Report from the Commission on the Implementation of Council Directive 96/34/EC of 3rd June 1996 on the framework agreement on parental leave concluded by UNICE, CEEP and the ETUC
/* COM/2003/0358 final */
|Bilingual display: DA DE EL EN ES FI FR IT NL PT SV|
REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION on the Implementation of Council Directive 96/34/EC of 3rd June 1996 on the framework agreement on parental leave concluded by UNICE, CEEP and the ETUC
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2. SCOPE - PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS
3. AGE OF CHILD (INCLUDING VARIATIONS IN RESPECT OF ADOPTED CHILDREN)
4. LENGTH OF PARENTAL LEAVE AND HOW IT IS TAKEN (FULL OR PART-TIME, BLOCK OR PIECEMEAL)
5. INDIVIDUALITY AND TRANSFERABILITY BETWEEN THE PARENTS
7. RESTRICTIONS AND SMALL FIRMS
8. PROTECTION FROM DISMISSAL AND RIGHT TO RETURN
9. EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS & STATUS OF TIME ON PARENTAL LEAVE
10. TIME OFF ON GROUNDS OF FORCE MAJEURE
On 3 June 1996, the Council adopted Directive 96/34/EC on parental leave (Council Directive 96/34/EC of 3 June 1996 on the framework agreement on parental leave concluded by UNICE, CEEP and the ETUC Official Journal L 145 , 19.6.1996 p. 4 - 9. Amended by Directive 97/75/EC OJ L 010 16.1.1998 p.24), which implemented the first agreement concluded by the Social Partners under the Agreement on Social Policy.
This report is based on the information sent to the Commission in compliance with article 2(1) of the Directive, under which the Member States must inform the Commission of their national implementing provisions, either by legislation or collective agreements. The Commission also sent to the Member States a short questionnaire on parental leave, the answers to which complemented the information previously sent. The Commission has also consulted social partners and the network of independent legal experts on equality. It should be noted that the information sent to the Commission varied considerably in terms of content and detail. The content of this report is correct as at November 2002.
2. SCOPE - PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS
The provisions of the Framework Agreement on Parental Leave annexed to, and put into effect by, the Directive, apply to all workers, private and public, men and women, who have an employment contract or relationship as defined by the law, collective agreements or practices in force in each Member State (clause 1(2)). It is clear that employees in the public sector are covered.
The Commission considers that the exclusion applying to maritime workers in Greece is contrary to the Directive and has launched infringement proceedings. Greece is now planning to extend parental leave to maritime workers and judges.
3. AGE OF CHILD (INCLUDING VARIATIONS IN RESPECT OF ADOPTED CHILDREN)
Clause 2(1) of the Framework Agreement on Parental Leave stipulates that workers shall have the right to parental leave on the grounds of the birth or adoption of a child to enable them to take care of that child and that leave shall be available until a given age up to 8 years, to be defined by Member States and/or management and labour. All Member States provide parental leave for both natural and adopted children.
In response to infringement proceedings launched by the Commission:
*Ireland has removed the provision in its legislation that parental leave is available only if the child was born after 3rd June 1996, and;
*The UK has removed the provision in its legislation that parental leave is not available in respect of a child born before 15th December 1999.
*Similarly, in Luxembourg parental leave is only available to parents of children born after 31 December 1998, or if adopted, if the adoption procedure has been initiated before the relevant tribunal after that date. The Commission has initiated infringement proceedings against Luxembourg.
*In Germany, parental leave is only available if children are born after 31 December 1991, but this provision no longer has any practical impact.
4. LENGTH OF PARENTAL LEAVE AND HOW IT IS TAKEN (FULL OR PART-TIME, BLOCK OR PIECEMEAL)
Clause 2(1) of the Framework Agreement on Parental Leave stipulates that parental leave shall last for at least three months. Clause 2(3)(a) provides that Member States and/or management and labour may decide whether parental leave is granted on a full-time or part-time basis, in a piecemeal way or in the form of a time-credit system.
In Luxembourg, if pregnancy or adoption occurs during a period of parental leave, the leave terminates and is superseded by maternity or adoption leave. The Commission considers that this is incompatible with the Directive and has commenced infringement proceedings.
5. INDIVIDUALITY AND TRANSFERABILITY BETWEEN THE PARENTS
Clause 2(1) of the Framework Agreement on Parental Leave provides that men and women workers shall be granted an individual right to parental leave. Clause 2(2) of the Framework Agreement on Parental Leave provides that, to promote equal opportunities and equal treatment between men and women, and to encourage fathers to assume an equal share of family responsibilities, the right to parental leave should, in principle, be granted on a non-transferable basis.
In all Member States, entitlement to parental leave is individual and in principle non-transferable in conformity with the Directive.
Further, in the United Kingdom, legislation provides for a transfer of parental leave in circumstances that may be, but as yet are not, specified in legislation.
In Germany, each parent has an entitlement of three years, up to the third birthday of the child. Parents who decide to take full-time parental leave to have one parent taking the whole period and the other working the whole time are not prevented from doing so. However, if parents decide to take part-time leave, both have to take some leave in order to use the full entitlement. Full-time parental leave is thus in fact transferable. Parents will not lose any leave if the mother takes up all the leave herself.
Details for Austria:
Fathers of children born before 31.12.1999 had a secondary access to parental leave ("deduced entitlement"), and gender-specific provisions apply to them:
Whereas mothers as well as fathers were required
*to live with the child in one household and
*to exclusively take care for her/him
under the social security regime,  labour law provisions required explicitly the same for a father willing to take parental leave, but not for mothers.
 cf Articles 26, 26a Arbeitslosenversicherungsgesetz 1977 as amended by Bundesgesetz 30.4.1996, BGBl 201.
A father is entitled to parental leave in two cases only:
*in case, the mother were entitled to [parental] ,leave on the occasion of maternity [motherhood] on grounds of Austrian legal provisions"; 
 Article 2 Paragraph 1 Ziffer 1 Eltern-Karenzurlaubsgesetz as amended by BGBl 1995/434 and BGBl 1 1997/61
*or, the mother is not entitled to parental leave, but prevented from child-care by (self-) employment. 
 Article 2 Paragraph 1 Ziffer 2 Eltern-Karenzurlaubsgesetz as amended by BGBl 1995/434 and BGBl 1 1997/61
Provisions applying to parents of children born between 1.1.2000 and 31.12.2001 if they want to acquire parental leave from their employer.
Mothers as well as fathers must be
*living in the same household
*looking after the child as a main occupation
Nevertheless, for fathers there is one more explicit condition:
*the mother must not take parental simultaneously,
*or she is not entitled to parental leave at all. 
 Article 2 Paragraph 1 Eltern-Karenzurlaubsgesetz as amended by BGBl 1999/153.
Though it can be stated that:
*insofar as the father is fully entitled to parental leave on an individual basis;
*the amendments of 1999 to the Parental Leave Act found an approach which better conforms to the Directive insofar as: Austrian legislation improved access to part-time leave for foster-parents and in cases of adoption;
*there may be objective reasons for differentiating between fathers and mothers,
It should be noted, that there are still specific provisions applying to fathers only and others which might not encourage fathers to take parental leave.
Fathers are obliged to give notice in case:
*they do not share the same household with the child,
*or do not take care of the child as main occupation.
In this case, their parental leave may end prematurely, and the employer is entitled to require he resume work immediately  (similar provisions apply to the public sector ).
