EU Drugs Action Plan for 2009-2012
OJ C 326, 20.12.2008, p. 7–25 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV)
BG CS DA DE EL EN ES ET FI FR HU IT LT LV MT NL PL PT RO SK SL SV
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EU Drugs Action Plan for 2009-2012
Illicit drugs are a major concern for the citizens of Europe, a major threat to the security and health of European society and a threat to living conditions worldwide.
In December 2004, the European Council unanimously endorsed the EU Drugs Strategy for 2005-2012 , which aims to achieve a high level of protection, well-being and social cohesion by preventing and reducing drug use.
The adoption of the Strategy in itself gave a clear signal that political concern about drugs across the European Union transcends the differences in approach that exist among Member States. The Strategy, implemented by two successive EU Drugs Action Plans, confirmed that all Member States subscribe to the same set of basic principles: that there should be a balanced approach to reducing the supply and demand for drugs, which is based first and foremost on the fundamental principles of EU law and, in every regard, upholds the founding values of the Union: respect for human dignity, liberty, democracy, equality, solidarity, the rule of law and human rights. The Strategy and its Action Plans aim to protect and improve the well-being of society and of the individual, to protect public health, to offer a high level of security for the general public. This should be accompanied by horizontal measures in which drug policy is based on reliable data regarding the nature and extent of the problem, on — increasingly — cross-border — coordination and on cooperation with and towards third countries and international organisations. The Strategy and its Action Plans are also based on the relevant UN Conventions, which are major legal instruments for addressing the world drug problem.
The Drugs Strategy also provides the framework for two consecutive four-year Action Plans. The first Action Plan (2005-2008)  set out over 80 actions to help coordinate major areas of government intervention in the field of illegal drugs, covering public health, law enforcement, customs, criminal justice and external relations. While implementation is often the responsibility of the Member States, the Commission plays an active part in facilitating and evaluating the work in progress, in addition to monitoring anti-drug legislation, such as Council Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA on Illicit Drug Trafficking, on which it will report in mid 2009. Moreover, guided by the lessons learnt over the past four years, the Commission is now proposing a second Action Plan (2009-2012) to be endorsed by the Council.
What has the present Action Plan on Drugs achieved so far?
The current Plan states as its ultimate aim to:
"… significantly reduce the prevalence of drug use among the population and to reduce the social and health damage caused by the use of and trade in illicit drugs".
The evaluation report  is a joint effort by the Commission, the Member States, the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Europol, and European NGO networks represented in the Civil Society Forum. It is the most extensive assessment of the implementation of EU drug policy to date and shows that the objectives of the present Plan have been partly achieved:
- drug use in the EU remains at high levels. Available data suggest that the use of heroin, cannabis and synthetic drugs has stabilised or is declining but that cocaine use is rising in a number of Member States. The total number of people in the EU who have at some time taken drugs (lifetime prevalence) — is estimated at 70 million for cannabis, at least 12 million for cocaine, 9,5 million for ecstasy, and 11 million for amphetamines, while at least half a million people are known to be receiving substitution treatment for drugs like heroin ,
- although there is no reason for complacency, data available for comparable countries in other parts of the world show that the consumption of cannabis, cocaine, and amphetamines in the EU is significantly lower than, for instance, in the US. The same is true for the number of reported HIV infections related to drug injections,
- the evaluation also shows that Member States' drug policies are converging and that there is a shift towards underpinning national policies with action plans,
- evidence so far shows that the EU is succeeding in at least containing the complex social phenomenon of widespread substance use and abuse in the population, and that it is increasingly focusing on measures to address the harm caused by drugs to individuals and society. It is important to note that it has done so in spite of the fact that over the period under review the world's illicit opiate production rose sharply and an unprecedented traffic of cocaine has been targeted at the EU. Seen against this background of sharply increased supply, the EU's record of managing the problem emerges in a more positive light,
- in terms of international cooperation, there is now better coordination of EU positions in international fora on drugs, as in the UN's Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) for instance. Moreover, the EU's integrated and balanced approach to drugs is increasingly serving as a model for other countries worldwide.
The current Action Plan (2005-2008) is an ambitious exercise. While progress has been made in many areas, weaknesses have also been identified.
Policy coordination problems persist in many areas, and even if the quality of information on the EU situation regarding drug use, prevention and treatment has consistently improved, considerable knowledge gaps remain: there is a persistent lack of reliable data on drug supply but also on the scope and outcomes of drug-related assistance to third countries.
How to increase commitment across society to reduce drug use
Clearly the EU needs to do more to reduce the impact of health, social, developmental, and economic problems caused by drug use. If millions of Europeans have at some stage taken drugs or are doing so right now, there is a gap between public policy and public behaviour that no society can afford to ignore.
