Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC (Text with EEA relevance)
OJ L 275, 25.10.2003, p. 32–46 (ES, DA, DE, EL, EN, FR, IT, NL, PT, FI, SV)
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Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
of 13 October 2003
establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC
(Text with EEA relevance)
THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,
Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 175(1) thereof,
Having regard to the proposal from the Commission(1),
Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee(2),
Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions(3),
Acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 251 of the Treaty(4),
(1) The Green Paper on greenhouse gas emissions trading within the European Union launched a debate across Europe on the suitability and possible functioning of greenhouse gas emissions trading within the European Union. The European Climate Change Programme has considered Community policies and measures through a multi-stakeholder process, including a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community (the Community scheme) based on the Green Paper. In its Conclusions of 8 March 2001, the Council recognised the particular importance of the European Climate Change Programme and of work based on the Green Paper, and underlined the urgent need for concrete action at Community level.
(2) The Sixth Community Environment Action Programme established by Decision No 1600/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council(5) identifies climate change as a priority for action and provides for the establishment of a Community-wide emissions trading scheme by 2005. That Programme recognises that the Community is committed to achieving an 8 % reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2008 to 2012 compared to 1990 levels, and that, in the longer-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases will need to be reduced by approximately 70 % compared to 1990 levels.
(3) The ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was approved by Council Decision 94/69/EC of 15 December 1993 concerning the conclusion of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(6), is to achieve stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level which prevents dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.
(4) Once it enters into force, the Kyoto Protocol, which was approved by Council Decision 2002/358/EC of 25 April 2002 concerning the approval, on behalf of the European Community, of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the joint fulfilment of commitments thereunder(7), will commit the Community and its Member States to reducing their aggregate anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases listed in Annex A to the Protocol by 8 % compared to 1990 levels in the period 2008 to 2012.
(5) The Community and its Member States have agreed to fulfil their commitments to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto Protocol jointly, in accordance with Decision 2002/358/EC. This Directive aims to contribute to fulfilling the commitments of the European Community and its Member States more effectively, through an efficient European market in greenhouse gas emission allowances, with the least possible diminution of economic development and employment.
(6) Council Decision 93/389/EEC of 24 June 1993 for a monitoring mechanism of Community CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions(8), established a mechanism for monitoring greenhouse gas emissions and evaluating progress towards meeting commitments in respect of these emissions. This mechanism will assist Member States in determining the total quantity of allowances to allocate.
(7) Community provisions relating to allocation of allowances by the Member States are necessary to contribute to preserving the integrity of the internal market and to avoid distortions of competition.
(8) Member States should have regard when allocating allowances to the potential for industrial process activities to reduce emissions.
(9) Member States may provide that they only issue allowances valid for a five-year period beginning in 2008 to persons in respect of allowances cancelled, corresponding to emission reductions made by those persons on their national territory during a three-year period beginning in 2005.
(10) Starting with the said five-year period, transfers of allowances to another Member State will involve corresponding adjustments of assigned amount units under the Kyoto Protocol.
(11) Member States should ensure that the operators of certain specified activities hold a greenhouse gas emissions permit and that they monitor and report their emissions of greenhouse gases specified in relation to those activities.
(12) Member States should lay down rules on penalties applicable to infringements of this Directive and ensure that they are implemented. Those penalties must be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.
(13) In order to ensure transparency, the public should have access to information relating to the allocation of allowances and to the results of monitoring of emissions, subject only to restrictions provided for in Directive 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2003 on public access to environmental information(9).
(14) Member States should submit a report on the implementation of this Directive drawn up on the basis of Council Directive 91/692/EEC of 23 December 1991 standardising and rationalising reports on the implementation of certain Directives relating to the environment(10).
(15) The inclusion of additional installations in the Community scheme should be in accordance with the provisions laid down in this Directive, and the coverage of the Community scheme may thereby be extended to emissions of greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide, inter alia from aluminium and chemicals activities.
(16) This Directive should not prevent any Member State from maintaining or establishing national trading schemes regulating emissions of greenhouse gases from activities other than those listed in Annex I or included in the Community scheme, or from installations temporarily excluded from the Community scheme.
(17) Member States may participate in international emissions trading as Parties to the Kyoto Protocol with any other Party included in Annex B thereto.
(18) Linking the Community scheme to greenhouse gas emission trading schemes in third countries will increase the cost-effectiveness of achieving the Community emission reductions target as laid down in Decision 2002/358/EC on the joint fulfilment of commitments.
(19) Project-based mechanisms including Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are important to achieve the goals of both reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the cost-effective functioning of the Community scheme. In accordance with the relevant provisions of the Kyoto Protocol and Marrakech Accords, the use of the mechanisms should be supplemental to domestic action and domestic action will thus constitute a significant element of the effort made.