 Article 3 Paragraph 5 l.c
 Article 10 Paragraph 3 Eltern-Karenzurlaubsgesetz old = 10 Paragraph 4 Elternkarenzurlaubsgesetz as amended by BGBl 1999/153 applying to civil servants, teachers on agricultural schools, and contractual employees. Their parental leave will be turned into a ,normal" unpaid leave unless the employer requires them to resume work immediately.
More decisive provisions discouraging fathers from taking parental leave might be found in the context of Point 5 (payment).
Nevertheless, in practice young parents do not understand why it is not possible to take parental leave simultaneously, especially when the baby has just arrived. Furthermore, fathers should be given the right to commence parental leave immediately after birth. 
 Article 2 Paragraph 2 EKUG
Clause 2(3) of the Framework Agreement on Parental Leave stipulates that the conditions of access and detailed rules for applying parental leave shall be defined by law and/or collective agreements in the Member States, as long as the minimum requirements of the Agreement are respected. Member States and/or management and labour may make entitlement to parental leave subject to a period of work qualification and/or a length of service qualification which shall not exceed one year, adjust conditions of access and detailed rules for applying parental leave to the special circumstances of adoption and establish notice periods.
The UK provisions in many cases, constitute minimum conditions which come into effect only where employers and employees do not agree their own procedures for taking parental leave. They can do this by using workforce or collective agreements or through individual arrangements. Where these agreements have been concluded they apply, provided they are at least as good as the minimum (fall-back) provided in the legislation.
7. RESTRICTIONS AND SMALL FIRMS
Clause 2(3)(e) and (f) allow employers to postpone the granting of parental leave for justifiable reasons and allow special arrangements to meet the operational and organisational requirements of small firms. (In accordance with Commission Recommendation 96/280/EC of 3rd April 1996 on SMEs).
Few Member States have taken advantage of these provisions. A number of States require agreement between the employer and the employee as to the practical arrangements for taking leave, such as timing, reduced hours etc (for example, Denmark).
8. PROTECTION FROM DISMISSAL AND RIGHT TO RETURN
Clause 2(4) of the Framework Agreement on Parental Leave provides that, in order to ensure that workers can exercise their right to parental leave, Member States and/or management and labour shall take the necessary measures to protect workers against dismissal on the grounds of an application for, or the taking of, parental leave in accordance with national law, collective agreements or practices. Clause 2(5) provides that at the end of parental leave, workers shall have the right to return to the same job or, if that is not possible, to an equivalent or similar job consistent with their employment contract or relationship.
9. EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS & STATUS OF TIME ON PARENTAL LEAVE
Clause 2(6) of the Framework Agreement on Parental Leave states that rights acquired or in the process of being acquired by the worker on the date on which parental leave starts shall be maintained as they stand until the end of parental leave. At the end of parental leave, these rights, including any changes arising from national law, collective agreements or practice, shall apply. Clause 2(7) states that Member States and/or management and labour shall define the status of the employment contract or employment relationship for the period of parental leave. Clause 2(8) stipulates that all matters relating to social security are for consideration and determination by Member States according to national law, taking into account the importance of the continuity of the entitlements to social security cover under the different schemes, in particular health care.
Country // Comments
Austria // Private Sector
Time of parental leave - if nothing else is agreed - does not count for rights which are dependant to the duration of employment (seniority rights). However, 10 months at maximum of the first parental leave in an employment relationship will be taken into account to determine the period of notice for dismissal; to determine the period of sickness benefits and for the seniority rights for the duration of annual leave (vacation).
More and more collective agreements in the private sector take the parental leave into account for the entitlement to redundancy pay (up to the maximum of 22 months: collective agreements of metal workers). However, the collective agreement which provides for the automatic advancement in the scheme of wages during parental leave is an exception.
Entitlement to social security - in particular to health care - in general does not change. Pension scheme: Due to 227a Social Security Act (Allgemeines Sozialversicherungsgesetz) times of de-facto and main caring for a child (in Austria) count as substitution times for the entitlement to a pension at maximum of 48 months.
// Public Sector:
Agreements other than the principles laid down in Mutterchutzgesetz are not possible (unlike in private sector) .As a matter of principle, the status of official does not change during parental leave (the relationship between the official and the state formally ends with the official's death). Provision taking into account a period of ten months for the seniority rights applies. Time of parental leave- insofar federal legislation does not provide otherwise- are not to be taken into account for any entitlement depending on the duration of the employment (seniority rights). On the other hand, parental leave would not delay automatic advancement. Entitlement to social security - in particular to health care - in general does not change. Parental leave is taken into account for pension; the employee does not need to pay additional fees or contributions. -additional leave (maximum in total: 10 years) holds up advancement, but it is to be taken into account as period of service. Contractual employees: the whole parental leave is taken into account for seniority rights, additional leave to care for a child in the extent of 5% Private and public sector: working during parental leave to a minimum extent under the threshold does not stand against parental benefit for the same or a different employer. That is considered as a parallel working contract; if the employee does not come to work, that will not be accounted as a breach of the employment contract (the employee is allowed to "keep in touch" with the enterprise, according to the legislator's motives). Whereas contractual public employees can engage into that type of employment, it is not the case for certain groups of civil servants.
Right to be informed: during parental leave, the employer should keep the employee informed about important on-goings in the enterprise especially concerning insolvency, formation, changes in the organisation (lex imperfecta).
Belgium // In private sector, employment contract remains in existence during leave although its execution is suspended. Acquired rights remain as essential conditions of the job in which the worker must be reinstated. Acquisition of new rights, especially concerning pay, largely covered by collective agreements. Parental leave gives no right to any social security allowance and entails a break in social security coverage e only in the "social partners" scheme
In public sector, parental leave is assimilated to a period of service, but for contractual workers, no social security coverage I only in the "unpaid" scheme
Denmark // Parental leave counts as a period of service when calculating seniority, but not for pension purposes.
Finland // Employment contract continues, although salary not paid. Parental leave counts for annual leave purposes and as a period of insurance for the calculation of retirement benefits (but application to private sector in doubt following decision of Insurance Court in December 2001.
France // Parental leave counts (at half time) for rights linked to seniority. For the calculation of retirement rights, the leave is counted as a period of insurance. All advantages acquired prior to start of leave are maintained. At end of parental leave workers are once again entitled to full rights to sickness, maternity, invalidity and death benefits.
Germany // Employment contract continues to exist during parental leave, although duties of work and salary are not in force. Parental leave is accredited for sickness and pension insurance purposes, without contributions being paid, but does not count for purposes of calculating unemployment benefit periods. Each month spent on parental leave reduces employee's annual leave entitlement by one twelfth.
Greece // Generally, parental leave counts as period of employment for all purposes, including calculation of annual leave and compensation in the case of redundancy. Employee must pay full social security contributions (both employee's and employer's) if he or she wishes to maintain social security cover during parental leave. However, extent to which parental leave counts as a period of service as well as medical coverage during leave for civil servants is unclear.
Ireland // Employee on parental leave is deemed to be in the employment of the employer and employment rights are regarded as continuing, apart from right to remuneration, superannuation benefits or any obligation to pay contributions. Such time off work is deemed to be continuous with the previous period of employment. When an employee is on leave, he/she may be credited as being in employment for the purposes of future social welfare entitlements. Time spent on parental leave does not affect entitlement to statutory annual leave and public holidays
Italy // Employment contract remains in existence during leave although its execution is suspended. Parental leave is taken into account in calculation of rights linked to seniority (but not for the payment of the "thirteenth month's pay"). Leave is fully credited for the purposes of social security contributions until child is 3 years old and for a maximum of 6 months. The employee continues to be covered by the national health system.