There is evidence to suggest that one of the more (cost-) effective approaches to deal with drug use is for public services engaged in prevention, treatment, harm reduction and law enforcement, to work together in partnership with voluntary organisations and service providers. In other words, an alliance between citizens and the institutions created by them and for them.
It is time to put the people of Europe at the centre of policy in this field and to get Europe's citizens more involved. As a first step, the Commission helped set up the European Civil Society Forum on Drugs, in 2006. To support the implementation of the EU Action Plan on Drugs, the Commission will, during the life of the next Action Plan, examine ways to mobilise all those who wish to take part for a formal commitment to do what is necessary at their level and with the means at their disposal to reduce the harm that drugs do to people. An idea to develop in this respect is the formulation of a "European Alliance on Drugs", which aims to mobilise a broad range of civil society structures that are active both within and outside the drug field.
Towards a new Action Plan on Drugs 2009-2012
The EU Drugs Strategy deals with a complex phenomenon that requires a long-term approach to bring about change. It is centred on the two key dimensions of drug policy, drug demand reduction and drug supply reduction, complemented by three cross-cutting themes, coordination, international cooperation and information, research and evaluation.
To support the Strategy, the Commission proposes a new Action Plan on Drugs (2009-2012), which builds on the existing framework but also on the lessons learned over the past four years. With due regard to national legislation, it identifies the following priorities:
1. Improving coordination, cooperation and raising public awareness
Coordination and cooperation in the drug field can be strengthened at both European and national level so that drug policies are relevant to professionals and civil society, while at the same time enabling these structures to provide feedback to inform policy.
2. Reducing the demand for drugs
We need to further improve the effectiveness of measures to reduce drug use and its consequences by improving the coverage, quality and effectiveness of demand reduction interventions, i.e. prevention, treatment and harm reduction services. This includes particular attention for vulnerable groups and the prevention of poly-drug use (combined use of illicit and licit substances, including alcohol, volatile substances and tobacco).
3. Reducing the supply of drugs
We need more effective law enforcement at EU level to counter drug production and trafficking, making full use of the capacities of Europol and other EU structures. Actions should be based on an intelligence-led approach that systematically prioritises the suppliers causing the most harm or posing the most serious threat. The work currently being undertaken to strengthen the links and coherence between the data used by the various EU JHA entities will be necessary to support this. More coordinated operations via regional security platforms should be supported. The new platforms should be set up without overlapping and be compatible with existing structures.
4. Improving international cooperation
The effectiveness of EU, the world's major donor in the struggle for sustainable solutions to the global drug problem, would benefit greatly from better coordination of national and Community policies. We are ready to intensify our commitment in the field of international cooperation to this end, while reaffirming that effective drug control must be based on the concept of a "balanced approach" — emphasizing that illicit drug cultivation is an important component of drug supply.
5. Improving understanding of the problem
We need to increase our knowledge of all aspects of drug use through more and better coordinated research and data, including data on drug-related crime and on the way the illicit drug supply market works.
The Action Plan that follows is intended as a framework to implement these priorities and to add European value where appropriate.
Main priority: More efficient policy development and implementation |
Objective | Action | Timetable | Responsible party | Indicators | Assessment tools |
1.Ensure that a balanced and integrated approach is reflected in national policies and in the EU approach towards third countries and in international fora | 1.Member States and EU Institutions to effectively coordinate drugs policy to reflect the objectives of the EU Drugs Strategy 2005-2012 and this Action Plan | Ongoing | MS COM Council | Objectives of the EU Drugs Strategy and Action Plans included in national policies Drug policy at EU level reflects the objectives of the Drugs Strategy | Commission Progress Review |
2.Ensure effective coordination at EU level | 2.The Council's Horizontal Drugs Group (HDG), as the working group with leading and steering responsibility for drugs in the Council, should pro-actively coordinate EU drug policy. The HDG should identify specific areas of work in other Council working groups and work towards effective coordination | Ongoing | Council | Relevant Council Working Parties  inform/involve HDG actively and vice versa | Report on drug-related work of Council working groups to HDG |
3.The Commission and Council to ensure coherence between internal and external drug policy | Ongoing | COM Council | Coherence between internal and external drug policy realised By 2010: COM Communication on the coherence between internal and external drug policy | Commission Communication on coordination in internal and external drug policy |
4.The Council to examine the state of the drug problem once a year, on the basis of the Commission's annual progress review, relevant reports from the EMCDDA, Europol and Eurojust | Ongoing | Council COM MS EMCDDA Europol Eurojust | Council conclusions | Presidency conclusions |
