2002/946/JHA: Council framework Decision of 28 November 2002 on the strengthening of the penal framework to prevent the facilitation of unauthorised entry, transit and residence
OJ L 328, 5.12.2002, p. 1–3 (ES, DA, DE, EL, EN, FR, IT, NL, PT, FI, SV)
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Council framework Decision
of 28 November 2002
on the strengthening of the penal framework to prevent the facilitation of unauthorised entry, transit and residence
THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,
Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Union, and in particular Article 29, Article 31(e) and Article 34(2)(b) thereof,
Having regard to the initiative of the French Republic(1),
Having regard to the opinion of the European Parliament(2),
(1) One of the objectives of the European Union is to provide citizens with a high level of safety within an area of freedom, security and justice by developing common action among the Member States in the fields of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters.
(2) In this framework, measures should be taken to combat the aiding of illegal immigration both in connection with unauthorised crossing of the border in the strict sense and for the purpose of sustaining networks which exploit human beings.
(3) To that end it is essential to approximate existing legal provisions, in particular, on the one hand, the precise definition of the infringement in question and the cases of exemption, which is the subject of Council Directive 2002/90/EC of 28 November 2002 defining the facilitation of unauthorised entry, transit and residence(3) and, on the other hand, minimum rules for penalties, liability of legal persons and jurisdiction, which is the subject of this framework Decision.
(4) It is likewise essential not to confine possible actions to natural persons only but to provide for measures relating to the liability of legal persons.
(5) This framework Decision supplements other instruments adopted in order to combat illegal immigration, illegal employment, trafficking in human beings and the sexual exploitation of children.
(6) As regards Iceland and Norway, this framework Decision constitutes a development of provisions of the Schengen acquis within the meaning of the Agreement concluded by the Council of the European Union and the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway concerning the association of those two States with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis(4), which fall within the area referred to in Article 1(E) of Council Decision 1999/437/EC of 17 May 1999 on certain arrangements for the application of that Agreement(5).
(7) The United Kingdom is taking part in this framework Decision in accordance with Article 5 of the Protocol integrating the Schengen acquis into the framework of the European Union annexed to the Treaty on European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and Article 8(2) of Council Decision 2000/365/EC of 29 May 2000 concerning the request of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to take part in some of the provisions of the Schengen acquis(6).
(8) Ireland is taking part in this framework Decision in accordance with Article 5 of the Protocol integrating the Schengen acquis into the framework of the European Union annexed to the Treaty on European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and Article 6(2) of Council Decision 2002/192/EC of 28 February 2002 concerning Ireland's request to take part in some of the provisions of the Schengen acquis(7),
HAS ADOPTED THIS FRAMEWORK DECISION:
1. Each Member State shall take the measures necessary to ensure that the infringements defined in Articles 1 and 2 of Directive 2002/90/EC are punishable by effective, proportionate and dissuasive criminal penalties which may entail extradition.
2. Where appropriate, the criminal penalties covered in paragraph 1 may be accompanied by the following measures:
- confiscation of the means of transport used to commit the offence,
- a prohibition on practising directly or through an intermediary the occupational activity in the exercise of which the offence was committed,
3. Each Member State shall take the measures necessary to ensure that, when committed for financial gain, the infringements defined in Article 1(1)(a) and, to the extent relevant, Article 2(a) of Directive 2002/90/EC are punishable by custodial sentences with a maximum sentence of not less than eight years where they are committed in any of the following circumstances:
- the offence was committed as an activity of a criminal organisation as defined in Joint Action 98/733/JHA(8),
- the offence was committed while endangering the lives of the persons who are the subject of the offence.
4. If imperative to preserve the coherence of the national penalty system, the actions defined in paragraph 3 shall be punishable by custodial sentences with a maximum sentence of not less than six years, provided that it is among the most severe maximum sentences available for crimes of comparable gravity.