Luxembourg // Worker retains the benefit of all advantages acquired before the start of leave. Parental leave is taken into account in calculation of rights linked to seniority, is regarded as a stage period for purposes of social insurance and entitles the worker to full unemployment indemnity rights. However, parental leave does not give any right to annual leave. During parental leave employment contract is suspended.
Netherlands // Employment relationship continues, but no specific provision protecting acquired rights. Nevertheless, general employment law protects acquired rights.
Portugal // Suspension of rights, duties and safeguards of parties to employment relationship concerning the carrying out of work and pay. However, leave counts for purposes of rights relating for instance, to seniority, length of service and promotion. Leave is taken into account when calculating invalidity and old age pensions and has no adverse impact on entitlement to medical care.
Spain // Parental leave counts for length of service, and, in public sector only, for promotion. Acquired rights, or rights in the process of being acquired, are recognised insofar as concerns leave of absence to care for children. Contract is suspended during parental leave and obligations of worker to work and of employer to pay remuneration are annulled. Provisions exist to enable worker to maintain social security cover during periods of leave to care for a young child.
Sweden // An employee who requests or exercises right to leave is not required to accept reduced employment benefits or less favourable working conditions than those necessitated by the leave or any other transfer than that which may occur in context of the employment agreement and which is necessitated by the leave.
Employment contract continues during parental leave. Leave counts for length of service.
United Kingdom // Employment contract continues during period of parental leave, although only certain terms and conditions relating to termination, redundancy and discipline and grievance procedures will apply. Rights relating to seniority and pensions acquired prior to start of leave are preserved. On returning to work, parent will benefit from any improvement in other terms and conditions (including those relating to pay).
10. TIME OFF ON GROUNDS OF FORCE MAJEURE
Clause 3(1) of the Framework Agreement on Parental Leave states that Member States and/or management and labour shall take the necessary measures to entitle workers to time off from work, in accordance with national legislation, collective agreements and/or practice, on grounds of force majeure for urgent family reasons in cases of sickness or accident making the immediate presence of the worker indispensable. Member States and/or management and labour may specify the conditions of access and detailed rules and limit the entitlement to a certain amount of time per year and/or per case: (clause 3(2)).
Remarks for Denmark:
There is no statutory provision to implement the force majeure clause in the Parental Leave Directive in the new Danish legislation on parental leave, which has just been passed. Denmark is thus still failing to fulfil its obligation to implement the clause on force majeure for family reasons correctly.
Remarks for Germany:
Parental leave in Germany is still taken by mothers in 95 % of cases. The main reasons for this are that leave is very long and in practice fully transferable between parents if not taken part time. Part time Parental leave is restricted and not yet very well accepted. There is no adequate income supplement for parental leavers - the "Erziehungsgeld" still being the equivalent of 900 Marks maximum. This leaves most families no other choice than opting for parental leave of the spouse earning the lower wage.
Remarks for Austria:
For employees of the private sector there is no flexible provision such as for civil servants. If employees' children (in the private sector) are sick and their parents need to look after them for more than two weeks per year then the parents must use their holiday entitlement for this purpose.
On the other hand, in practice, employees are highly dependent on informal factors (personal relation to the employer; general "climate" in their corporation) if they wish to make use of relatively better provisions applying to them.
LIST OF IMPLEMENTING MEASURES
1. Convention collective de travail n 64 du Conseil National du Travail instituant un droit au congé parental du 29/04/1997 rendue obligatoire par l'A.R. du 29 octobre 1997.
2. Arrêté Royal du 10 août 1998 modifiant l'Arrêté Royal du 29 octobre 1997 relatif à l'introduction d'un droit au congé parental dans le cadre d'une interruption de carrière.
1. Lov om orlov jf. Lovbekndtgorelse nr.4 af 4 januar 1999 (Leave Act Consolidating Act N° 4 of 4 January 1999).
2. Bekendgørelse N°48 af 26 januar 1998( Order N°48 of 26 January 1998on training , sabbatical and child care leave.
3. In the Private sector: Agreement between the Danish Federation of t_Trade Unions (LO) and the Danish Employer's Confederation (DA), dated 3 June 1999, on implementation of Parental Leave Directive
4. In the Public sector: Agreement between the Finance Ministry and the central organisations and the Finance Ministry circular, dated 17 March 1997
5. In the sea transport sector abil has been tabled to implement 3 of the Directive. Bill amending the Seafarers Act of 13 October 1999
1. BErzGG December 2000
2. Gesetz über die Gewährung von Erziehungsgeld und Erziehungsurlaub (Bundeserziehungsgeldgesetz - BErzGG), in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 31/01/1994 (BGBl. I S. 180), zuletzt geändert durch Gesetz vom 24/03/1997 ref : Bundesgesetzblatt Teil I vom 24/03/1997 Seite 594
3. Gesetz über die Gewährung von Erziehungsgeld und zur Elternzeit (Bundeserziehungsgeldgesetz) in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 7. Dezember 2001, BGBL. I, Nr. 65, S. 3358
1. Law n° 1483/1984 of 5 October 1984, FEK A numéro 153 of 08/10/1984 [Attention: since law 2639/1998 has modified only art. 5(1) of law 1483/1984, this means that the other provisions of law 1483 are still in effect].
2. FEK A n° 205 du 02/09/1998
3. Law n° 2683/1999 (Code od Civil Servants), FEK A numéro 19 of 09/02/1999.
4. Decree n° 193/1988, FEK A n° 84 of 06/05/1988.
Note : It is not clear to whom Decree 193/1988 applies nowadays. It is probable that it applies a) to persons who are employed by the State, legal persons governed by public law and local authorities under a fixed term contract and b) to civil servants of local authorities.
5. Law n° 2639/1998 of 2 September 1998 Article 25 modifying Art 5(1) of law n° 1483/84
Remark: The Ministry of Labour is not competent for civil servants and personnel of legal persons governed by public law, which form a large part of employees in Greece. Therefore, they we have only half the picture regarding the situation in Greece as the specific legislation that covers these employees is not mentioned. this applies to all information on employment and social security in Greece.
1. Real Decreto 1251/2001, de 16 de noviembre (BOE 17.11.2001), por el que se regulan las prestaciones económicas del sistema de la Seguridad Social por maternidad y riesgo durante el embarazo
2. Ley 39/1999 de 5 de noviembre, de conciliación de la vida familiar y laboral de las personas trabajadoras (BOE 6.11.1999)
3. Real Decreto Legislativo 1/1995, de 24 de marzo, por el que se aprueba el texto refundido de la Ley del Estatuto de los Trabajadores, Boletín Oficial del Estado de número 75 de 29/03/1995 Página 9654 (Marginal 7730)
4. Ley 30/1984, de 30 de agosto, de medidas para la reforma de la Función Pública, Boletín Oficial del Estado número 185 de 03/08/1984 Página 3367 (Marginal 17387)
5. Ley 66/1997, de 30 de diciembre, de Medidas Fiscales, Administrativas y del Orden Social, Boletín Oficial del Estado número 313 de 31/12/1997 Página 38517 (Marginal 28053)
6. Ley 4/1995, de 23 de marzo, de regulación del permiso parental y por maternidad, Boletín Oficial del Estado número 71 de 24/3/1995 Página 9211 (Marginal 7242)
7. Real Decreto Legislativo 1/1994, de 20 de junio, por el que se aprueba el Texto Refundido de la Ley General de la Seguridad Social, Boletín Oficial del Estado número 154 de 29/6/1994 Página 20658 (Marginal 14960)
8. Real Decreto número 356/91 de 15/03/1991, por el que se desarrolla, en materia de prestaciones por hijo a cargo, la Ley 26/1990, de 20 de diciembre, por la que se establecen en la Seguridad Social prestaciones no contributivas, Boletín Oficial del Estado de 21/03/1991
9. Real Decreto número 356/91 de 15/03/1991, por el que se desarrolla, en materia de pensiones no contributivas la Ley 26/1990, de 20 de diciembre, por la que se establecen en la Seguridad Social prestaciones no contributivas, Boletín Oficial del Estado de 21/03/1991
10. Orden de 18 de julio de 1991, por la que se regula el Convenio Especial en el Sistema de la Seguridad Social, Boletín Oficial del Estado de 30/7/91
In the private sector:
1. Code du travail, Articles L 122-28-1 to L 122-32. Code de la Sécurité sociale Article L.351-4 et 5
2. Loi n°84-9 de janvier 1984 (aviation civile et armement maritime).
In the public sector:
1. Loi du 25.07.1994 (n°94-629) complétée par la loi du 16.12.1996 (n°96-1093) relative au congé parental après l'adoption d'un enfant.