5.Presidency to convene meetings of the national drugs coordinators or their equivalents on a regular basis to advance coordination on specific and urgent issues requiring action. The coordinators to be invited to contribute to the Council's annual examination of the state of the drugs problem (see Action 4 above) | Twice annually | PRES MS | Effective impact on policy coordination Council conclusions | Presidency report to HDG |
3.Ensure effective coordination at national level | 6.Taking into account the work on Drugs coordination mechanisms in all EU Member States made by EMCDDA, Member States to examine inter-departmental coordination on drugs to ensure that coordinated positions are presented at EU level and that the objectives of the EU Action Plan are relayed to the most effective implementing level | Ongoing | MS | Member States' contributions in the HDG and other working groups are coherent | Commission Progress Review Reitox national reporting's |
4.Ensure the participation of civil society in drugs policy | 7.The Commission to seek at least once a year feedback on drugs policy from the Civil Society Forum on Drugs | Ongoing | COM | Forum meets at least once a year Commission reports outcome to HDG | Commission Progress Review Reports from Civil Society Forum on Drugs |
8.The Commission to launch an initiative, "The European Alliance on Drugs", inviting civil society organisations across the EU (including e.g. schools, commercial enterprises, public bodies and NGOs) to participate in a common framework designed to create public commitment about and to take action on drug problems in society. | Ongoing | COM | Wide commitment to Alliance (COM) | Activity assessment report |
9.Member States to involve civil society at all appropriate levels of drugs policy, in accordance with national practices | Ongoing | COM MS | Civil society takes part in national dialogue Input received from civil society | Commission Progress Review MS report to COM |
Main priority: To reduce the demand for drugs, and the health and social consequences of drug use by improving the coverage, quality and effectiveness of services of prevention, treatment and harm reduction |
Objective | Action | Timetable | Responsible party | Indicator | Assessment tools |
5.Prevent the use of drugs and the risks associated with it | 10.To promote innovation in and systematically make available evidence-based and evaluated universal prevention programmes and interventions in different settings (e.g. towards young people in youth centres, and schools and towards adults in workplace and prison), aiming to prevent or delay first use of drugs. Prevention should also cover poly-drug use (combined use of illicit and licit substances, in particular alcohol) as well as drugs and driving | Ongoing | MS | Increased availability of evidence-based evaluated programmes and comprehensive strategies in MS, including those targeting first use Prevalence of youth drug use & perception of peer drug use | Reitox national reporting's ESPAD & HBSC surveys on school children |
6.Prevent high risk behaviour of drug users — including injecting drug users — through targeted prevention | 11.To further develop early detection and intervention techniques and implement effective, evaluated selective prevention for vulnerable groups at high risk of developing drug problems, including injecting drug use | Ongoing | MS | Trends in drug use Analysis of risk and protective factors in drug use Increased availability of outcome-evaluated, targeted prevention programmes in MS | PDU key epidemiological indicator Reitox national reporting's |
12.To further develop and implement effective, evaluated indicative prevention for specific high-risk groups of (poly-) drug users, by offering low-threshold access to counselling, problem behaviour management and outreach work where relevant | Ongoing | MS | Trends in drug use Analysis of risk and protective factors in drug use Increased availability of outcome-evaluated, targeted prevention programmes in MS | PDU key epidemiological indicator Reitox national reporting's |
7.Enhance the effectiveness of drug treatment and rehabilitation by improving the availability, accessibility and quality of services | 13.Increase the effectiveness and spread of evidence-based drug treatment options covering a variety of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, corresponding to the needs of drug users (including relevant treatment adapted to new drugs or types of use) | Ongoing | MS | Trends in treatment demand outcome and retention Increased availability of diversified and evidence-based treatment in MS | TDI key epidemiological indicator Reitox national reporting's |
14.To deliver existing and develop innovative rehabilitation and social re-integration programmes that have measurable outcomes | Ongoing | MS | Increased availability and effectiveness, when possible, of rehabilitation and reintegration programmes in MS | Data on availability of social reintegration Reitox national reporting's |
15.To publicise, where appropriate the existence of treatment and rehabilitation services and the variety of options these services offer at national, regional and local level for potential target audiences | Ongoing | MS | Information strategies in place in MS Public register of services available (e.g. internet portal) | Reitox national reporting's |
16.To increase the use of, monitor implementation and further develop effective alternatives to prison for drug-using offenders | Ongoing | MS | Increased availability of ATP ATP implementation monitored (COM) | |