(20) This Directive will encourage the use of more energy-efficient technologies, including combined heat and power technology, producing less emissions per unit of output, while the future directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of cogeneration based on useful heat demand in the internal energy market will specifically promote combined heat and power technology.
(21) Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24 September 1996 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control(11) establishes a general framework for pollution prevention and control, through which greenhouse gas emissions permits may be issued. Directive 96/61/EC should be amended to ensure that emission limit values are not set for direct emissions of greenhouse gases from an installation subject to this Directive and that Member States may choose not to impose requirements relating to energy efficiency in respect of combustion units or other units emitting carbon dioxide on the site, without prejudice to any other requirements pursuant to Directive 96/61/EC.
(22) This Directive is compatible with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. It should be reviewed in the light of developments in that context and to take into account experience in its implementation and progress achieved in monitoring of emissions of greenhouse gases.
(23) Emission allowance trading should form part of a comprehensive and coherent package of policies and measures implemented at Member State and Community level. Without prejudice to the application of Articles 87 and 88 of the Treaty, where activities are covered by the Community scheme, Member States may consider the implications of regulatory, fiscal or other policies that pursue the same objectives. The review of the Directive should consider the extent to which these objectives have been attained.
(24) The instrument of taxation can be a national policy to limit emissions from installations temporarily excluded.
(25) Policies and measures should be implemented at Member State and Community level across all sectors of the European Union economy, and not only within the industry and energy sectors, in order to generate substantial emissions reductions. The Commission should, in particular, consider policies and measures at Community level in order that the transport sector makes a substantial contribution to the Community and its Member States meeting their climate change obligations under the Kyoto Protocol.
(26) Notwithstanding the multifaceted potential of market-based mechanisms, the European Union strategy for climate change mitigation should be built on a balance between the Community scheme and other types of Community, domestic and international action.
(27) This Directive respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in particular by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
(28) The measures necessary for the implementation of this Directive should be adopted in accordance with Council Decision 1999/468/EC of 28 June 1999 laying down the procedures for the exercise of implementing powers conferred on the Commission(12).
(29) As the criteria (1), (5) and (7) of Annex III cannot be amended through comitology, amendments in respect of periods after 2012 should only be made through codecision.
(30) Since the objective of the proposed action, the establishment of a Community scheme, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States acting individually, and can therefore by reason of the scale and effects of the proposed action be better achieved at Community level, the Community may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve that objective,
HAVE ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:
This Directive establishes a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community (hereinafter referred to as the "Community scheme") in order to promote reductions of greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective and economically efficient manner.
1. This Directive shall apply to emissions from the activities listed in Annex I and greenhouse gases listed in Annex II.
2. This Directive shall apply without prejudice to any requirements pursuant to Directive 96/61/EC.
For the purposes of this Directive the following definitions shall apply:
(a) "allowance" means an allowance to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent during a specified period, which shall be valid only for the purposes of meeting the requirements of this Directive and shall be transferable in accordance with the provisions of this Directive;
(b) "emissions" means the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere from sources in an installation;
(c) "greenhouse gases" means the gases listed in Annex II;
(d) "greenhouse gas emissions permit" means the permit issued in accordance with Articles 5 and 6;
(e) "installation" means a stationary technical unit where one or more activities listed in Annex I are carried out and any other directly associated activities which have a technical connection with the activities carried out on that site and which could have an effect on emissions and pollution;
(f) "operator" means any person who operates or controls an installation or, where this is provided for in national legislation, to whom decisive economic power over the technical functioning of the installation has been delegated;
(g) "person" means any natural or legal person;
(h) "new entrant" means any installation carrying out one or more of the activities indicated in Annex I, which has obtained a greenhouse gas emissions permit or an update of its greenhouse gas emissions permit because of a change in the nature or functioning or an extension of the installation, subsequent to the notification to the Commission of the national allocation plan;
(i) "the public" means one or more persons and, in accordance with national legislation or practice, associations, organisations or groups of persons;
(j) "tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent" means one metric tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2) or an amount of any other greenhouse gas listed in Annex II with an equivalent global-warming potential.
Greenhouse gas emissions permits
Member States shall ensure that, from 1 January 2005, no installation undertakes any activity listed in Annex I resulting in emissions specified in relation to that activity unless its operator holds a permit issued by a competent authority in accordance with Articles 5 and 6, or the installation is temporarily excluded from the Community scheme pursuant to Article 27.