2. Décret n° 85-986 du 16 septembre 1985 modifié par le décret 2002-684 du 30 avril 2002. : article 52 à 58. JO 2 mai 2002.
1. Parental Leave Act, 1998 of 3 December 1998
2. Parental Leave (Notice of Force Majeure Leave) Regulations, 1998 (SI No. 454 of 1998)
3. Parental Leave (Disputes and Appeals) Regulations, 1999 (SI No. 6 of 1999)
4. Parental Leave (Maximum Compensation) Regulations, 1999 (SI No. 34 of 1999)
5. European Communities (Parental Leave) Regulations, 2000 (SI No. 231 of 2000)
1. Legge 8 Marzo 2000 N°53 Disposizioni per il sostegno della maternita' e della paternita', per il diritto alla cura e alla formazione e per il coordinamento dei tempi delle citta'
2. D.L.gs 26 Marzo 2001 N° 151 Testo unico delle disposizioni legislative in materia di tutela e sostegno della maternita' e della paternita', a norma dell'articolo 15 della legge 8 marzo 2000, n. 53
1. Loi du 12 février 1999 concernant la mise en oeuvre du plan d'action national en faveur de l'emploi 1998.
1. Wet van 16 november 2001 tot vaststelling van regels voor het tot stand brengen van een nieuw evenwicht tussen arbeid en zorg in de ruimste zin (Wet arbeid en zorg). Chapter 6 of this new Act deals with parental leave. Staatsblad 2001, 567 and 568
2. Wet van 25 juni 1997 tot wijziging van titel 7.10 (arbeidsovereenkomst) van het Burgerlijk Wetboek met betrekking tot het ouderschapsverlof", Staatsblad 1997, 266.
3. Besluit van 25 juni 1997 tot vaststelling van het tijdstip van inwerkingtreding van de Wet van 25 juni 1997 tot wijziging van titel 7.10 (arbeidsovereenkomst) van het Burgerlijk Wetboek met betrekking tot het ouderschapsverlof", Staatsblad 1997, 267.
1. Landesgesetz vom 04/11/1993 über die Regelung des Eltern-Karenzurlaubes (O.ö. Eltern-Karenzurlaubsgesetz - O.ö. EKUG), Landesgesetzblatt für Oberösterreich Nr. 123
2. Verordnung der o.ö. Landesregierung vom 15/09/1997 zur Bekämpfung von Nelkenwicklern, Landesgesetzblatt für Oberösterreich, Nr. 122/1997, ausgegeben und versendet am 24/10/1997
3. Landesgesetz vom 29/02/1996, mit dem das O.ö. Landesbeamtengesetz 1993, das als Landesgesetz geltende Gehaltsgesetz 1956, das O.ö. Landes-Vertragsbedienstetengesetz, das Landesbeamten-Pensionsgesetz, das O.ö. Mutterschutzgesetz und das O.ö. Karenzurlaubsgeldgesetz geändert und Bestimmungen über das Ausmaß der Lehrverpflichtung für Vertragslehrer an Musikschulen der o.ö. Gemeinden erlassen werden (O.ö. Dienstrechtsänderungsgesetz 1996), Landesgesetzblatt für Oberösterreich, Nr. 37/1996 , ausgegeben und versendet am 15/05/1996
4. Landesgesetz vom 03/12/1993 über das Dienstrecht der Beamten des Landes Oberösterreich (O.ö. Landesbeamtengesetz 1993 - O.ö. LBG), Landesgesetzblatt für Oberösterreich, Nr. 11/1994, zuletzt geändert durch 83/1996
5. Landesgesetz vom 3. Dezember 1993 über das Dienstrecht der Vertragsbediensteten des Landes Oberösterreich (O.ö. Landes Vertragsbedientstetengesetz - O.ö. LVBG), Landesgesetzblatt für Oberösterreich, Nr. 10/1994
6. Mutterschutzgesetz BGBl 1979/221 idF BGBl 1980/409, 1980/577, 1984/213, 1986/563, 1989/651, 1990/76, 1990/408, 1990/450, 1991/277, 1991/628, 1992/315, 1992/833, 1993/257, 1995/434, I 1997/9, I 1997/61, I 1998/70, I 1998/123, I 1999/70, I 1999/153, I 2001/98 und I 2001/103
7. Bundesgesetz vom 07/07/1976 betreffend die Vereinheitlichung des Urlaubsrechtes und die Einführung einer Pflegefreistellung, Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich, Nr. 390/1976 idF 832/1995
8. Bundesgesetz vom 12/12/1989 mit dem ein Karenzurlaub für Väter geschaffen (Eltern-Karenzurlaubsgesetz - EKUG) und das Mutterschutzgesetz 1979, das Angestelltengesetz, das Gutsangestelltengesetz, das Landarbeitergesetz 1984, das Arbeitslosenversicherungsgesetz 1977, das Allgemeine Sozialversicherungsgesetz, das Karenzurlaubsgeldgesetz, das Beamten-Dienstechtsgesetz 1979, das Gehaltsgesetz 1956, das Pensionsgesetz 1965, das Vertragsbedienstetengesetz 1948, die Bundesforste-Dienstordnung 1986, das Land- und Forstarbeiterdienstrechtsgesetz, das Landeslehrerdienstrechtsgesetz 1984 und das Land- und forstwirtschaftliche Landeslehrer-Dienstrechtsgesetz 1985 geändert werden, Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich, Nr. 651/1989 idF 434/1995
9. Bundesgestetz, Änderung mit dem das Landarbeitsgesetzes 1984. ref: BGBl 07/07/2000 p.625 - SG(2000)A/14169
10. Landarbeitsordnungs-Novelle 2000 ref: LGBL nr 53 - SG(2000)A/13454
11. Landesgesetz, mit dem das Oö. Landes-Gehaltsgesetz, das Oö. Landesbeamten-Pensionsgesetz, das Oö. Objektivierungsgesetz, das Oö. Mutterschutzgesetz, das Oö. Landesbediensteten-Schutzgesetz 1998, das Oö. Land- und forstwirtschaftliche Landeslehrer-Diensthoheitsgesetz 1988, das Oö. Land- und forstwirtschaftliche Landeslehrer-Diensthoheitsgesetz 1988, das Oö. Landes-Personalvertretungsgesetz und das Oö. Nebengebührenzulagengesetz geändert werden (Oö. Dienstrechtsänderungsgesetz 2000) ref : LGBl. Nr 24/2001, 20 Stück, 30/03/2001, seite 75; SG(2001)A/5408 du 10/05/2001
12. NÖ Gemeindebeamtendienstrordnung 1976 (GBDO 1976) ref : LGBl. für das Land Niederösterreich 2400-37; SG(2001)A/6064 du 29/05/2001
13. Dienstpragmatik der Landesbeamten 1972 (DPL 1972) ref : LGBl. für das Land Niederösterreich 2200-51; SG(2001)A/6063 du 29/05/2001
14. Gesetz mit dem die Kärntner Landarbeitsordnung 1995 geändert wird LGBI. nr. 79/2001 ref: LGBI. für Kärnten 23/11/1995, 43. Stück, seite 335; SG(2001) A/12755 du 22/11/2001