8.Enhance the quality and effectiveness of drug demand reduction activities, taking account of specific needs of drug users according to gender, cultural background, age, etc. | 17.To develop, implement and exchange good practice guidelines/quality standards for prevention, treatment, harm reduction and rehabilitation interventions and services | 2009-2012 | MS COM EMCDDA | Existence of relevant guidelines and/or quality standards Level of implementation of guidelines and/or standards | Commission Progress Review Reitox national reporting's |
18.Member States to survey the availability and effectiveness of prevention, treatment, harm reduction and rehabilitation services, in responding to specific needs, on the basis of a methodological framework to be developed by the Commission — with the support of the EMCDDA — and that is compatible with existing methodologies | 2012 | MS COM EMCDDA | Methodological framework for the survey developed Number of Member States that complete the survey | COM inventory of MS survey reports |
19.To develop an EU consensus on minimum quality standards and bench-marks for prevention, treatment, harm reduction and rehabilitation interventions and services taking into account needs of specific groups and the work done at national and international level | 2012 | MS Council COM EMCDDA | Development of the consensus on quality standards and benchmarks for prevention, treatment, harm reduction and rehabilitation interventions and services | COM proposal on EU consensus Council conclusions |
20.To develop, as appropriate, services for minorities, including, for example, migrants | Ongoing | MS | Availability of relevant services | Reitox national reporting's |
9.Provide access to health care for drug users in prison to prevent and reduce health-related harms associated with drug abuse | 21.To develop and implement prevention, treatment, harm reduction and rehabilitation services for people in prison, equivalent to services available outside prison. Particular emphasis to be placed on follow-up care after release from prison | Ongoing | MS | Drug policies and interventions implemented specifically for delivery of drug services in prison and follow-up of ex-prisoners Decrease in drug-related health problems in prison | Commission Progress Review Reitox national reporting's |
22.Member States to endorse and implement in prison settings indicators to monitor drug use, drug-related health problems and drug services delivery on the basis of a methodological framework developed by the Commission — with the support of the EMCDDA that is compatible with existing methodologies, and taking into account the work done by the UNODC (in the project area of HIV/AIDS and treat.net) and by WHO (Health in prisons) | Ongoing | MS COM EMCDDA | Indicator to monitor drug use, drug-related health problems and drug services conceived and implemented Report on progress | Standardised monitoring protocol for prison drug situation & responses |
10.Ensure access to harm reduction services, in order to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C and other drug-related blood-borne infectious diseases and to reduce the number of drug-related deaths in the EU | 23.To provide access to, and improve coverage of, harm reduction services and the variety of options these services offer options as an integral part of drug demand reduction, making use of interventions of proven effectiveness where available  | Ongoing | MS | COM to report on progress Decrease in drug-related infectious diseases Decrease in number of drug-related deaths Improved coverage of harm reduction services | COM follow-up survey of CR 2003/488/EC DRID key epidemiological indicator DRD key epidemiological indicator |
Main priority: A measurable improvement in the effectiveness of law enforcement in the field of drugs at EU level. Europol, Eurojust and other EU structures to fully exercise the respective roles for which they were created, in the interest of efficiency, EU compatibility of national initiatives, intra-EU coordination, and economies of scale |
Objective | Action | Timetable | Responsible party | Indicator | Assessment tools |
11.Enhance effective law enforcement cooperation in the EU to counter drug production and trafficking | 24.To target criminal organisations and emerging threats, using an intelligence-led approach (based on the European Criminal Intelligence Model (ECIM) methodology) that prioritises the criminal networks and markets that pose the most serious threats | Ongoing | MS Europol Eurojust Council | Number of criminal organisations posing serious threats that are targeted by MS using the ECIM concept Number and nature of emerging threats (such as new drugs, new trafficking routes and methods, new manufacturing methods) identified | EU Organised Threat Assessment (OCTA) (and subsequent Council conclusions setting EU priorities for the fight against organised crime) |
25.Multidisciplinary law enforcement operations, involving Europol and Eurojust, as well as police, customs and border control services, will be used to a greater extent through bilateral and multilateral cooperation initiatives, joint investigation teams (JIT) and joint customs operations (JCO). Member States will examine which measures are possible to facilitate and speed up the process and encourage greater use of these instruments in drugs cases | Ongoing | MS Europol Eurojust | Number and outcome of drug-related bilateral and multilateral cooperation initiatives, JITs and JCOs Number of MS involved | Commission Progress Review MS reports to COM Assessment report on results achieved |
26.To improve the quality of intelligence data provided via Europol National Units to Europol and its related projects including Analysis Work Files (AWF). The emphasis should be on the serious organised crime and cooperation from those Member States most highly impacting upon the wider EU drug markets | 2012 | MS Europol | Report of Europol assessing the quantity and quality of data received | Commission Progress Review Europol assessment report |