Applications for greenhouse gas emissions permits
An application to the competent authority for a greenhouse gas emissions permit shall include a description of:
(a) the installation and its activities including the technology used;
(b) the raw and auxiliary materials, the use of which is likely to lead to emissions of gases listed in Annex I;
(c) the sources of emissions of gases listed in Annex I from the installation; and
(d) the measures planned to monitor and report emissions in accordance with the guidelines adopted pursuant to Article 14.
The application shall also include a non-technical summary of the details referred to in the first subparagraph.
Conditions for and contents of the greenhouse gas emissions permit
1. The competent authority shall issue a greenhouse gas emissions permit granting authorisation to emit greenhouse gases from all or part of an installation if it is satisfied that the operator is capable of monitoring and reporting emissions.
A greenhouse gas emissions permit may cover one or more installations on the same site operated by the same operator.
2. Greenhouse gas emissions permits shall contain the following:
(a) the name and address of the operator;
(b) a description of the activities and emissions from the installation;
(c) monitoring requirements, specifying monitoring methodology and frequency;
(d) reporting requirements; and
(e) an obligation to surrender allowances equal to the total emissions of the installation in each calendar year, as verified in accordance with Article 15, within four months following the end of that year.
Changes relating to installations
The operator shall inform the competent authority of any changes planned in the nature or functioning, or an extension, of the installation which may require updating of the greenhouse gas emissions permit. Where appropriate, the competent authority shall update the permit. Where there is a change in the identity of the installation's operator, the competent authority shall update the permit to include the name and address of the new operator.
Coordination with Directive 96/61/EC
Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure that, where installations carry out activities that are included in Annex I to Directive 96/61/EC, the conditions of, and procedure for, the issue of a greenhouse gas emissions permit are coordinated with those for the permit provided for in that Directive. The requirements of Articles 5, 6 and 7 of this Directive may be integrated into the procedures provided for in Directive 96/61/EC.
National allocation plan
1. For each period referred to in Article 11(1) and (2), each Member State shall develop a national plan stating the total quantity of allowances that it intends to allocate for that period and how it proposes to allocate them. The plan shall be based on objective and transparent criteria, including those listed in Annex III, taking due account of comments from the public. The Commission shall, without prejudice to the Treaty, by 31 December 2003 at the latest develop guidance on the implementation of the criteria listed in Annex III.
For the period referred to in Article 11(1), the plan shall be published and notified to the Commission and to the other Member States by 31 March 2004 at the latest. For subsequent periods, the plan shall be published and notified to the Commission and to the other Member States at least 18 months before the beginning of the relevant period.
2. National allocation plans shall be considered within the committee referred to in Article 23(1).
3. Within three months of notification of a national allocation plan by a Member State under paragraph 1, the Commission may reject that plan, or any aspect thereof, on the basis that it is incompatible with the criteria listed in Annex III or with Article 10. The Member State shall only take a decision under Article 11(1) or (2) if proposed amendments are accepted by the Commission. Reasons shall be given for any rejection decision by the Commission.
Method of allocation
For the three-year period beginning 1 January 2005 Member States shall allocate at least 95 % of the allowances free of charge. For the five-year period beginning 1 January 2008, Member States shall allocate at least 90 % of the allowances free of charge.
Allocation and issue of allowances
1. For the three-year period beginning 1 January 2005, each Member State shall decide upon the total quantity of allowances it will allocate for that period and the allocation of those allowances to the operator of each installation. This decision shall be taken at least three months before the beginning of the period and be based on its national allocation plan developed pursuant to Article 9 and in accordance with Article 10, taking due account of comments from the public.
2. For the five-year period beginning 1 January 2008, and for each subsequent five-year period, each Member State shall decide upon the total quantity of allowances it will allocate for that period and initiate the process for the allocation of those allowances to the operator of each installation. This decision shall be taken at least 12 months before the beginning of the relevant period and be based on the Member State's national allocation plan developed pursuant to Article 9 and in accordance with Article 10, taking due account of comments from the public.
3. Decisions taken pursuant to paragraph 1 or 2 shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Treaty, in particular Articles 87 and 88 thereof. When deciding upon allocation, Member States shall take into account the need to provide access to allowances for new entrants.
4. The competent authority shall issue a proportion of the total quantity of allowances each year of the period referred to in paragraph 1 or 2, by 28 February of that year.
Transfer, surrender and cancellation of allowances
1. Member States shall ensure that allowances can be transferred between:
(a) persons within the Community;
(b) persons within the Community and persons in third countries, where such allowances are recognised in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 25 without restrictions other than those contained in, or adopted pursuant to, this Directive.
2. Member States shall ensure that allowances issued by a competent authority of another Member State are recognised for the purpose of meeting an operator's obligations under paragraph 3.