15. Bundesgesetz vom 7.8.2001, mit dem ein Kinderbetreuungsgeldgesetz erlassen wird sowie das Familienlastenausgleichsgesetz 1987, das Allgemeine Sozialversicherungsgesetz, das Gewerbliche Sozialversicherungsgesetz, das Bauern-Sozialversicherungsgesetz, das Beamten-Kranken- und Unfallversicherungsgesetz, das Mutterschutzgesetz 1979, das Eltern-Karenzurlaubsgesetz, das Landarbeitsgesetz 1984, das Karenzgeldgesetz, das Arbeitslosenversicherungsgesetz 1977, das Arbeitsmarktpolitik-Finanzierungsgesetz, das Überbrückungshilfengesetz, das Karenzurlaubsgeldgesetz und die Exekutionsordnung geändert werden, Bundesgesetzblatt Teil I Nr. 103 (BGBl I 2001/103)
16. Bundesgesetz, mit dem Karenz für Väter geschaffen wird (Väter-Karenzgesetz -VKG), BGBl 1989/651 idF BGBl 1990/299, 1990/408, 1990/450, 1991/277, 1992/315, 1992/833, 1994/665, 1995/434, I 1997/61, I 1998/70, I 1998/123, I 1999/153, I 2000/6 und I 2001/103 [bis 7.8.2001: ,Eltern-Karenzurlaubsgesetz (EKUG)"]
17. Familienlastenausgleichsgesetz (FLAG): Bundesgesetz vom 24. 10. 1967, BGBl. Nr. 376, betreffend den Familienlastenausgleich, zuletzt geändert durch BGBl I 2001/103
18. Verordnung der Bundesministerin für Gesundheit und Konsumentenschutz über die Festlegung eines Mutter-Kind-Paß-Untersuchungsprogrammes, die Voraussetzungen zur Erlangung des Mutter-Kind-Paß-Bonusses sowie über den Mutter-Kind-Paß (Mutter-Kind-Paß-Verordnung - MuKiPaßV), BGBl II 1997/24 (in Force until 31.12.2001)
19. Allgemeines Sozialversicherungsgesetz (ASVG) BGBl 1955, zuletzt geändert durch BGBl I 2001/99 und 2001/103
20. Arbeitlsosenversicherungsgesetz 1977 (AlVG), BGBl 1994/315, zuletzt geändert durch BGBl 2001/47 und BGBl 2001/103
22. Heimarbeitsgesetz 1960, BGBl 1961/105 idgF 21. - Hausgehilfen- and Hausangestelltengesetz, BGBl 1962/235 idgF
23. Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz (B-VG), Gesetz vom 1. Oktober 1920, womit die Republik Österreich als Bundesstaat eingerichtet wird (Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz), Staatsgesetzblatt Nr. 450, in der geltenden Fassung
24. Bundesgesetz über vom 31. Mai 1967, BGBl. Nr. 200, über die Kranken- und Unfallversicherung öffentlich Bediensteter (BKUVG) idF BGBl I 2001/102
25. Bundesgesetz über das Karenzgeld (Karenzgeldgesetz - KGG), BGBl I 1997/47 idF BGBl I 1997/139, I 1998/6, I 1998/30, I 1998/148, I 2000/142 und BGBl I 2001/103
26. Bundesgesetz vom 27. Juni 1974, BGBl. Nr. 395, über Geldleistungen an öffentlich Bedienstete während des Karenzurlaubes aus Anlass der Mutterschaft, zuletzt geändert durch BGBl I 2001/103
27. Vertragsbedienstetengesetz 1948, BGBl 1948/86, zuletzt geändert durch BGBl I 2000/94
28. Beamten-Dienstrechtsgesetz 1979, BGBl 1979/333, zuletzt geändert durch BGBl I 2000/94
29. Angestelltengesetz 1921, BGBl 1921/292 idgF, zuletzt geändert durch BGBl I 2000/44
30. Bundesgesetz vom 7. Juli 1976 betreffend die Vereinheitlichung des Urlaubsrechtes und die Einführung einer Pflegefreistellung (Urlaubsgesetz 1976), BGBl 1976/390, zuletzt geändert durch BGBl I 2001/7
Länder (public sector)
1. Gesetz vom 20. November 1997 über das Dienstrecht der Landesbeamten (Burgenländisches Landesbeamten-Dienstrechtsgesetz 1997), LGBl Bgld 1998/17 idF LGBl Bgld 2000/38
2. Gesetz vom 1. Oktober 1985 über das Dienstrecht der Vertragsbediensteten des Landes (Landesvertragsbedienstetengesetz 1985), LGBl Bgld 1985/49 idF LGBl Bgld 2000/39
3. Gesetz vom 20. Dezember 1971 über das Dienstrecht der Beamten und Vertragsbediensteten der Gmeinden (Gemeindebedienstetengesetz 1971), LBGl Bgld 1971/13 idF LGBl Bgld 1996/54
1. Gesetz vom 7. November 1991 über den Mutterschutz und den Karenzurlaub (K-MUG), LGBl Ktn 1992/9 idF LGBl Ktn 1997/73
2. Gemeindebedienstetengesetz, Wiederverlautbarung LGBl Ktn 1992/56 idF LGBl Ktn 1998/76
3. Stadtbeamtengesetz 1993, LGBl Ktn 1993/115, zuletzt geändert durch LGBl Ktn LGBl 1998/71
Niederösterreich (Lower Austria)
1. NÖ Mutterschutz-Landesgesetz, Wiederverlautbarung vom 18. Dezember 1975, LGBl NÖ 2039-0, zuletzt geändert durch LGBl NÖ 2039-6
2. NÖ Eltern-Karenzurlaubsgesetz (NÖ EKUG), LGBl NÖ 2050 idF LGBl NÖ 2050-1
3. Gesetz vom 15. Mai 1975 über die Gewährung eines Karenzurlaubsgeldes aus Anlaß der Mutterschaft (NÖ Karenzurlaubsgeldgesetz 1975), LGBl NÖ 2040 idF LGBl NÖ 2040-8
Oberösterreich (Upper Austria)
1. Landesgesetz vom 4. November 1993 über den Mutterschutz der in einem öffentlich-rechtlichen Dienstverhältnis zum Land Oberösterreich stehenden Dienstnehmerinnen (OÖ Mutterschutzgesetz - OÖ MSchG), LGBl OÖ 1993/122
2. Landesgesetz vom 4. November 1993 über die Regelung des Eltern-Karenzurlaubs (OÖ Eltern-Karenzurlaubsgesetz - OÖ EKUG), LGBl OÖ 1993/123
3. Landesgesetz vom 4. November 1993 über die Ansprüche der Geldleistungen aus Anlaß der Mutterschaft (OÖ Karenzurlaubsgeldgesetz - OÖ KUG), LGBl OÖ 1993/68
1. Salzburger Landesbeamtengesetz 1986, Wiederverlautbarung vom 15. Dezember 1986, LGBl Sbg 1987/1, zuletzt geändert durch LGBl Sbg 2000/3 und 2001/17
2. Salzburger Landesvertragsbedienstetengesetz 2000, LGBl Sbg 2000/4 idF LGBl Sbg 2001/17
3. Salzburger Gemeindebeamtengesetz 1968, Wiederverlautbarung vom 12. Februar 1968, LGBl Sbg 1968/27, zuletzt geändert durch die Novelle LGBl Sbg 2000/7
