , the first EU naval operation ever, which is based on UN Security Council Resolutions 1816 and 1846, has since December 2008 escorted more than 125.000 tonnes of humanitarian supplies to Somalia, and contributed to the protection of vulnerable shipping and shipments of the African Union Mission in Somalia. The naval operation is only part of a comprehensive package of measures aimed at improving security and institution-building in Somalia on a long-term basis. The duration of the Operation Atalanta was initially set for 12 months after reaching the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) on 13 December 2008. The end date rather than end state approach has been selected, thus recognising that enduring suppression of piracy and armed robbery is not a realistic objective for a Naval Force. The Council, recognising the success of the operation, agreed on 15 June 2009 that mandate should be extended for one year from its current end date of 13 December 2009 http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/esdp/108482.pdf .[122][123]

http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx?id=1518&lang=en

http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/esdp/108482.pdf

The Commission supports the efforts of the International Maritime Organisation to help coastal States address the problem. In particular, an important sub-regional meeting was held in January 2009 in Djibouti and resulted in the adoption of a Code of Conduct (CoC) concerning the repression of piracy and armed robbery in the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden. Pursuant the Djibouti Code of Conduct the Commission will co-fund the establishment of the Information Sharing Centre in Sana'a and the Training Centre in Djibouti. The EU's support pledged at the Donors' Conference on 23 April 2009 for the Somali police forces and AMISOM also demonstrates the comprehensive EU commitment to addressing the root causes of piracy. Moreover, the Commission actively participates in the reviewing process of the relevant IMO instruments. It has been directly involved in the exercise of drafting the new texts of the anti-piracy related recommendations and guidelines. It also steered the process in order to reach an agreed community position on the documents at stake in that forum and contributed to the positive results achieved in the Maritime Safety Committee.

In order to define possible measures, to ensure that its efforts and messages on the international scene are coherent and consistent, and to guarantee the best possible coordination and consultation within its services, the Commission has set up an Informal Working Group (IWG) on piracy, which meets regularly. In addition, the Commission has agreed a 2009-2011 programme to be funded from the Instrument for Stability to deal with security issues in some " critical maritime routes", including the Horn of Africa region. In parallel, further to its Resolution of 23 October 2008 on piracy, the European Parliament has secured an amount of €1 million for projects to combat piracy. To this end, a pilot project on piracy is to be launched.

A high-level meeting with leading figures from the European maritime sector addressing piracy and armed robbery has been held in January 2009. Furthermore, in the aim of enhancing awareness of the maritime cluster and disseminating best practices amongst stakeholders a seminar on maritime security in the framework of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and a high-level meeting on the piracy's impact on the human element have been scheduled for the last quarter of this year. Several United Nations Security Council resolutions in 2008 authorised the international community, with the permission of the Somali transitional federal government (TFG), to fight piracy in Somali territory by land, sea and air. Following the transfer agreement with Kenya, suspected pirates apprehended by Atalanta are transferred for trial to Kenya. In the wake of attacks that took place in the EEZ of Seychelles, the Council has decided to amend the area of operations of Atalanta to also include the Seychelles. The modalities for a transfer agreement for piracy trials with the Seychelles are also underway

Following UN Security Council Resolution 1851 the Contact Group on piracy off the coast of Somalia was established in January as an international cooperation mechanism to act as a common point of contact for combating piracy and a centre in the region to coordinate relevant information. It includes countries, organisations (UN, IMO, EU, AU, Arab League) and industry affected by or fighting piracy. It has four Working Groups on: (1) military coordination; (2) legal aspects; (3) self protection measures; (4) public outreach policy. The last meeting of the Contact Group took place on 29 May in UN premises in New York. Commission participates in the plenary meetings and the meetings of first, third and fourth Working Group.

Communication on the European Union and the Arctic Region

This issue is covered in the chapter II-1 above on "Activities in relation to the sea basins" above.

VIII. Raising the visibility of maritime Europe (AP chapter 8)

VIII-1 European Maritime Day (EMD) 2008 and 2009

The European Maritime Day was officially proclaimed by Presidents of the Commission, European Parliament and European Council in Strasbourg on 20 May 2008 through a tripartite declaration http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/maritime_policy_action/20080520_original-signatures-declaratio_en.pdf . It shows the importance of the sea and oceans for everyday life, both in coastal communities and across Europe as a whole. It also highlights the opportunities and the challenges currently facing maritime regions and sectors: from tourism and fisheries to maritime transport and climate change.[124]

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/maritime_policy_action/20080520_original-signatures-declaratio_en.pdf