3. Member States shall ensure that, by 30 April each year at the latest, the operator of each installation surrenders a number of allowances equal to the total emissions from that installation during the preceding calendar year as verified in accordance with Article 15, and that these are subsequently cancelled.
4. Member States shall take the necessary steps to ensure that allowances will be cancelled at any time at the request of the person holding them.
Validity of allowances
1. Allowances shall be valid for emissions during the period referred to in Article 11(1) or (2) for which they are issued.
2. Four months after the beginning of the first five-year period referred to in Article 11(2), allowances which are no longer valid and have not been surrendered and cancelled in accordance with Article 12(3) shall be cancelled by the competent authority.
Member States may issue allowances to persons for the current period to replace any allowances held by them which are cancelled in accordance with the first subparagraph.
3. Four months after the beginning of each subsequent five-year period referred to in Article 11(2), allowances which are no longer valid and have not been surrendered and cancelled in accordance with Article 12(3) shall be cancelled by the competent authority.
Member States shall issue allowances to persons for the current period to replace any allowances held by them which are cancelled in accordance with the first subparagraph.
Guidelines for monitoring and reporting of emissions
1. The Commission shall adopt guidelines for monitoring and reporting of emissions resulting from the activities listed in Annex I of greenhouse gases specified in relation to those activities, in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2), by 30 September 2003. The guidelines shall be based on the principles for monitoring and reporting set out in Annex IV.
2. Member States shall ensure that emissions are monitored in accordance with the guidelines.
3. Member States shall ensure that each operator of an installation reports the emissions from that installation during each calendar year to the competent authority after the end of that year in accordance with the guidelines.
Member States shall ensure that the reports submitted by operators pursuant to Article 14(3) are verified in accordance with the criteria set out in Annex V, and that the competent authority is informed thereof.
Member States shall ensure that an operator whose report has not been verified as satisfactory in accordance with the criteria set out in Annex V by 31 March each year for emissions during the preceding year cannot make further transfers of allowances until a report from that operator has been verified as satisfactory.
1. Member States shall lay down the rules on penalties applicable to infringements of the national provisions adopted pursuant to this Directive and shall take all measures necessary to ensure that such rules are implemented. The penalties provided for must be effective, proportionate and dissuasive. Member States shall notify these provisions to the Commission by 31 December 2003 at the latest, and shall notify it without delay of any subsequent amendment affecting them.
2. Member States shall ensure publication of the names of operators who are in breach of requirements to surrender sufficient allowances under Article 12(3).
3. Member States shall ensure that any operator who does not surrender sufficient allowances by 30 April of each year to cover its emissions during the preceding year shall be held liable for the payment of an excess emissions penalty. The excess emissions penalty shall be EUR 100 for each tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted by that installation for which the operator has not surrendered allowances. Payment of the excess emissions penalty shall not release the operator from the obligation to surrender an amount of allowances equal to those excess emissions when surrendering allowances in relation to the following calendar year.
4. During the three-year period beginning 1 January 2005, Member States shall apply a lower excess emissions penalty of EUR 40 for each tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted by that installation for which the operator has not surrendered allowances. Payment of the excess emissions penalty shall not release the operator from the obligation to surrender an amount of allowances equal to those excess emissions when surrendering allowances in relation to the following calendar year.
Access to information
Decisions relating to the allocation of allowances and the reports of emissions required under the greenhouse gas emissions permit and held by the competent authority shall be made available to the public by that authority subject to the restrictions laid down in Article 3(3) and Article 4 of Directive 2003/4/EC.
Member States shall make the appropriate administrative arrangements, including the designation of the appropriate competent authority or authorities, for the implementation of the rules of this Directive. Where more than one competent authority is designated, the work of these authorities undertaken pursuant to this Directive must be coordinated.
1. Member States shall provide for the establishment and maintenance of a registry in order to ensure the accurate accounting of the issue, holding, transfer and cancellation of allowances. Member States may maintain their registries in a consolidated system, together with one or more other Member States.
2. Any person may hold allowances. The registry shall be accessible to the public and shall contain separate accounts to record the allowances held by each person to whom and from whom allowances are issued or transferred.
3. In order to implement this Directive, the Commission shall adopt a Regulation in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2) for a standardised and secured system of registries in the form of standardised electronic databases containing common data elements to track the issue, holding, transfer and cancellation of allowances, to provide for public access and confidentiality as appropriate and to ensure that there are no transfers incompatible with obligations resulting from the Kyoto Protocol.
1. The Commission shall designate a Central Administrator to maintain an independent transaction log recording the issue, transfer and cancellation of allowances.