27.Implementation of drugs related COSPOL projects, paying special attention to:the input of appropriate levels of expertise in COSPOL meetings,the value added in terms of appropriate intelligence and investigation capacity, and making appropriate use to this end of already existing or future Analytical Work Files (AWF) | 2012 | MS Europol | Expertise of Member States represented at management meetings and the seniority of MS representation Report of COSPOL drivers assessing the increase in identifiable operational results | Commission Progress Review MS reports to COM |
28.The European Police College (CEPOL)  to provide relevant advanced training  for senior police and customs officers and for liaison officers in 3rd countries through national police training colleges | Ongoing | CEPOL MS | Curriculum developed for drug law enforcement Additional relevant training included in CEPOL AWP Number of training courses Number of officers trained | Curriculum published CEPOL annual report Commission Progress Review |
29.To make more systematic use of Member State liaison officers and liaison magistrates, where appropriate, in third countries for the exchange of information and intelligence between MS law enforcement agencies and Europol taking into account the Council Decision 2003/170/JHA of the 27 February 2003 on the common use of liaison officers posted abroad by the law enforcement agencies of the Member States in the version of 24 July 2006, Council Decision 2006/560/JHA | Ongoing | MS Europol Eurojust | Increase in international operational law enforcement cooperation reported by Member States, Europol, Eurojust Number of international law enforcement cooperations | Commission Progress Review Evaluation report on MS, Europol and Eurojust contributions |
30.To adopt and implement an EU-wide system for the forensic profiling in relation to drugs law enforcement for synthetic drugs and for other drugs, where appropriate, drawing on, inter alia, the experience gained through projects such as SYNERGY and CHAIN, the structure and expertise of Europol and the Commission's Joint Research Centre, and ongoing MS law enforcement activities and experiences in this area | Ongoing | MS COM Europol | System or systems in place | 2012 Progress Review (including the assessment of value) |
12.Enhance effective judicial cooperation in the area of combating drug trafficking and law enforcement as regards production, trafficking of drugs and/or precursors, and money laundering related to this traffic | 31.To encourage the full use of the existing EU instruments on mutual assistance requests in criminal matters, of European arrest warrants, and of sanctions issued by MS jurisdictions | Ongoing | MS COM Eurojust | Report on best practices and recommendations Increase in number of mutual assistance requests Increase in number of European arrest warrants Other indicators to be developed (cf. Action 61) | COM assessment of Council Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA of 25 October 2004 laying down minimum provisions on the constituent elements of criminal acts and penalties in the field of illicit drug trafficking COM progress review (new indicators) |
32.Member States to consider, where appropriate, to develop witness protection programmes and to explore the potential added value of joint cooperation in this field | 2012 | MS COM Eurojust | Existing national legislation | Final report by the Presidency |
33.To strengthen the cooperation among EU Member States in order to achieve the full application of the legal instruments relating to mutual recognition of confiscation orders | Ongoing | MS COM Council Eurojust Europol | COM Communication adopted Assessments of assets seized | Commission Progress Review MS reports to COM on assets seized |
34.To support the establishment of effective Asset Recovery Offices in the Member States in accordance with the Council Decision 2007/845/JHA and to further support the Member States involved through the CARIN network. To support investigations through Europol and related Europol AWFs | Ongoing | COM MS Europol Eurojust | Increase in number of supported investigations relating to asset tracing and identification Increase in number and value of cash and assets confiscated | Commission Progress Review COM implementation report on Council Decision 2007/845/JHA |
13.Respond rapidly and effectively at operational, policy and political levels to emerging threats (e.g. emerging drugs, new routes) | 35.To set up, where necessary, regional security platforms (e.g. MAOC-N, Baltic Sea TF) to counter emerging threats by means of coordinated operational responses. Such action to be compatible with existing legal and operational arrangements at EU level and based on specific threat assessments (see also Action 48). New platforms should be set up without overlapping and be compatible with existing structures | Ongoing | MS Council Europol COM | Response measures to pro-actively handle risk and minimise threats have been put in place in relatively short time frame Increase in number of criminal operations disrupted (seizures, changing trafficking behaviour) Reports by regional security platforms | Assessment report by MS concerned to Council Security platforms evaluation report |
36.The EU to focus on coordinated and joint efforts between the Member States and regions most highly exposed to particular drug production/trafficking phenomena, in cooperation with Europol as appropriate | Ongoing | MS Europol Eurojust Council | Operational and strategic outcomes of MS action taken | Commission Progress Review MS reports to COM |
14.Reduce the manufacture and supply of synthetic drugs | 37.Member States to actively maintain law enforcement cooperation/joint operations in this area and to share intelligence and best practices. Optimal use to be made of Europol's Analytical Work File SYNERGY, its components  and the associated EJUP and COSPOL initiatives | Ongoing | MS Europol Eurojust | Outcomes of joint projects initiated/completed Dismantled production facilities reported to EILCS Number of SYNERGY reports generated | Commission Progress Review |