The first edition of the stakeholder conference was held in Brussels on 19 and 20 May 2008. More than 400 participants were discussing two main issues: regional approach to maritime policy and development of stakeholder dialogue http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/maritime-day-2008_en.html . Building upon this first experience, the 2009 stakeholder conference in Rome The full documentation of the EMD 2009 in Rome, including the key note speech by Commission President Barroso, can be found here: http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/maritimeday/index_en.html#1 (18 - 20 May 2009) brought together more than 1300 decision-makers and practitioners from across the EU. They looked at the way a wide range of policies and practices can be combined for sustainable development of maritime regions. Views given at the conference will feed in to the future development of the EU’s Integrated Maritime Policy. [125][126]

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/maritime-day-2008_en.html

The full documentation of the EMD 2009 in Rome, including the key note speech by Commission President Barroso, can be found here: http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/maritimeday/index_en.html#1

Before, during and after the conference, a number of organisations organised exhibitions, workshops or presentations on themes linked to the conference agenda. The conclusions of the conference emphasised the importance of the maritime economy and the benefits of the Integrated Maritime Policy.

The objective of European Maritime Day is to promote a range of maritime events self-organised by stakeholders throughout Europe to turn the spotlight on different activities related to the sea. In this way, national and regional government, NGOs, employers, unions, scientific institutions, port authorities, environmental groups and many more could show their activities and learn from each other. About 10 events across Europe were held in 2008 and 40 events in 2009, such as conferences, workshops, exhibitions, activities at museums and aquaria and school projects.

European Maritime Day will continue to be the key event for gathering the whole maritime community once a year and should be further complemented with, besides a central conference, even more de-central events all over Europe. EMD 2010 will take place in Gijón, in Asturias on the Atlantic Coast of Spain, following the principle of rotation among different sea basins.

VIII-2 European Atlas of the Seas

The Blue Paper on Integrated Maritime Policy and the Action Plan announced the development of a European Atlas of the Seas as an educational tool and as a means of highlighting our common maritime heritage. The Atlas will make use of available spatial information and build on the work of the European Marine Observation and Data Network. While EMODNET aims to provide scientists, public authorities and private bodies with the data they need to create value-added products and services, the European Atlas of the Seas has a wider range of target users. It aims to increase public awareness of the sea, clarify the spatial dimension of EU policies with an impact on the sea, and develop the identities of individual sea basins. The first edition of the web-based European Atlas of the Seas will be ready by the end of 2009 and advanced versions developed subsequently.

VIII-3 Workshop on Europe's maritime cultural heritage

Although no specific action on maritime heritage was foreseen in the Action Plan, the Blue Paper clearly stated that: "[The Integrated Maritime Policy] should also promote Europe's maritime heritage, supporting maritime communities, including port-cities and traditional fisheries communities, their artefacts and traditional skills, and promoting links between them that enhance their knowledge and visibility."

A first workshop on Europe's maritime cultural heritage was held during the EMD 2009 The workshop proceedings can be found here: http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/maritimeday/workshop2_en.html , undertaking to make a link from maritime heritage to the promotion of local and regional tourism. The objectives of the workshop were:[127]

The workshop proceedings can be found here:

http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/maritimeday/workshop2_en.html

- Linking the maritime dimension of Europe to the new theme “EDEN destination for its Aquatic Sustainable Tourism Offer”.

- Showcasing the European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage through examples of maritime heritage prize winners.

- Developing the issue of Europe's maritime industrial heritage.

- Learning best practice from EU regional projects.

- Establishing maritime cultural heritage in postgraduate education.

The workshop concluded that "the variety of individual projects all over Europe proves that there is a common maritime heritage which could be used as the cultural pillar of an integrated maritime policy. However, only a small part of the projects are visibly labelled as European and thus are not perceived by the European public as a genuine European maritime heritage. Others are either too specific or too specialised to be perceived by a larger public as of general European importance. Especially the latter deserve more and more widespread recognition – a task which could be fulfilled by European institutions.

Taken into consideration that the European institutions should not act normatively it seems reasonable to focus on a few but carefully chosen projects related to our common maritime heritage. Here the European Commission could e.g. provide for a framework in which a network of projects could be embedded. The projects accepted should be carefully selected and fulfil certain criteria like quality, European dimension, public interest to safeguard both standard and sustainability."

VIII-4 Maritime statistics - Key figures for coastal regions and sea areas

The Commission's statistical service published in June 2009 key figures for coastal regions and sea areas under its "Statistics in Focus" programme http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-09-047/EN/KS-SF-09-047-EN.PDF . These contain a range of official statistics that are currently available, published for the first time in terms of EU coastal regions. These coastal regions are defined as standard statistical regions (NUTS level 3), which have at least half of their population within 50 km of the coast. In addition, the coastal data are presented following the six main sea basins which border the EU territory. This initiative confirms a number of analytical challenges for coastal data and seas basins. Existing databases need to be improved in terms of coverage, resolution and data collection frequency. Statistics contained in the publication illustrate how data from different statistical domains can be used as a tool for better governance in the context of the Integrated EU Maritime Policy.[128]