2. The Central Administrator shall conduct an automated check on each transaction in registries through the independent transaction log to ensure there are no irregularities in the issue, transfer and cancellation of allowances.
3. If irregularities are identified through the automated check, the Central Administrator shall inform the Member State or Member States concerned who shall not register the transactions in question or any further transactions relating to the allowances concerned until the irregularities have been resolved.
Reporting by Member States
1. Each year the Member States shall submit to the Commission a report on the application of this Directive. This report shall pay particular attention to the arrangements for the allocation of allowances, the operation of registries, the application of the monitoring and reporting guidelines, verification and issues relating to compliance with the Directive and on the fiscal treatment of allowances, if any. The first report shall be sent to the Commission by 30 June 2005. The report shall be drawn up on the basis of a questionnaire or outline drafted by the Commission in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 6 of Directive 91/692/EEC. The questionnaire or outline shall be sent to Member States at least six months before the deadline for the submission of the first report.
2. On the basis of the reports referred to in paragraph 1, the Commission shall publish a report on the application of this Directive within three months of receiving the reports from the Member States.
3. The Commission shall organise an exchange of information between the competent authorities of the Member States concerning developments relating to issues of allocation, the operation of registries, monitoring, reporting, verification and compliance.
Amendments to Annex III
The Commission may amend Annex III, with the exception of criteria (1), (5) and (7), for the period from 2008 to 2012 in the light of the reports provided for in Article 21 and of the experience of the application of this Directive, in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2).
1. The Commission shall be assisted by the committee instituted by Article 8 of Decision 93/389/EEC.
2. Where reference is made to this paragraph, Articles 5 and 7 of Decision 1999/468/EC shall apply, having regard to the provisions of Article 8 thereof.
The period laid down in Article 5(6) of Decision 1999/468/EC shall be set at three months.
3. The Committee shall adopt its rules of procedure.
Procedures for unilateral inclusion of additional activities and gases
1. From 2008, Member States may apply emission allowance trading in accordance with this Directive to activities, installations and greenhouse gases which are not listed in Annex I, provided that inclusion of such activities, installations and greenhouse gases is approved by the Commission in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2), taking into account all relevant criteria, in particular effects on the internal market, potential distortions of competition, the environmental integrity of the scheme and reliability of the planned monitoring and reporting system.
From 2005 Member States may under the same conditions apply emissions allowance trading to installations carrying out activities listed in Annex I below the capacity limits referred to in that Annex.
2. Allocations made to installations carrying out such activities shall be specified in the national allocation plan referred to in Article 9.
3. The Commission may, on its own initiative, or shall, on request by a Member State, adopt monitoring and reporting guidelines for emissions from activities, installations and greenhouse gases which are not listed in Annex I in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2), if monitoring and reporting of these emissions can be carried out with sufficient accuracy.
4. In the event that such measures are introduced, reviews carried out pursuant to Article 30 shall also consider whether Annex I should be amended to include emissions from these activities in a harmonised way throughout the Community.
Links with other greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes
1. Agreements should be concluded with third countries listed in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol which have ratified the Protocol to provide for the mutual recognition of allowances between the Community scheme and other greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes in accordance with the rules set out in Article 300 of the Treaty.
2. Where an agreement referred to in paragraph 1 has been concluded, the Commission shall draw up any necessary provisions relating to the mutual recognition of allowances under that agreement in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2).
Amendment of Directive 96/61/EC
In Article 9(3) of Directive 96/61/EC the following subparagraphs shall be added:"Where emissions of a greenhouse gas from an installation are specified in Annex I to Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC(13) in relation to an activity carried out in that installation, the permit shall not include an emission limit value for direct emissions of that gas unless it is necessary to ensure that no significant local pollution is caused.
For activities listed in Annex I to Directive 2003/87/EC, Member States may choose not to impose requirements relating to energy efficiency in respect of combustion units or other units emitting carbon dioxide on the site.
Where necessary, the competent authorities shall amend the permit as appropriate.
The three preceding subparagraphs shall not apply to installations temporarily excluded from the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community in accordance with Article 27 of Directive 2003/87/EC."
Temporary exclusion of certain installations
1. Member States may apply to the Commission for installations to be temporarily excluded until 31 December 2007 at the latest from the Community scheme. Any such application shall list each such installation and shall be published.
2. If, having considered any comments made by the public on that application, the Commission decides, in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2), that the installations will:
(a) as a result of national policies, limit their emissions as much as would be the case if they were subject to the provisions of this Directive;
(b) be subject to monitoring, reporting and verification requirements which are equivalent to those provided for pursuant to Articles 14 and 15; and
(c) be subject to penalties at least equivalent to those referred to in Article 16(1) and (4) in the case of non-fulfilment of national requirements;
it shall provide for the temporary exclusion of those installations from the Community scheme.