4. Salzburger Gemeindevertragsbedienstetengesetz 1968, Wiederverlautbarung vom 14. März 1968, LGBl Sbg Nr 31, zuletzt geändert durch die Novelle LGBl Sbg 2000/7
5. Salzburger Magistratsbeamtengesetz 1981, Wiederverlautbarung vom 6. Mai 1981, LGBl Sbg 1981/42, zuletzt geändert durch die Novelle LGBl Sbg 2000/7
1. Gesetz vom 3. Juli 1974 über das Dienstrecht der Landesbeamten (Steiermärkisches Landesbeamtengesetz), LGBl Stmk 1974/124, zuletzt geändert durch die Novelle LGBl Stmk 2000/40
2. Gesetz vom 24. September 1996, mit dem das Steiermärkische Landesbeamtengesetz geändert wird (4. Landesbeamtengesetz-Novelle 1996), LGBl Stmk 1997/2 idF LGBl Stmk 1998/44
3. Gesetz vom 3. Juli 1974 über das Dienstrecht der Landesvertragsbediensteten (Steiermärkisches Landesvertragsbedienstetengeetz), LGBl Stmk 1974/125 idF LGBl Stmk 2000/40
4. Gesetz vom 23. Mai 1957 über den Mutterschutz von Dienstnehmerinnen der steirischen Gemeinden, auf die das Mutterschutzgesetz, BGBl 1957/76, keine Anwendung findet, LGBl Stmk 1957/42, zuletzt geändert durch die Novelle LGBl Stmk 1975/65
5. Gesetz vom 4. Februar 1957 betreffend die Dienstordnung der öffentlich-rechtlichen Bediensteten der steirischen Gemeinden mit Ausnahme der Städte mit eigenem Statut (Gemeindebedienstetengesetz 1957), LGBl Stmk 1957/34, zuletzt geändert durch die Novelle LGBl Stmk 2000/1
6. Steiermärkisches Gemeinde-Vertragsbedienstetengesetz 1962, Wiederverlautbarung vom 24. September 1962, LGBl Stmk 1962/160, zuletzt geändert durch die Novelle LGBl Stmk 1995/15
7. Dienst- und Gehaltsordnung der Beamten der Landeshauptstadt Graz 1956, LGBl Stmk 1957/30, zuletzt geändert durch die Novelle LGBl Stmk 1996/46
8. Gesetz vom 5. März 1974 über das Dienst- und Gehaltsrecht der Vertragsbediensteten der Landeshauptstadt Graz (Grazer Gemeindevertragsbedienstetengesetz), LGBl Stmk 1974/30, zuletzt geändert durch die Novelle LGBl Stmk 1995/14
1. Tiroler Mutterschutzgesetz 1998, Wiederverlautbarung vom 29.9.1998, LGBl Tir 1998/86 idF LGBl Tir 2000/43
2. Tiroler Elternkarenzurlaubsgesetz, Wiederverlautbarung LGBl Tir 1998/87 idF LGBl Tir 2000/46
3. Tiroler Karenzurlaubsgeldgesetz 1998, Wiederverlautbarung vom 29.9.1998, LGBl Tir 1998/88 idF LGBl Tir 2000/47
4. Tiroler Gemeindebeamten-Kranken- und Unfallfürsorgegesetz 1998 (GKUFG 1998), Wiederverlautbarung vom 27.10.1998, LGBl Tir 1998/98 idF LGBl Tir 1999/42
1. Gesetz über das Dienstrecht der Landesbediensteten (Landesbedienstetengesetz 2000 - LBedG 2000), LGBl Vbg 2000/50 idF LGBl 2001/15
1. Gesetz über das Dienstrecht der Beamten der Bundeshauptstadt Wien (Dienstordnung 1994 - DO 1994), LGBl W 1994/56 idF LGBl W 2000/51
2. Gesetz über das Besoldungsrecht der Beamten der Bundeshauptstadt Wien (Besoldungsordnung 1994 - BO 1994), LGBl W 1994/55 idF LGBl W 2000/51
3. Gesetz über das Dienstrecht der Vertragsbediensteten der Gemeinde Wien (Vertragsbedienstetenordnung 1995 - VBO 1995), LGBl W 1995/50idF LGBl W 2000/51
4. Wiener Karenzurlaubszuschußgesetz, LGBl W 1998/19
1. Landarbeitsgesetz, BGBl 1984/287, Wiederverlautbarung vom 9.7.1984, zuletzt geändert durch BGBl I 2000/40 und I 2001/103 (Grundsatzgesetzgebung des Bundes)
2. Landarbeitsordnungen der Länder o.A.
1. Lei n.° 4/84 de 05/04/1984. Protecção da maternidade e da paternidade ref : Diário da República I Série n.° 81 de 05/04/1984 Página 1149
2. Lei n.° 17/95 de 09/06/1995. Altera a Lei n.° 4/84, de 5 de Abril (protecção da maternidade e da paternidade ref : Diário da República I Série A n.° 134 de 09/06/1995 Página 3754
3. Lei n.° 18/98 de 28/04/1998. Alargamento da protecção à maternidade e paternidade (altera a Lei n.° 4/84, de 5 dz abril, alterada pela Lei n.° 17/95, de 9 de Junho) ref : Diário da República I Série A n.° 98 de 28/04/1998 Página 1888
4. Decreto-lei n.° 136/85 de 03/05/1985. Regulamenta a Lei n° 4/84, de 5 de Abril (protecção da maternidade e da paternidade) ref : Diário da República I Série n.° 101 de 03/05/1985 Página 1161
5. Decreto-lei n.° 64-A/89 de 27/02/1989. Aprova o regime jurídico da cessação do contrato individual de trabalho, incluindo às condições de celebração e caducidade do contrato de trabalho a termo), ref : Diário da República I Série A n.° 48 (2° Suplemento) de 27/02/1989 Página 862-(4)
6. Decreto-lei n.° 272/81 de 30/09/1981, Diário da República I Série n.° 225 de 30/09/1981 Página 2614-(2)
7. Decreto-lei n.° 874/76 de 28/12/1976. Define o regime jurídico de ferias feriados e faltas ref : Diário da República I Série n.° 300 Página 2856
8. Nota n° 25/98 do Ministério do Trabalho e da Solidariedade. Identificação das disposições da legislação nacional que dão cumplimento à Directiva 96/34/CE, do Conselho relativa à licença parental
9. Decreto-lei n.° 333/95 de 23/12/1995, Diário da República I Série A n.° 295 de 23/12/1995 Página 8074
10. Maternity and Paternity Law (latest version) - Decre-Law 230/2000, from the 23 September
1. Työsopimuslaki/Lag om arbetsavtal (320/70) 30/04/1970
2. Merimieslaki/Sjömanslag (423/78) 07/06/1978
3. Sairausvakuutuslaki/Sjukförsäkringslag (364/63) 04/07/1963
4. Vuosilomalaki/Semesterlag (272/73)
5. Merimiesten vuosilomalaki/Semesterlag för sjömän (433/84) 01/06/1984
6. Asetus valtion virkamiesten vuosilomasta/Förordning om semester för statens tjänstemän (692/92)
7. Laki kunnallisen viranhaltijan palvelussuhdeturvasta/Lag om kommunala tjänsteinnehavares anställningstrygghet (484/96) 28/06/1996