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-09-047/EN/KS-SF-09-047-EN.PDF

PROGRESS ON MARITIME POLICY ACTION PLAN (SEC(2007)1278) AND NEW MARITIME POLICY INITIATIVES

Implementation of the Action Plan

Action Plan Reference|Specific Action|Overview of documents and actions taken|

2.1|Action towards integration of Maritime Affairs across the EU|Guidelines for national integrated maritime policies; first semester 2008|Guidelines for an Integrated Approach to Maritime Policy: Towards best practice in integrated maritime governance and stakeholder consultation, COM(2008)395 , 26.06.08 |

||Report on Member States' actions; 2009|At an informal meeting on 13.07.08 in Brest, Europe ministers acknowledged the necessity to reinforce maritime governance; MS information fiches on MS maritime governance have been drawn up (see http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/governance_memberstates_en.html ).Reporting covered in the progress report on Integrated Maritime Policy.|

2.2|Regulatory obstacles|Report on regulatory obstacles; first semester 2008|Regulatory Concerns raised during the Consultation Process on a future Maritime Policy for the European Union, SEC(2008) 2993 , 02.12.08.|

2.3|Collective learning – exchange of best practice|Establishment of networks of best practices (2008-2009)|Proposals to build on exchange of best practice are made in the Roadmap on Maritime Spatial Planning (see 3.2) and in the study on maritime clusters (see 4.1).Stakeholders themselves are developing a shared platform for dialogue ( Venice Platform ).|

3.1|Surveillance Activities|Working documents describing organisation of offshore activities and identifying surveillance, monitoring and reporting systems in Europe; November 2007 |Working Documents I: Organization of Offshore Activities in Littoral EU Member StatesWorking Document II: Maritime Cross-Border Cooperation between EU Littoral Member States in Five Sea Regions . November 2007.Working Document III: Maritime Surveillance Systems , 14.06.07.|

||Work plan for an integrated network of all European maritime surveillance systems; second semester 2008|Non-paper on maritime surveillance, SEC(2008)2337 , 13.10.08.Call for proposals for a Pilot project in the Mediterranean and Atlantic approaches - published 17.12.2008( MARE/2008/13 ) and for a Pilot Project in the Northern European Sea Basins ( MARE/2009/04 )Communication "Towards the integration of maritime surveillance in the European Union (COM(2009) 538 final and SEC(2009) 1341)|

3.2|Maritime Spatial Planning and Integrated Coastal Zone Management|Road map on development of maritime spatial planning by Member States; 2008|Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: Achieving Common Principles in the EU, COM(2008) 791 , 25.11.2008.|

||Establishment of a system for exchange of best practices; 2009|Workshops in 2009 to discuss the options for implementation and the key principles set out in the Roadmap:- Kick-off conference , Brussels 26.02.2009- Workshop, Ispra , 23/24.04.2009- Workshop, Azores , 02/03.07.2009- Workshop, Stockholm , 02.10.2009An action on coastal zone management “exchanges of experience and comparative analysis for integrated coastal zone management” started on 16/12/2008 for 38 months with a budget of € 1 million (ref. 2008/S 110-146912; http://ec.europa.eu/environment/funding/pdf/specifications_en08042.pdf ). |

||Examination of options needed to make the uses of different maritime activities more compatible; 2008|See Roadmap on development of maritime spatial planning by Member States, COM(2008) 791 .|

3.3|European Marine Observation and Data Network|Roadmap in 2008 leading to Action Plan in 2009|Preparatory actions for European Marine Observation and Data Network ( MARE/2008/03 ) launched to define the appropriate processes, best technology and approximate costs of a final network and provide the first system components.Commission Staff Working Document "Building a European marine knowledge infrastructure: Roadmap for a European Marine Observation and Data Network", SEC(2009)499 , 07.04.2009.Consultation to assess stakeholder opinion on the current state of Europe's marine knowledge infrastructure and how the EU could act collectively to improve (until02.06.2009). http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/governance/consultations/consultation_emodnet_en.htm ) Preparatory action: Study on the legal aspects of environmental data ( http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/study_lamed_en.html )|

||Proposal on a programme for multi-dimensional mapping of the sea in Member States' waters; second semester 2008|Preparatory action for development and assessment of a European broad-scale seabed habitat map. ( MARE/2008/07 ) launched.|

4.1|Development of multi-sectoral clusters and regional centres of maritime excellence|A staff working document on Maritime Clusters; October 2007This will prepare the ground for future work, including the establishment of a European network of maritime clusters.|Maritime Clusters, SEC(2007) 1406 , 17.10.07.Study: " The role of maritime clusters to enhance the strength and development of maritime sectors " describing characteristics and functions of clusters with a view to facilitating cooperation and learning from best practice, November 2008.Focus on maritime clusters during events around the European Maritime Day 2009|