It must be ensured that there will be no distortion of the internal market.
1. Member States may allow operators of installations carrying out one of the activities listed in Annex I to form a pool of installations from the same activity for the period referred to in Article 11(1) and/or the first five-year period referred to in Article 11(2) in accordance with paragraphs 2 to 6 of this Article.
2. Operators carrying out an activity listed in Annex I who wish to form a pool shall apply to the competent authority, specifying the installations and the period for which they want the pool and supplying evidence that a trustee will be able to fulfil the obligations referred to in paragraphs 3 and 4.
3. Operators wishing to form a pool shall nominate a trustee:
(a) to be issued with the total quantity of allowances calculated by installation of the operators, by way of derogation from Article 11;
(b) to be responsible for surrendering allowances equal to the total emissions from installations in the pool, by way of derogation from Articles 6(2)(e) and 12(3); and
(c) to be restricted from making further transfers in the event that an operator's report has not been verified as satisfactory in accordance with the second paragraph of Article 15.
4. The trustee shall be subject to the penalties applicable for breaches of requirements to surrender sufficient allowances to cover the total emissions from installations in the pool, by way of derogation from Article 16(2), (3) and (4).
5. A Member State that wishes to allow one or more pools to be formed shall submit the application referred to in paragraph 2 to the Commission. Without prejudice to the Treaty, the Commission may within three months of receipt reject an application that does not fulfil the requirements of this Directive. Reasons shall be given for any such decision. In the case of rejection the Member State may only allow the pool to be formed if proposed amendments are accepted by the Commission.
6. In the event that the trustee fails to comply with penalties referred to in paragraph 4, each operator of an installation in the pool shall be responsible under Articles 12(3) and 16 in respect of emissions from its own installation.
1. During the period referred to in Article 11(1), Member States may apply to the Commission for certain installations to be issued with additional allowances in cases of force majeure. The Commission shall determine whether force majeure is demonstrated, in which case it shall authorise the issue of additional and non-transferable allowances by that Member State to the operators of those installations.
2. The Commission shall, without prejudice to the Treaty, develop guidance to describe the circumstances under which force majeure is demonstrated, by 31 December 2003 at the latest.
Review and further development
1. On the basis of progress achieved in the monitoring of emissions of greenhouse gases, the Commission may make a proposal to the European Parliament and the Council by 31 December 2004 to amend Annex I to include other activities and emissions of other greenhouse gases listed in Annex II.
2. On the basis of experience of the application of this Directive and of progress achieved in the monitoring of emissions of greenhouse gases and in the light of developments in the international context, the Commission shall draw up a report on the application of this Directive, considering:
(a) how and whether Annex I should be amended to include other relevant sectors, inter alia the chemicals, aluminium and transport sectors, activities and emissions of other greenhouse gases listed in Annex II, with a view to further improving the economic efficiency of the scheme;
(b) the relationship of Community emission allowance trading with the international emissions trading that will start in 2008;
(c) further harmonisation of the method of allocation (including auctioning for the time after 2012) and of the criteria for national allocation plans referred to in Annex III;
(d) the use of credits from project mechanisms;
(e) the relationship of emissions trading with other policies and measures implemented at Member State and Community level, including taxation, that pursue the same objectives;
(f) whether it is appropriate for there to be a single Community registry;
(g) the level of excess emissions penalties, taking into account, inter alia, inflation;
(h) the functioning of the allowance market, covering in particular any possible market disturbances;
(i) how to adapt the Community scheme to an enlarged European Union;
(k) the practicality of developing Community-wide benchmarks as a basis for allocation, taking into account the best available techniques and cost-benefit analysis.
The Commission shall submit this report to the European Parliament and the Council by 30 June 2006, accompanied by proposals as appropriate.
3. Linking the project-based mechanisms, including Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), with the Community scheme is desirable and important to achieve the goals of both reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the cost-effective functioning of the Community scheme. Therefore, the emission credits from the project-based mechanisms will be recognised for their use in this scheme subject to provisions adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on a proposal from the Commission, which should apply in parallel with the Community scheme in 2005. The use of the mechanisms shall be supplemental to domestic action, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Kyoto Protocol and Marrakesh Accords.
1. Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive by 31 December 2003 at the latest. They shall forthwith inform the Commission thereof. The Commission shall notify the other Member States of these laws, regulations and administrative provisions.
When Member States adopt these measures, they shall contain a reference to this Directive or be accompanied by such a reference on the occasion of their official publication. The methods of making such reference shall be laid down by Member States.