15.Reduce the diversion and trafficking in/via the EU of drug precursors used for the manufacturing of illicit drugs | 38.The EU to develop a clear and unified position on this matter at international level and in the relevant international fora, based on existing legislation and cooperative practices with the private sector through effective coordination through the relevant Council committees | Ongoing | COM Council MS | Joint EU positions in international fora | Commission Progress Review COM report on all practices |
39.Customs and border control services to integrate precursor controls at a strategic level, enhancing the effectiveness of border control management through implementing the Community Risk Management, and to coordinate more closely with other law enforcement agencies engaged in combating drug production and trafficking | Ongoing | MS | Improvement in precursor control, detection, seizure and profiling situation compared with 2008 Drawing up of profiles for the determination of chemical precursors | Commission Progress Review MS report to COM |
40.The EU to give full support to international operational cooperation aimed at preventing the diversion of drug precursors, such as the INCB-led projects PRISM and COHESION. The operational cooperation among the investigation authorities within the EU is to be supported by the EJUP cooperation framework and the Europol-AWF co-operation framework. This cooperation framework should be further intensified/utilised | Ongoing | COM MS | Increase in number of stopped and/or seized shipments | Commission Progress Review |
41.From a law enforcement and intelligence-led perspective, the EU and Members States to fully support Europol's drug related projects and EJUP, with a view to combating criminal networks involved in precursor trafficking | Ongoing | MS EJUP Europol | Increase of reporting to Europol projects on precursors trafficking by MS and EJUP | MS and EJUP Progress Report |
42.To evaluate EU drug precursor control legislation and its implementation | Ongoing | COM MS | Conclusion of the evaluation | Report published |
43.The EU to develop and exploit, where possible in consultation with Europol, cooperation agreements with principal identified source countries of main synthetic drug precursors | Ongoing | COM | Agreements established Reduction of illicit shipments of drug precursors from the countries concerned | Commission Progress Review MS Reports to COM |
44.The Commission, OLAF, Europol, EJUP and COSPOL to enhance inter-disciplinary cooperation, with a view to establishing joint initiatives. | Ongoing | COM MS/EJUP Europol | Number of interdisciplinary meetings/joint initiatives established | Commission Progress Review |
Main priority: Improve the effectiveness of EU cooperation with third countries and international organisations in the field of drugs through closer coordination of policies within the EU. Promoting the consistent projection worldwide of the European balanced approach to the drugs problem |
Objective | Action | Timetable | Responsible party | Indicator | Assessment tool |
16.Systematically include EU drug policy concerns in relations with third countries and regions where appropriate and within the broader development and security agenda. To do so on the basis of strategic planning and coordination between all actors concerned | 45.To ensure that EU relations with third countries reflect the objectives of the EU Drugs Strategy and Action Plans | Ongoing | MS COM | Drug policy priorities increasingly reflected in relations with third countries | Agreements, strategy papers, action plans, etc. Commission Progress Review |
46.To improve the effectiveness of existing frameworks on drugs such as the Cooperation and Coordination Mechanism between the EU and LAC, the EU-Andean Specialised Dialogue and of "Drug Troikas" with third countries and regions, by identifying specific areas of cooperation and establishing outcome indicators | Ongoing | Council COM | Cooperation initiatives established and implemented | Commission Progress Review |
47.In line with the EU's political decisions and strategies and with the support of the MS and EC assistance programmes, to address drug-related concerns in producer countries and those along (emerging) trafficking routes, such as West Africa, through projects aimed at reducing the demand for and the supply of drugs, including measures of alternative development, and preventing the diversion of chemical precursors. The assistance is to be coordinated, where appropriate, to the drug action plans between the EU and third countries and regions (see Actions 51 and 60) | Ongoing | COM MS | Drug policy priorities reflected in projects funded Projects funded reflect balance between demand and supply reduction Synergies established between MS and EC funding programmes | Commission Progress Review |
48.To step up regional and intra-regional cooperation to reduce the demand for and supply of drugs in third countries with the support of MS and EC funding programmes, such as the Development Cooperation Instrument and the European Development Fund, the Instrument for Stability and the European Neighbourhood Policy Instrument | Ongoing | COM MS | New inter-regional cooperation initiatives established and implemented Synergies established between MS and EC funding programmes Increase in number and overall budget of projects funded | Commission Progress Review |
49.In the interest of coordination, to establish a monitoring mechanism on EU drug-related assistance given to third countries | Annual | Council MS COM | Mechanism established Annual reports by this mechanism Overview of drug-related EC and MS projects in third countries | Commission Progress Review |