4.2|Maritime Transport|Consultation on a European Space for Maritime Transport without barriers; October 2007|Consultation on a European maritime transport space without barriers reinforcing the internal market for intra-European maritime transport , SEC(2007) 1351 , October 2007.Results of the Internet consultation on a European maritime transport space without barriers reinforcing the internal market for intra-European maritime transport , 2008.|

||A staff working document on the Motorways of the Sea; October 2007|Report on the Motorways of the Sea, State of play and consultation, SEC(2007) 1367 , 18.18.07.|

||Study to assess trends for the period 2008-2018; 2007|Study " OPTIMAR - Benchmarking strategic options for European shipping and for the European maritime transport system in the horizon 2008-2018 ", September 2008.|

||Communication from the Commission providing guidance on State aid complementary to Community funding for the launching of the motorways of the sea|Short State aid communication aimed at aligning duration and intensity of complementary State aid with duration and intensity of Community funding of Marco Polo and TEN-T selected projects for the realisation of the motorways of the sea. OJ C 317, 12.12.2008, p. 10.|

||Final Guidelines on the application of competition rules to maritime transport; 2008|Guidelines on the application of Article 81 of the EC Treaty to maritime transport, SEC(2008) 2151 , 01.07.08.|

||Conference on trends and shipping scenarios; first semester 2008|Discussed in the context of European Maritime Day 2009|

||Proposal on establishment of European Space for Maritime Transport without barriers; 2008|Communication and action plan with a view to establishing a European maritime transport space without barriers, COM(2009)10, 21.01.09 and proposal for a Directive , COM(2009) 11 final/2009/0005 (COD) .|

||White Paper on Maritime Transport strategy to 2018; 2008|Strategic goals and recommendations for the EU’s maritime transport policy until 2018, COM(2009)8, 21.01.09 .|

||Communication providing guidance on State aid to ship management companies|Short State aid communication extending to crew managers and technical managers of ships the eligibility to the tonnage tax under certain conditions. OJ C 132, 11.6.2009, p. 6|

||Policy document on e-maritime services; 2009|No documents available yet.|

||Review of block exemption regulation; before April 2010|No documents available yet.|

4.3|Strengthening careers and employment; the maritime sectors(a) Promotion of employment for Seafarers|Support ECSA and ETF in their ongoing negotiations to transpose elements of ILO Maritime Labour Convention.|Agreement concluded by ECSA and ETF on the Maritime Labour Convention 2006 , 19.05.08.|

||Proposal for a directive on Article 139 ECT (implementation of ILO Convention)|Council Directive implementing the Agreement concluded by the European Community Shipowners' Associations (ECSA) and the European Transport Workers' Federation (ETF) on the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 and amending Directive 1999/63/EC, COM(2008) 422 , 02.07.08 - 2009/13/EC of 16.02.2009 .|

||Action Plan to enhance status of seafaring careers; 2nd semester 2009|No documents available yet.|

||Proposal for Directive on enforcement of labour standards (Article 80.2); 2009-2010|No documents available yet.|

||Proposal for Council decision for ratification by EU MS of ILO convention on work in the fishing sector. |Proposal for a Council Decision authorising Member States to ratify, in the interests of the European Community, the Work in Fishing Convention, 2007, of the International Labour Organisation (Convention 188), COM(2008) 320 , 27.05.08. EP approval 14 January 2009|

||Explore implementation of ILO convention on fisheries standards.|Social partners analysing the possibility of starting negotiations in view of concluding an agreement.|

|(b) Qualifications of seafarers|Action Plan on qualifications of seafarers; 2nd semester 2009|No documents available yet.|

|(c) Exclusions of maritime professions from EU social legislation and working conditions|Communication launching the reassessment of the exclusions of maritime sectors from EU labour law; October 2007|Reassessing the regulatory social framework for more and better seafaring jobs in the EU (first phase consultation of the social partners at Community level provided for in Article 138(2) of the Treaty), COM(2007) 591 , 10.10.07.Reassessing the regulatory social framework for more and better seafaring jobs in the EU: Second consultation of the European social partners on the revision of exclusions concerning seafaring workers contained in Directives 2008/94/EC, 94/45/EC, 2002/14/EC, 98/59/EC, 2001/23/EC and 96/71/EC, C / 2009 / 2211, 02.04.2009|

4.4|Ports policy|Communication on Ports; October 2007|Communication on a European Ports Policy, COM(2007) 616 , 18.10.07.|

||Guidelines on State Aid to ports|No documents available yet.|

||Guidelines on the application of Community environment legislation to port development|No documents available yet.|

4.5|Air Pollution by Ships|Promote use of shore-side electricity by ships at berth in EU ports.|No documents available yet.|

||Evaluate options for EU legislation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.|Ongoing work is supported by a study with a duration of 12 months into possible policy options and their impacts.|