2. Member States shall communicate to the Commission the text of the provisions of national law which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive. The Commission shall inform the other Member States thereof.
Entry into force
This Directive shall enter into force on the day of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.
This Directive is addressed to the Member States.
Done at Luxembourg, 13 October 2003.
For the European Parliament
For the Council
(1) OJ C 75 E, 26.3.2002, p. 33.
(2) OJ C 221, 17.9.2002, p. 27.
(3) OJ C 192, 12.8.2002, p. 59.
(4) Opinion of the European Parliament of 10 October 2002 (not yet published in the Official Journal), Council Common Position of 18 March 2003 (OJ C 125 E, 27.5.2003, p. 72), Decision of the European Parliament of 2 July 2003 (not yet published in the Official Journal) and Council Decision of 22 July 2003.
(5) OJ L 242, 10.9.2002, p. 1.
(6) OJ L 33, 7.2.1994, p. 11.
(7) OJ L 130, 15.5.2002, p. 1.
(8) OJ L 167, 9.7.1993, p. 31. Decision as amended by Decision 1999/296/EC (OJ L 117, 5.5.1999, p. 35).
(9) OJ L 41, 14.2.2003, p. 26.
(10) OJ L 377, 31.12.1991, p. 48.
(11) OJ L 257, 10.10.1996, p. 26.
(12) OJ L 184, 17.7.1999, p. 23.
(13) OJ L 275, 25.10.2003, p. 32.
CATEGORIES OF ACTIVITIES REFERRED TO IN ARTICLES 2(1), 3, 4, 14(1), 28 AND 30
1. Installations or parts of installations used for research, development and testing of new products and processes are not covered by this Directive.
2. The threshold values given below generally refer to production capacities or outputs. Where one operator carries out several activities falling under the same subheading in the same installation or on the same site, the capacities of such activities are added together.
GREENHOUSE GASES REFERRED TO IN ARTICLES 3 AND 30
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6)
CRITERIA FOR NATIONAL ALLOCATION PLANS REFERRED TO IN ARTICLES 9, 22 AND 30
1. The total quantity of allowances to be allocated for the relevant period shall be consistent with the Member State's obligation to limit its emissions pursuant to Decision 2002/358/EC and the Kyoto Protocol, taking into account, on the one hand, the proportion of overall emissions that these allowances represent in comparison with emissions from sources not covered by this Directive and, on the other hand, national energy policies, and should be consistent with the national climate change programme. The total quantity of allowances to be allocated shall not be more than is likely to be needed for the strict application of the criteria of this Annex. Prior to 2008, the quantity shall be consistent with a path towards achieving or over-achieving each Member State's target under Decision 2002/358/EC and the Kyoto Protocol.
2. The total quantity of allowances to be allocated shall be consistent with assessments of actual and projected progress towards fulfilling the Member States' contributions to the Community's commitments made pursuant to Decision 93/389/EEC.
3. Quantities of allowances to be allocated shall be consistent with the potential, including the technological potential, of activities covered by this scheme to reduce emissions. Member States may base their distribution of allowances on average emissions of greenhouse gases by product in each activity and achievable progress in each activity.
4. The plan shall be consistent with other Community legislative and policy instruments. Account should be taken of unavoidable increases in emissions resulting from new legislative requirements.
5. The plan shall not discriminate between companies or sectors in such a way as to unduly favour certain undertakings or activities in accordance with the requirements of the Treaty, in particular Articles 87 and 88 thereof.
6. The plan shall contain information on the manner in which new entrants will be able to begin participating in the Community scheme in the Member State concerned.
7. The plan may accommodate early action and shall contain information on the manner in which early action is taken into account. Benchmarks derived from reference documents concerning the best available technologies may be employed by Member States in developing their National Allocation Plans, and these benchmarks can incorporate an element of accommodating early action.
8. The plan shall contain information on the manner in which clean technology, including energy efficient technologies, are taken into account.
9. The plan shall include provisions for comments to be expressed by the public, and contain information on the arrangements by which due account will be taken of these comments before a decision on the allocation of allowances is taken.
10. The plan shall contain a list of the installations covered by this Directive with the quantities of allowances intended to be allocated to each.
11. The plan may contain information on the manner in which the existence of competition from countries or entities outside the Union will be taken into account.
PRINCIPLES FOR MONITORING AND REPORTING REFERRED TO IN ARTICLE 14(1)
Monitoring of carbon dioxide emissions
Emissions shall be monitored either by calculation or on the basis of measurement.
Calculations of emissions shall be performed using the formula:
Activity data × Emission factor × Oxidation factor
Activity data (fuel used, production rate etc.) shall be monitored on the basis of supply data or measurement.