50.To carry out a survey of the scope and outcome of EC drug-related projects in 3rd countries | 2010 | COM | Survey carried out | COM survey report published |
51.To update and implement the EU Drug Action Plans for the Central Asian Republics ; Latin America and the Caribbean ; and Western Balkans and Candidate Countries  | Ongoing | MS COM | Priorities identified Level of implementation of the Action Plans | Commission Progress Review |
52.Utilise the Dublin Group consultative mechanism and maintain an active dialogue with third countries for the implementation of Mini Dublin Groups' recommendations | Ongoing | MS COM Dublin Group | Number of Dublin Group recommendations implemented | Dublin Group Reports |
17.Promote and implement the EU approach to alternative development (as defined in document 9597/06 CORDROGUE 44 and UNODC/CND/2008/WG.3/CRP.4) in cooperation with third countries, taking into account human rights, human security and specific framework conditions | 53.To intensify the financial support for the implementation of alternative development projects and programmes, making certain that interventions are properly sequenced and that development assistance is not conditional on reductions of illicit drug crop cultivation and finance initiatives for the prevention of illicit drug crop cultivation | Ongoing | MS COM | Number of projects and programmes funded in line with the EU approach on Alternative development (9598/06 CORDROGUE 44 and UNODC/CND/2008/WG.3/CRP.4) Reported decrease in illicit drug crop cultivation and increase of social and economic development at the primary stakeholder level  in third countries financially supported from EU funds | (Project/Programmes) Agreements Internal Project and Programme Monitoring and Evaluation system and reports National Statistics of third countries MS Reports to COM |
54.To include alternative development into the broader development agenda of Member States and encourage third countries to integrate alternative development in their national policies | Ongoing | MS COM | National policies, strategies and action plans reflecting drug issues | Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSP),Country Assistance Strategies CAS), National Development Strategies, (National) Action Plans MS Reports to COM |
55.To contribute to initiatives within a drugs environment aiming at the reduction of poverty, conflict and vulnerability by supporting legal, viable and sustainable livelihoods | Ongoing | MS COM | Number of supported initiatives Impact of the supported initiatives on the sustainability of legal livelihood systems: food security and income generation of the poor are increased,access of poor people to social and productive infrastructure are improvedNumber of evaluated projects that have shown positive impact | Initiatives MS Reports to COM Internal Project and Programme Monitoring and Evaluation system and reports Baseline Surveys implemented by WHO, WFP, FAO |
18.Strengthen EU coordination in the multilateral context and promote an integrated and balanced approach | 56.To ensure better coordination and continuity between the HDG and MS delegations to the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND), including through the appropriate burden-sharing among Member States on the initiative of the Presidency | 2009 | Council PRES MS | Coordination between Vienna delegations and HDG strengthened | Commission Progress Review |
57.To prepare, coordinate and adopt EU common positions and joint resolutions in the CND | Ongoing | PRES MS COM Council | Number of joint EU resolutions EU common positions supported by other regions | Commission Progress Review Convergence Indicator (9099/05 CORDROGUE 27) |
58.To present an EU position in the high-level segment of the 52nd CND on the evaluation of and follow-up to UNGASS '98 , reflecting the fundamental principles of EU drugs policy | 2009 | Council MS COM | Inclusion of the EU's positions in the UN Political Declaration | Commission Progress Review |
59.To coordinate activities with other international fora or programmes, in particular UNODC, Pompidou Group, WHO, UNAIDS, WCO and Interpol | Ongoing | MS COM | Regular mutual information on activities in appropriate fora, in particular at HDG meetings Coordination strengthened | Commission Progress Review |
19.Support the candidate and stabilisation and association process countries | 60.To provide the necessary technical and other assistance to these countries to familiarise them with the EU acquis in the field of drugs and to assist them in carrying out the required actions, including those adopted in the drug action plan with the Western Balkans  | Ongoing | MS COM Council EMCDDA Europol | Countries increasingly complying with EU acquis Number and quality of projects completed Advancement of dialogue and/or cooperation with relevant EU agencies Level of implementation of action plans | Commission Progress Review Country reports |
20.To improve cooperation with European Neighbourhood Policy countries | 61.To improve the dialogue on drugs with European Neighbourhood Policy countries in a bilateral or regional context, in particular through existing subcommittees | Ongoing | MS COM | Effective result of dialogue | Commission Progress Review |
62.The Commission to encourage these countries to use the European Neighbourhood Policy Instrument to implement the drug sections of the ENP Action Plans | Ongoing | COM | Number of drug-related projects implemented under the ENP Instrument | Commission Progress Review |
V.INFORMATION, RESEARCH, & EVALUATION
Main priority: Improving the understanding of all aspects of the phenomenon of drug use in order to expand the knowledge base for public policy and raise awareness among citizens of the social and health implications of drug use, and to carry out research |