4.6|Ship dismantling|Communication on a Strategy for ship dismantling; 2008|An EU strategy for better ship dismantling, COM(2008) 767 , 19.11.08.|

||Continuation of active participation in IMO work on a Ship Recycling Convention. Ongoing.|Ongoing work, see http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/ships/index.htm6 month study on options for new initiatives regarding dismantling of ships and the feasibility of a funding mechanism as from January 2009.|

4.7|Action on marine-based energy infrastructures and resources|Revise Guidelines for Trans-European Energy Networks; 2009|Green Paper - Towards a secure, sustainable and competitive European Energy Network, COM(2008) 782 , 13.11.08 (public consultation until 31.03.09).|

4.8|Action on developing the situation of fishermen at sea|Working document on fishers as "Guardians of the Sea"; second semester 2008|No documents available yet.|

||A Report of the Commission on implementation of provisions of Directive 93/103/EC (this action is linked with Action 4.3); 2009|A draft to be ready in autumn 2009 in order to insert amendments as requested. |

4.9|Implementation of the Eco-System Approach in European Fisheries(a) Strengthening the implementation of the Eco-System Approach; the Common Fisheries Policy|Communication on eco-system approach in Fisheries; 2008|The role of the CFP in implementing an ecosystem approach to marine management, COM(2008) 187 , 11.04.08.|

|(b) Implementation of a policy to progressively eliminate discards; European fisheries|Roadmap for discards; 2008|See dedicated website|

4.10|Proposals on the protection of fisheries resources in international waters(a) Action to eliminate Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) Fishing|Communication and Regulation on combating IUU Fisheries; 2007|On a new strategy for the Community to prevent, deter and eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing, COM(2007) 601 and Proposal for a Council Regulation COM(2007) 602 , 17.10.07.Council Regulation (EC) establishing a Community system to prevent, deter and eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing, No 1005/2008 , 29.09.08, OJ L/286/1.|

|(b) Action on Destructive Fishing Practices|Communication and Legislative proposal on destructive fishing practices; 2007|Communication on Destructive fishing practices in the high seas and the protection of vulnerable deep sea ecosystems, COM(2007) 604 and Legislative Proposal COM(2007) 605 , 17.10.07.Council Regulation (EC) on the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems in the high seas from the adverse impacts of bottom fishing gears, No 734/2008 , 15.07.08, OJ L/201/8.|

5.1|European Marine and Maritime Research|Communication on Marine and Maritime Research Strategy; 2008|A European Strategy for Marine and Maritime Research - A coherent European Research Area framework in support of a sustainable use of oceans and seas, COM(2008) 534 , 03.09.08.|

||Cross-cutting calls for proposals for FP7; 2008 |FP7 proposed topics in a number of areas across the work programme to support the maritime policy and the European Strategy on Marine and Maritime Research, in particular through the Environment, Transport and Food themes. An estimated EC contribution of € 424 million has been allocated in 2007 and 2008 to marine and maritime-related research projects. Examples:WP 2008: Topic SST 2008 6.6 "Integration of Marine and Maritime Sciences in Waterborne Transport in support to the European Research Area"WP 2009: Coordinated call "sustainable use of seas and oceans", featuring in particular the topic ENV.2009.2.2.1.3 Support to 'Maritime Partnership' - Support to marine and maritime science communities to build on a 'Partnership' approach through e.g. the establishment of a Forum.WP 2010: Cross-thematic call "The ocean of tomorrow: joining research forces to meet challenges in ocean management". 5 Cooperation themes involved, 3 topics, EC contribution €34 million.|

6.1|Provision of information on Community projects in coastal regions and their funding|Database on projects in Maritime regions; 2nd semester 2008|Study launched in November 2008|

||Examination of possible funding of maritime projects in coastal regions and islands; 2009|EP Resolution on the regional development aspects of the impact of tourism on coastal regions calls on the Commission, in the context of the next financial framework, to examine ways of better coordinating all future financial instruments that cover action in coastal regions – INI/2008/2132Opinion of the Committee of the Regions on the Maritime and coastal package reiterates a simplified system for all maritime issues within a European Coastal and Island Fund in the context of the discussions on the next financial framework 2014-2020 COTER-IV-022|

6.2|Europe’s Outermost Regions and Islands|Promote the participation of islands and outermost regions in the Regions for Economic Change initiative; 2008|See http://www.interreg4c.net/faqs.html|

6.3|Action on Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change(a) Action on risk reduction policies and their economic impacts; coastal regions|Community strategy for disaster prevention; 2008|A Community approach on the prevention of natural and man-made disasters, COM(2009) 82, 23.02.2009|

||Development of Strategy for adaptation to Climate Change; 2008|"White Paper: Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action", COM(2009)147 , 01.04.2009.|

|(b) Carbon Capture and Storage|Enabling legal framework for CCS; 2007|Adoption of the Proposal for a Directive of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide, COM(2008) 18 , 23.01.08.|