Accepted emission factors shall be used. Activity-specific emission factors are acceptable for all fuels. Default factors are acceptable for all fuels except non-commercial ones (waste fuels such as tyres and industrial process gases). Seam-specific defaults for coal, and EU-specific or producer country-specific defaults for natural gas shall be further elaborated. IPCC default values are acceptable for refinery products. The emission factor for biomass shall be zero.
If the emission factor does not take account of the fact that some of the carbon is not oxidised, then an additional oxidation factor shall be used. If activity-specific emission factors have been calculated and already take oxidation into account, then an oxidation factor need not be applied.
Default oxidation factors developed pursuant to Directive 96/61/EC shall be used, unless the operator can demonstrate that activity-specific factors are more accurate.
A separate calculation shall be made for each activity, installation and for each fuel.
Measurement of emissions shall use standardised or accepted methods, and shall be corroborated by a supporting calculation of emissions.
Monitoring of emissions of other greenhouse gases
Standardised or accepted methods shall be used, developed by the Commission in collaboration with all relevant stakeholders and adopted in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2).
Reporting of emissions
Each operator shall include the following information in the report for an installation:
A. Data identifying the installation, including:
- Name of the installation;
- Its address, including postcode and country;
- Type and number of Annex I activities carried out in the installation;
- Address, telephone, fax and email details for a contact person; and
- Name of the owner of the installation, and of any parent company.
B. For each Annex I activity carried out on the site for which emissions are calculated:
- Activity data;
- Emission factors;
- Oxidation factors;
- Total emissions; and
C. For each Annex I activity carried out on the site for which emissions are measured:
- Total emissions;
- Information on the reliability of measurement methods; and
D. For emissions from combustion, the report shall also include the oxidation factor, unless oxidation has already been taken into account in the development of an activity-specific emission factor.
Member States shall take measures to coordinate reporting requirements with any existing reporting requirements in order to minimise the reporting burden on businesses.
CRITERIA FOR VERIFICATION REFERRED TO IN ARTICLE 15
1. Emissions from each activity listed in Annex I shall be subject to verification.
2. The verification process shall include consideration of the report pursuant to Article 14(3) and of monitoring during the preceding year. It shall address the reliability, credibility and accuracy of monitoring systems and the reported data and information relating to emissions, in particular:
(a) the reported activity data and related measurements and calculations;
(b) the choice and the employment of emission factors;
(c) the calculations leading to the determination of the overall emissions; and
(d) if measurement is used, the appropriateness of the choice and the employment of measuring methods.
3. Reported emissions may only be validated if reliable and credible data and information allow the emissions to be determined with a high degree of certainty. A high degree of certainty requires the operator to show that:
(a) the reported data is free of inconsistencies;
(b) the collection of the data has been carried out in accordance with the applicable scientific standards; and
(c) the relevant records of the installation are complete and consistent.
4. The verifier shall be given access to all sites and information in relation to the subject of the verification.
5. The verifier shall take into account whether the installation is registered under the Community eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS).
6. The verification shall be based on a strategic analysis of all the activities carried out in the installation. This requires the verifier to have an overview of all the activities and their significance for emissions.
7. The verification of the information submitted shall, where appropriate, be carried out on the site of the installation. The verifier shall use spot-checks to determine the reliability of the reported data and information.
8. The verifier shall submit all the sources of emissions in the installation to an evaluation with regard to the reliability of the data of each source contributing to the overall emissions of the installation.
9. On the basis of this analysis the verifier shall explicitly identify those sources with a high risk of error and other aspects of the monitoring and reporting procedure which are likely to contribute to errors in the determination of the overall emissions. This especially involves the choice of the emission factors and the calculations necessary to determine the level of the emissions from individual sources. Particular attention shall be given to those sources with a high risk of error and the abovementioned aspects of the monitoring procedure.
10. The verifier shall take into consideration any effective risk control methods applied by the operator with a view to minimising the degree of uncertainty.
11. The verifier shall prepare a report on the validation process stating whether the report pursuant to Article 14(3) is satisfactory. This report shall specify all issues relevant to the work carried out. A statement that the report pursuant to Article 14(3) is satisfactory may be made if, in the opinion of the verifier, the total emissions are not materially misstated.
Minimum competency requirements for the verifier
12. The verifier shall be independent of the operator, carry out his activities in a sound and objective professional manner, and understand:
(a) the provisions of this Directive, as well as relevant standards and guidance adopted by the Commission pursuant to Article 14(1);
(b) the legislative, regulatory, and administrative requirements relevant to the activities being verified; and
(c) the generation of all information related to each source of emissions in the installation, in particular, relating to the collection, measurement, calculation and reporting of data.