8. Valtion virkamieslaki/Statstjänstemannalag (750/93) 19/08/1994
9. Valtion yleinen virkaehtosopimus (tarkentava virkaehtosopimus 19/05/1998)
10. Kunnallinen yleinen virka- ja työehtosopimus
11. Laki merimieslain muuttamisesta/Lag om ändring av sjömanslagen (26/99) 22/01/1999
12. Kunnallinen virkaehtosopimus (uudistetut virkaehtosopimusmääräykset perhevapaista 1998.
13. Kirkon virka- ja työehtosopimukset (uudistetut määräykset perhevapaista 1998)
1. Förärldraledighetslag, Svensk författningssamling (SFS) 1995:584
2. Lag om allmän försäkring, Svensk författningssamling (SFS) 1962 :381
3. Lag om ersättning och ledighet för närståendevård, Svensk författningssamling (SFS) 1988 :1465
Amendment N° 1 Regulations 2001 to Maternity and Parental Leave Amendment N° 2 Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2002 of 5 April 2002 to Maternity and Parental Leave.
Official Journal L 145 , 19/06/1996 p. 0004 - 0009
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 96/34/EC of 3 June 1996 on the framework agreement on parental leave concluded by UNICE, CEEP and the ETUC
THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,
Having regard to the Agreement on social policy, annexed to the Protocol (No 14) on social policy, annexed to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 4 (2) thereof,
Having regard to the proposal from the Commission,
(1) Whereas on the basis of the Protocol on social policy, the Member States, with the exception of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, (hereinafter referred to as 'the Member States`), wishing to pursue the course mapped out by the 1989 Social Charter have concluded an Agreement on social policy amongst themselves;
(2) Whereas management and labour may, in accordance with Article 4 (2) of the Agreement on social policy, request jointly that agreements at Community level be implemented by a Council decision on a proposal from the Commission;
(3) Whereas paragraph 16 of the Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers on equal treatment for men and women provides, inter alia, that 'measures should also be developed enabling men and women to reconcile their occupational and family obligations;
(4) Whereas the Council, despite the existence of a broad consensus, has not been able to act on the proposal for a Directive on parental leave for family reasons (1), as amended (2) on 15 November 1984;
(5) Whereas the Commission, in accordance with Article 3 (2) of the Agreement on social policy, consulted management and labour on the possible direction of Community action with regard to reconciling working and family life;
(6) Whereas the Commission, considering after such consultation that Community action was desirable, once again consulted management and labour on the substance of the envisaged proposal in accordance with Article 3 (3) of the said Agreement;
(7) Whereas the general cross-industry organisations (UNICE, CEEP and the ETUC) informed the Commission in their joint letter of 5 July 1995 of their desire to initiate the procedure provided for by Article 4 of the said Agreement;
(8) Whereas the said cross-industry organisations concluded, on 14 December 1995, a framework agreement on parental leave; whereas they have forwarded to the Commission their joint request to implement this framework agreement by a Council Decision on a proposal from the Commission in accordance with Article 4 (2) of the said Agreement;
(9) Whereas the Council, in its Resolution of 6 December 1994 on certain aspects for a European Union social policy; a contribution to economic and social convergence in the Union (3), asked the two sides of industry to make use of the possibilities for concluding agreements, since they are as a rule closer to social reality and to social problems; whereas in Madrid, the members of the European Council from those States which have signed the Agreement on social policy welcomed the conclusion of this framework agreement;
(10) Whereas the signatory parties wanted to conclude a framework agreement setting out minimum requirements on parental leave and time off from work on grounds of force majeure and referring back to the Member States and/or management and labour for the definition of the conditions under which parental leave would be implemented, in order to take account of the situation, including the situation with regard to family policy, existing in each Member State, particularly as regards the conditions for granting parental leave and exercise of the right to parental leave;
(11) Whereas the proper instrument for implementing this framework agreement is a Directive within the meaning of Article 189 of the Treaty; whereas it is therefore binding on the Member States as to the result to be achieved, but leaves them the choice of form and methods;
(12) Whereas, in keeping with the principle of subsidiarity and the principle of proportionality as set out in Article 3b of the Treaty, the objectives of this Directive cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States and can therefore be better achieved by the Community; whereas this Directive is confined to the minimum required to achieve these objectives and does not go beyond what is necessary to achieve that purpose;
(13) Whereas the Commission has drafted its proposal for a Directive, taking into account the representative status of the signatory parties, their mandate and the legality of the clauses of the framework agreement and compliance with the relevant provisions concerning small and medium-sized undertakings;
(14) Whereas the Commission, in accordance with its Communication of 14 December 1993 concerning the implementation of the Protocol on social policy, informed the European Parliament by sending it the text of the framework agreement, accompanied by its proposal for a Directive and the explanatory memorandum;
(15) Whereas the Commission also informed the Economic and Social Committee by sending it the text of the framework agreement, accompanied by its proposal for a Directive and the explanatory memorandum;
(16) Whereas clause 4 point 2 of the framework agreement states that the implementation of the provisions of this agreement does not constitute valid grounds for reducing the general level of protection afforded to workers in the field of this agreement. This does not prejudice the right of Member States and/or management and labour to develop different legislative, regulatory or contractual provisions, in the light of changing circumstances (including the introduction of non-transferability), as long as the minimum requirements provided for in the present agreement are complied with;
(17) Whereas the Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers recognises the importance of the fight against all forms of discrimination, especially based on sex, colour, race, opinions and creeds;
(18) Whereas Article F (2) of the Treaty on European Union provides that 'the Union shall respect fundamental rights, as guaranteed by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed in Rome on 4 November 1950 and as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States, as general principles of Community law';
(19) Whereas the Member States can entrust management and labour, at their joint request, with the implementation of this Directive, as long as they take all the necessary steps to ensure that they can at all times guarantee the results imposed by this Directive;
(20) Whereas the implementation of the framework agreement contributes to achieving the objectives under Article 1 of the Agreement on social policy,
HAS ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:
Implementation of the framework agreement
The purpose of this Directive is to put into effect the annexed framework agreement on parental leave concluded on 14 December 1995 between the general cross-industry organisations (Unice, CEEP and the ETUC)
1. The Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive by 3 June 1998 at the latest or shall ensure by that date at the latest that management and labour have introduced the necessary measures by agreement, the Member States being required to take any necessary measure enabling them at any time to be in a position to guarantee the results imposed by this Directive. They shall forthwith inform the Commission thereof.
2. The Member States may have a maximum additional period of one year, if this is necessary to take account of special difficulties or implementation by a collective agreement. They must forthwith inform the Commission of such circumstances.
3. When Member States adopt the measures referred to in paragraph 1, they shall contain a reference to this Directive or be accompanied by such reference on the occasion of their official publication. The methods of making such reference shall be laid down by Member States.
This Directive is addressed to the Member States.
Done at Luxembourg, 3 June 1996.
For the Council The President T. TREU
FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT ON PARENTAL LEAVE
The enclosed framework agreement represents an undertaking by Unice, CEEP and the ETUC to set out minimum requirements on parental leave and time off from work on grounds of force majeure, as an important means of reconciling work and family life and promoting equal opportunities and treatment between men and women.