6.4|Sustainable Maritime Tourism|Communication on sustainable and competitive European tourism; 2007|Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism, COM(2007) 621 , 19.10.07.|

||Assessment of interlinkages between the cruise industry, marinas, ports, and other maritime industries; 2009 |Study " Tourist Facilities in Ports " in order to assess the benefits for coastal regions in investing in environmentally sustainable facilities in ports. The study includes also tool for calculating return of investments in these facilities.|

||Other relevant actions|Management of a network of Aquatic Tourism destinations, under the European Destinations of Excellence ( EDEN ) Preparatory Action|

6.5|Improving Socio-Economic Data for maritime sectors and maritime regions|Working document on socio-economic data leading to the development of an integrated socio-economic database; 2009|Statistics in focus 47/2009 Key figures for coastal regions and sea areas, 20.06.2009|

7.1|The EU's profile in international fora and relations with partners|Publishing of a database and scoreboard on ratifications by Member States|Commission Treaties Office will provide information when requested. http://ec.europa.eu/world/agreements/default.home.do|

||Assessment of the EU situation in international maritime organisations |Study conducted.|

||Introducing maritime affairs into the dialogues with third countries, including developing countries; 2008 |Communication "Developing the international dimension of the Integrated Maritime Policy of the European Union" COM(2009) 536 final.|

7.2|Inclusion of Maritime Policy objectives in dialogue with third countries sharing regional seas|Organisation of a Euromed workshop on maritime spatial planning; 2008|Conference on Maritime Policy in the Mediterranean Sea 10.06.08, Piran – Portorož (Slovenia)|

||Objectives of Maritime Policy discussed with candidate and potential candidate countries and partner countries |An online stakeholder consultation on Integrated Maritime Policy in the Mediterranean has been conducted.|

||Neighbouring countries involved in development of EMODNET, improved surveillance programs and spatial planning|EMODNET involves partners from third countries in the Black Sea (Ukraine, Russia) and cooperates with others through regional organisations in the Baltic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Norwegian approach to maritime and coastal planning has been included when examining existing approaches to maritime spatial planning in Europe.|

7.3|Report on strategic issues for the EU relating to the Arctic Ocean|A report on Arctic Ocean; 2008|Communication on the European Union and the Arctic Region, COM(2008) 763 , 20.11.08.|

7.4|Action for the Protection of the High Seas|A strategy for the protection of marine biodiversity; 2009|Further to Resolution 61/105 of the UN General Assembly on Sustainable Fisheries, the Commission adopted a Communication on "destructive fishing practices in the High Seas and the protection of vulnerable deep sea ecosystems" and a proposal for a Council Regulation aiming at implementing the UNGA recommendations of December 2006 – COM(2007) 605 , 17.10.07. On 15 July 2008 the Council adopted Regulation 734/2008 ( see also under 4.10 ).Commission Staff Working Document accompanying the Communication on a Mid-term Assessment of Implementing the EC Biodiversity Action Plan – Summary of Community level action; SEC(2008) 3042 , 16.12.08.|

8.1|European Maritime Day, Annual Report, Awards and awareness campaigns|Proposal for a European Maritime Day; 2007|Joint Tripartite Declaration establishing a "European Maritime Day", SEC(2007) 1631 , 03.12.07.|

||Proposals on the organisation of the events of Europe's Maritime Day and associated events; 2007|European Maritime Day 2008 , Brussels. European Maritime Day 2009 , Rome.European Maritime Day 2010, Gijón – ongoing preparation|

8.2|European Atlas of the Seas|European Atlas of the Seas; 2009|A contract for developing architecture, database and map services has been signed in January 2009. Another contract for developing text fiches per sea basin has been signed in July 2009. The atlas prototype is currently tested in DIGIT's data centre, as well as enriched with more data, maps and functionalities. After further enrichment, optimisation of the performances and translation, the atlas will be launched between January and April 2010 (with the new MARE website), together with a public consultation. In 2010, the atlas will be improved taking into account the outcome of the public consultation.|

8.3|Making information publicly available on Commission proposals on Maritime Affairs|Website on all actions related to maritime affairs; ongoing.|See http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/index_en.html|

Further relevant maritime initiatives

Marine Strategy Framework Directive - 2008|Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive) , 17 June 2008 / OJ L 164, 25.6.2008, p. 19–40 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/marine/index_en.htm |

Third Maritime Safety Package|On 11 March 2009 the European Parliament adopted the third package of legislative measures for maritime safety after the agreement reached in conciliation last December and approval by the Council http://ec.europa.eu/transport/maritime/safety/third_maritime_safety_package_en.htm |