Objective | Action | Timetable | Responsible party | Indicator | Assessment tools |
21.Expand the knowledge base in the field of drugs by promoting research | 63.The Council and Commission to:identify future EU research priorities in the field of illicit drugs and the mechanisms needed in order to generate new knowledge,develop new approaches and technologies,strengthen research capability by developing and focusing its strategic direction and taking steps to improve cooperation in the EU | 2009 | MS COM EMCDDA Council | Research priorities established Mechanisms identified and put in place | COM proposal on research in EU Council Conclusions |
22.Ensure the exchange of accurate and policy-relevant information in the field of illicit drugs | 64.Member States to provide Reitox  National Focal Points (NFP) with the necessary resources to meet the obligations and quality standards of EMCDDA membership. NFPs to contribute to the EMCDDA on the basis of annual agreements and with appropriate support from the EMCDDA | Ongoing | MS EMCDDA | Exchange of data required for monitoring & evaluation purposes Level of Reitox funding and other resources match requirements NFPs contribute according to agreed standards | EMCDDA annual report on NFP capacity Reitox national reporting's |
23.Further develop instruments to monitor the drug situation and the effectiveness of responses to it | 65.To further improve and fully implement the five EMCDDA key epidemiological indicators and the development of new indicators and measures in drug demand reduction | 2012 | MS EMCDDA COM | Increase compliance of MS with implementation criteria for key indicators Improvement in treatment demand and problem use  indicators Indicators/measures for rehabilitation and reintegration Measures in drug demand reduction Number of MS that have fully implemented Treatment Demand Indicator | EMCDDA compliance report COM services paper on drug-related data |
66.To conduct a scientific study to assess the use of the internet as a tool in relation to illicit drug trafficking and to analyse which national, European and/or international measures may be effective to counteract | 2010 | MS COM | Outcomes of the scientific study | Report of the study by COM |
67.To develop key-indicators for the collection of policy-relevant data on drug-related crime, illegal cultivation, drug markets and supply reduction interventions and to develop a strategy to collect them | Ongoing | COM EMCDDA Europol MS | Key indicators identified Implementation strategy developed | COM services paper on drug-related data |
68.To develop analytical instruments to better assess the effectiveness and impact of drug policy (e.g. model evaluation tools, policy effectiveness indices, public expenditure analysis, etc.) | 2010 | COM EMCDDA MS | Analytical instruments developed More accurate analysis of drug situation | COM studies EMCDDA |
69.To assess the functioning of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA on the information exchange, risk assessment and control of new psychoactive substances, and amend, if necessary | 2010 | COM Council EMCDDA Europol EMEA | Assessment conducted Possible amendment proposed | Assessment report |
24.Ensure the ongoing evaluation of drug policy | 70.Member States to evaluate and fine-tune national drug policies on a regular or ongoing basis | Ongoing | MS | Number of countries that have evaluated drug policies | MS evaluation reports published |
71.To present an annual progress review to the Council and the European Parliament on the implementation of the Action Plan, and to present adapted/improved indicators and reporting mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation where appropriate and necessary | Annual | COM EMCDDA Europol MS Council | Annual progress review delivered Availability of relevant indicators | Commission Progress Review |
72.To have an external, independent assessment carried out of the implementation of the EU Drugs Strategy 2005-2012 and EU Drugs Action Plan 2009-2012, followed by a reflection period prior to follow-up | 2012 | COM Council MS | Assessment of achievement of individual actions The impact on the overall drug situation is known | External evaluation report published |
 15074/04 CORDROGUE 77 SAN 187 ENFOPOL 187 RELEX 564.
 OJ C 168, 8.7.2005, p. 1.
 Commission Staff Working Paper — Report of the Final evaluation of the EU Drugs Action Plan (2005-2008) (doc. 13407/08 ADD 3).
 EMCDDA Annual Report 2007.
 These Council Working Parties include: Police and Customs Working Parties, the Multidisciplinary Group on Organised Crime, the Health Working Group, External Affairs Working Groups and the Economic Issues Working Group.
 This action builds on the Council Recommendation 2003/488/EC on the prevention and reduction of health-related harm associated with drug dependence.
 European Police College; Council Decision 2005/681/JHA.
 Including dismantling of illicit drug laboratories.
 Project SYNERGY includes the Analysis Work File (AWF), the Europol Illicit Laboratory Comparison System (EILCS) and the Ecstasy Logo System, the latter incorporated within the general Europol Synthetic Drugs Seizure System (ESDSS).
 12353/02 CORDROGUE 78 CODRO 1 NIS 107.
 7163/1/99 REV 1 CORDROGUE 19 CODRO 2; Port of Spain Declaration — 10451/07 CORDROGUE 34 COLAT 9 AMLAT 54.
 5062/2/03 REV 2 CORDROGUE 3 COWEB 76 + COR 1.
 13501/1/08 REV 1 CORDROGUE 71 UD 172, Annex III.
 Political Declaration (resolution S-20/2, Annex) of the twentieth Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly.
 5062/2/03 REV 2 CORDROGUE 3 COWEB 76 + COR 1.
 Réseau Européen d'Information sur les Drogues et les Toxicomanies.
 EMCDDA indicator to be brought in line with criteria of public health relevance (such as intensity of use and health consequences) including international classifications (DSM-V/ICD-10).