ETUC, Unice and CEEP request the Commission to submit this framework agreement to the Council for a Council Decision making these minimum requirements binding in the Member States of the European Community, with the exception of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
I. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
1. Having regard to the Agreement on social policy annexed to the Protocol on social policy, annexed to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Articles 3 (4) and 4 (2) thereof;
2. Whereas Article 4 (2) of the Agreement on social policy provides that agreements concluded at Community level shall be implemented, at the joint request of the signatory parties, by a Council decision on a proposal from the Commission;
3. Whereas the Commission has announced its intention to propose a Community measure on the reconciliation of work and family life;
4. Whereas the Community Charter of Fundamental Social Rights stipulates at point 16 dealing with equal treatment that measures should be developed to enable men and women to reconcile their occupational and family obligations;
5. Whereas the Council Resolution of 6 December 1994 recognises that an effective policy of equal opportunities presupposes an integrated overall strategy allowing for better organisation of working hours and greater flexibility, and for an easier return to working life, and notes the important role of the two sides of industry in this area and in offering both men and women an opportunity to reconcile their work responsibilities with family obligations;
6. Whereas measures to reconcile work and family life should encourage the introduction of new flexible ways of organising work and time which are better suited to the changing needs of society and which should take the needs of both undertakings and workers into account;
7. Whereas family policy should be looked at in the context of demographic changes, the effects of the ageing population, closing the generation gap and promoting women's participation in the labour force;
8. Whereas men should be encouraged to assume an equal share of family responsibilities, for example they should be encouraged to take parental leave by means such as awareness programmes;
9. Whereas the present agreement is a framework agreement setting out minimum requirements and provisions for parental leave, distinct from maternity leave, and for time off from work on grounds of force majeure, and refers back to Member States and social partners for the establishment of the conditions of access and detailed rules of application in order to take account of the situation in each Member State;
10. Whereas Member States should provide for the maintenance of entitlements to benefits in kind under sickness insurance during the minimum period of parental leave;
11. Whereas Member States should also, where appropriate under national conditions and taking into account the budgetary situation, consider the maintenance of entitlements to relevant social security benefits as they stand during the minimum period of parental leave;
12. Whereas this agreement takes into consideration the need to improve social policy requirements, to enhance the competitiveness of the Community economy and to avoid imposing administrative, financial and legal constraints in a way which would impede the creation and development of small and medium-sized undertakings;
13. Whereas management and labour are best placed to find solutions that correspond to the needs of both employers and workers and must therefore have conferred on them a special role in the implementation and application of the present agreement,
THE SIGNATORY PARTIES HAVE AGREED THE FOLLOWING:
Clause 1: Purpose and scope
1. This agreement lays down minimum requirements designed to facilitate the reconciliation of parental and professional responsibilities for working parents.
2. This agreement applies to all workers, men and women, who have an employment contract or employment relationship as defined by the law, collective agreements or practices in force in each Member State.
Clause 2: Parental leave
1. This agreement grants, subject to clause 2.2, men and women workers an individual right to parental leave on the grounds of the birth or adoption of a child to enable them to take care of that child, for at least three months, until a given age up to 8 years to be defined by Member States and/or management and labour.
2. To promote equal opportunities and equal treatment between men and women, the parties to this agreement consider that the right to parental leave provided for under clause 2.1 should, in principle, be granted on a non-transferable basis.
3. The conditions of access and detailed rules for applying parental leave shall be defined by law and/or collective agreement in the Member States, as long as the minimum requirements of this agreement are respected. Member States and/or management and labour may, in particular:
(a) decide whether parental leave is granted on a full-time or part-time basis, in a piecemeal way or in the form of a time-credit system;
(b) make entitlement to parental leave subject to a period of work qualification and/or a length of service qualification which shall not exceed one year;
(c) adjust conditions of access and detailed rules for applying parental leave to the special circumstances of adoption;
(d) establish notice periods to be given by the worker to the employer when exercising the right to parental leave, specifying the beginning and the end of the period of leave;
(e) define the circumstances in which an employer, following consultation in accordance with national law, collective agreements and practices, is allowed to postpone the granting of parental leave for justifiable reasons related to the operation of the undertaking (e.g. where work is of a seasonal nature, where a replacement cannot be found within the notice period, where a significant proportion of the workforce applies for parental leave at the same time, where a specific function is of strategic importance). Any problem arising from the application of this provision should be dealt with in accordance with national law, collective agreements and practices;
(f) in addition to (e), authorise special arrangements to meet the operational and organisational requirements of small undertakings.
4. In order to ensure that workers can exercise their right to parental leave, Member States and/or management and labour shall take the necessary measures to protect workers against dismissal on the grounds of an application for, or the taking of, parental leave in accordance with national law, collective agreements or practices.
5. At the end of parental leave, workers shall have the right to return to the same job or, if that is not possible, to an equivalent or similar job consistent with their employment contract or employment relationship.
6. Rights acquired or in the process of being acquired by the worker on the date on which parental leave starts shall be maintained as they stand until the end of parental leave. At the end of parental leave, these rights, including any changes arising from national law, collective agreements or practice, shall apply.
7. Member States and/or management and labour shall define the status of the employment contract or employment relationship for the period of parental leave.
8. All matters relating to social security in relation to this agreement are for consideration and determination by Member States according to national law, taking into account the importance of the continuity of the entitlements to social security cover under the different schemes, in particular health care.
Clause 3: Time off from work on grounds of force majeure
1. Member States and/or management and labour shall take the necessary measures to entitle workers to time off from work, in accordance with national legislation, collective agreements and/or practice, on grounds of force majeure for urgent family reasons in cases of sickness or accident making the immediate presence of the worker indispensable.
2. Member States and/or management and labour may specify the conditions of access and detailed rules for applying clause 3.1 and limit this entitlement to a certain amount of time per year and/or per case.
Clause 4: Final provisions
1. Member States may apply or introduce more favourable provisions that those set out in this agreement.
2. Implementation of the provisions of this agreement shall not constitute valid grounds for reducing the general level of protection afforded to workers in the field covered by this agreement. This shall not prejudice the right of Member States and/or management and labour to develop different legislative, regulatory or contractual provisions, in the light of changing circumstances (including the introduction of non-transferability), as long as the minimum requirements provided for in the present agreement are complied with.
3. The present agreement shall not prejudice the right of management and labour to conclude, at the appropriate level including European level, agreements adapting and/or complementing the provisions of this agreement in order to take into account particular circumstances.
4. Member States shall adopt the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with the Council decision within a period of two years from its adoption or shall ensure that management and labour  introduce the necessary measures by way of agreement by the end of this period. Member States may, if necessary to take account of particular difficulties or implementation by collective agreement, have up to a maximum of one additional year to comply with this decision.
 Within the meaning of Article 2(4) of the Agreement on social policy
5. The prevention and settlement of disputes and grievances arising from the application of this agreement shall be dealt with in accordance with national law, collective agreements and practices.
6. Without prejudice to the respective role of the Commission, national courts and the Court of Justice, any matter relating to the interpretation of this agreement at European level should, in the first instance, be referred by the Commission to the signatory parties who will give an opinion.
7. The signatory parties shall review the application of this agreement five years after the date of the Council decision if requested by one of the parties to this agreement.
Done at Brussels, 14 December 1995.
Fritz VERZETNITSCH, President of the ETUC Emilio GABAGLIO, Secretary-General ETUC Bld Emile Jacqmain 155 B-1210 Brussels
Antonio Castellano AUYANET, President of the CEEP Roger GOURVÈS, Secretary-General CEEP Rue de la Charité 15 B-1040 Brussels
François PERIGOT President of the Unice Zygmunt TYSZKIEWICZ, Secretary-General UNICE Rue Joseph II 40 B-1040 Brussels