Revision of Trans-European Transport Networks Guidelines (TEN-T) |Green Paper: TEN-T policy review. Towards a better integrated trans-European transport network at the service of the common transport policy , COM(2009) 44, 4.2.2009|

Support action for offshore wind energy and other renewable sources of ocean energy |Communication “Offshore Wind Energy: Action needed to deliver on the Energy Policy Objectives for 2020 and beyond”, COM(2008) 768 ,13.11.2008 Call For Proposals concerning a Programme to Aid Economic Recovery by granting Community Financial Assistance to Projects in the field of energy, 18.05.2009|

Review of the CFP – Green Paper 2009|Green Paper, COM(2009) 163, 22.04.2009http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/publications/reform_en.htm |

The European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea region - 2009|Communication concerning the European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region COM(2009) 248 of 10.06.2009|

Communication on the IMP in the Mediterranean - 2009|Adopted on 11 September 2009 (COM(2009) 466 final)|

[1] An Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union, COM(2007) 575 final of 10.10.2007 and SEC(2007) 1278 of 10.10.2007

[2] http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/memberstates_en.html

[3] Council document 16616/1/07 REV 1

[4] Council document 16503/1/08 REV 1

[5] A6-0163/2008 (Committee on Transport and Tourism)

[6] Motion for a European Parliament resolution on the regional development aspects of the impact of tourism on coastal regions (2008/2132(INI))

[7] PE 415.290v01-00.

[8] CoR 22/2008 fin, adopted on 9 April 2008

[9] CoR 416/2008 fin, adopted on  17 June 2009

[10] CoR 274/2008 fin., adopted on 11 February 2009

[11] O.J. 2008/C 211/07

[12] See also here for updated information on individual countries: http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/memberstates_en.html

[13] http://www.irishpressreleases.ie/2009/04/29/killeen-announces-inter-departmental-marine-coordinating- group/

[14] Rue Grenelle is a street in Paris which became a symbol of social dialogue in 1968. The leading department for the Grenelle is the Ministère de l'Ecologie, de l'Energie, du Développement durable et de L'Aménagement du territoire, assisted by the Secrétariat Général de la Mer.

[15] For more information see here: http://www.legrenelle-environnement.fr/

[16] http://www.eucc.nl/veniceplatform/

[17] http://www.mif-eu.org/

[18] http://www.european-network-of-maritime-clusters.eu/

[19] http://www.crpm.org/

[20] See "inforegio panorama", No. 23 of September 2007, ISSN 1608-389X

[21] Landesinitiative Zukunft Meer, see http://www.schleswig-holstein.de

[22] Charte des espaces côtiers Bretons, see http://www.bretagne.fr/

[23] Espace Manche : un monde en Europe, see http://www.arcmanche.com

[24] http://www.ospar.org/

[25] http://www.helcom.fi/

[26] http://www.waterborne-tp.org/

[27] http://www.esf.org/

[28] http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/declaration_en.html

[29] http://www.seas-at-risk.org/n2.php?page=44

[30] http://www.seas-at-risk.org/1mages/Joint%20Statement%20Final.pdf

[31] http://www.surfrider.eu/

[32] http://www.eaa-europe.org/

[33] Council document 16616/1/07 REV 1 of 14.02.2008

[34] Council document 16826/08.

[35] http://arctic-transform.org/

[36] http://www.emuni.si/en/

[37] http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/events/piran-conference-communique-10-June-2008.pdf .

[38] COM(2007) 160 final of 11.04.2007

[39] COM(2008) 391 final of 19.06.2008

[40] See Article 4 of Directive 2008/56/EC of 17 June 2008

[41] http://www.cbss.org/

[42] http://www.bsssc.com/

[43] http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/spatial_planning_en.html

[44] http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/legal_aspects_msp_report_en.pdf .

[45] Recommendation 2002/413/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2002, concerning the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Europe. See also Commission Communication on the evaluation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Europe, COM(2007)308 final, 7 June 2007 .

[46] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/iczm/ourcoast.htm

[47] Council Decision 2009/89/EC, OJ L34 of 4.2.2009

[48] http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/maritime_surveillance_non_paper.pdf .

[49] MEMO/08/86

[50] See page 2 of the Communication: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2008:0068:FIN:EN:PDF

[51] http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/study_lamed_en.html

[52] SEC(2009) 499 final of 7.04.2009

[53] See Action No. 5 of the EERP: http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/president/pdf/Comm_20081126.pdf

[54] COM(2008) 30 final of 23.01.2008

[55] Conclusions of the European Council of 19-20 March 2009: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/106809.pdf

[56] COM(2008) 781 final of 13.11.2008

[57] See p.4 of C(2009) 868 of 16.02.2009

[58] Study OPTIMAR - Benchmarking strategic options for European shipping and for the European maritime transport system in the horizon 2008-2018

[59] Council press release 8176/09 (Presse 73)

[60] Published in the OJ on 28.5.2009

[61] COM(2008) 134 final of 11.03.2008

[62] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/birdsdirective/index_en.htm

[63] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/index_en.htm

[64] http://www.euwfd.com/

[65] Agreement concluded by ECSA and ETF on the Maritime Labour Convention 2006, 19.05.08.

[66] http://www.ecsa.be/

[67] http://www.itfglobal.org/ETF/

[68] COM(2008) 422 final of 2.07.2008

[69] OJ L 124, 20.5.2009, p.30

[70] COM (2008) 320 of 27.05.2008

[71] http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C188

[72] COM(2007) 591 final of 10.10.2007

[73] http://www.europeche.org/

[74] http://www.copa-cogeca.be/

[75] "Reassessing the regulatory social framework for more and better seafaring jobs in the EU: Second consultation of the European social partners on the revision of exclusions concerning seafaring workers contained in Directives 2008/94/EC, 94/45/EC, 2002/14/EC, 98/59/EC, 2001/23/EC and 96/71/EC", C(2009) 2211

[76] http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/maritime/documents/shipbuilding/index_en.htm

[77] COM(2007) 220 final of 25.04.2007

[78] http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/clusters_en.html

[79] http://www.clusterobservatory.eu/

[80] http://www.cz2009.eu/event/1/3312/

[81] See Commission press release IP/08/1097

[82] Individual state aid decisions can be consulted on-line: http://ec.europa.eu/competition/state_aid/register/

[83] OJ L 269, 28.9.2006, p.1.

[84] OJ C 245, 26.09.2008, p.2

[85] OJ L 79, 25.3.2009, p.1.

[86] Including towage and dredging activities

[87] Individual decisions 2007-2009 are available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/stateaid/decisions_en.htm

[88] Community guidelines on State aid to maritime transport, OJ C 13, 17.1.2004, p.3. These provide for example that State aid given in respect of the social contributions of community seafarers can only be given to those working on vessels registered in the EU Member States.

[89] Communication from the Commission providing guidance on State aid complementary to Community funding for the launching of the motorways of the sea, OJ C 317, 12.12.2008, p. 10

[90] Communication providing guidance on State aid to ship management companies, OJ C 132, 11.6.2009, p. 6

[91] OJ C 131 of 10 June 2009

[92] See also the Commission recommendation on the promotion of shore-side electricity for use by ships at berth in Community ports (2006/339/EC).

[93] http://www.imo.org/Environment/mainframe.asp?topic_id=197

[94] CE Delft et al.: "Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Shipping and Implementation for the Marine Fuel Sulphur Directive", Publication number 06 4103 61

[95] COM(2007) 269 final of 22.05.2007

[96] See here: http://www.imo.org/About/mainframe.asp?topic_id=1773&doc_id=11368

[97] COM(2008) 721 final of 14.11.2008; see also http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/control_enforcement/reform_control_en.htm

[98] Council Regulation No 1005/2008, OJ L/286/1 of 29.09.2008.

[99] COM(2007) 604 and COM(2007) 605 of 17.10.07.

[100] Council Regulation No 734/2008, OJ L/201/8 of 15.07.08.

[101] Regulation (EC) N° 734/2008

[102] COM(2008) 187 final of 11.04.2008

[103] COM (2008) 711 final of 6.11.2008

[104] COM(2009) 40 final of 5.02.2009

[105] COM(2008) 534 final of 3.09.2008

[106] Council document 16019/08.

[107] " The ocean of tomorrow: joining research forces to meet challenges in ocean management"

[108] ESFRI, 2008. European Roadmap for research infrastructures – roadmap 2008.

[109] http://www.eri-aurora-borealis.eu/

[110] http://www.esonet-emso.org/

[111] http://www.euro-argo.eu/

[112] http://www.lifewatch.eu/

[113] http://www.embrc.eu/

[114] See p.4 of the White Paper: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0147:FIN:EN:PDF

[115] http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/climate_change_en.html

[116] See p.7 of the Communication: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0082:FIN:EN:PDF

[117] Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks

[118] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-bathing/report_2009.html

[119] Directive 76/160/EEC on the quality of bathing water

[120] Directive 2006/7/EC on the management of bathing water quality

[121] OJ L 129, 29.4.2008

[122] http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx?id=1518&lang=en

[123] http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/esdp/108482.pdf

[124] http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/maritime_policy_action/20080520_original-signatures-declaratio_en.pdf

[125] http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/maritime-day-2008_en.html

[126] The full documentation of the EMD 2009 in Rome, including the key note speech by Commission President Barroso, can be found here: http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/maritimeday/index_en.html#1

[127] The workshop proceedings can be found here: http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/maritimeday/workshop2_en.html

[128] http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-09-047/EN/KS-SF-09-047-EN.PDF

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