Liability of legal persons
1. Each Member State shall take the measures necessary to ensure that legal persons can be held liable for the infringements referred to in Article 1(1) and which are committed for their benefit by any person, acting either individually or as part of an organ of the legal person, who has a leading position within the legal person, based on:
- a power of representation of the legal person,
- an authority to take decisions on behalf of the legal person, or
- an authority to exercise control within the legal person.
2. Apart from the cases already provided for in paragraph 1, each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that a legal person can be held liable where the lack of supervision or control by a person referred to in paragraph 1 has made possible the commission of the infringements referred to in Article 1(1) for the benefit of that legal person by a person under its authority.
3. Liability of a legal person under paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not exclude criminal proceedings against natural persons who are perpetrators or instigators of or accessories in the offences referred to in paragraph 1.
Sanctions for legal persons
1. Each Member State shall take the measures necessary to ensure that a legal person held liable pursuant to Article 2(1) is punishable by effective, proportionate and dissuasive sanctions, which shall include criminal or non-criminal fines and may include other sanctions such as:
(a) exclusion from entitlement to public benefits or aid;
(b) temporary or permanent disqualification from the practice of commercial activities;
(c) placing under judicial supervision;
(d) a judicial winding-up order.
2. Each Member State shall take the measures necessary to ensure that a legal person held liable pursuant to Article 2(2) is punishable by effective, proportionate and dissuasive sanctions or measures.
1. Each Member State shall take the measures necessary to establish its jurisdiction with regard to the infringements referred to in Article 1(1) and committed
(a) in whole or in part within its territory;
(b) by one of its nationals, or
(c) for the benefit of a legal person established in the territory of that Member State.
2. Subject to the provisions of Article 5, any Member State may decide that it will not apply, or that it will apply only in specific cases or circumstances, the jurisdiction rule set out in:
- paragraph 1(b),
- paragraph 1(c).
3. Each Member State shall inform the Secretary-General of the Council in writing if it decides to apply paragraph 2, where appropriate with an indication of the specific circumstances or conditions in which its decision applies.
Extradition and prosecution
1. (a) Any Member State which, under its law, does not extradite its own nationals shall take the necessary measures to establish its jurisdiction over the infringements referred to in Article 1(1) when such infringements are committed by its own nationals outside its territory.
(b) Each Member State shall, when one of its nationals is alleged to have committed in another Member State the infringements referred to in Article 1(1) and it does not extradite that person to that other Member State solely on the ground of his nationality, submit the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution, if appropriate. In order to enable prosecution to take place, the files, information and exhibits relating to the offence shall be transmitted in accordance with the procedures laid down in Article 6(2) of the European Convention on Extradition of 13 December 1957. The requesting Member State shall be informed of the prosecution initiated and of its outcome.
2. For the purpose of this Article, a "national" of a Member State shall be construed in accordance with any declaration made by that State under Article 6(1)(b) and (c) of the European Convention on Extradition, where appropriate as amended by any declarations made with respect to the Convention relating to extradition between the Member States of the European Union(9).
International law on refugees
This framework Decision shall apply without prejudice to the protection afforded refugees and asylum seekers in accordance with international law on refugees or other international instruments relating to human rights, in particular Member States' compliance with their international obligations pursuant to Articles 31 and 33 of the 1951 Convention relating to the status of refugees, as amended by the Protocol of New York of 1967.
Communication of information between the Member States
1. If a Member State is informed of infringements referred to in Article 1(1) which are in breach of the law on the entry and residence of aliens of another Member State, it shall inform the latter accordingly.
2. Any Member State which requests another Member State to prosecute, on the grounds of a breach of its own laws on the entry and residence of aliens, infringements referred to in Article 1(1) must specify, by means of an official report or a certificate from the competent authorities, the provisions of its law which have been breached.
This framework Decision shall apply to Gibraltar.
1. Member States shall adopt the measures necessary to comply with the provisions of this framework Decision before 5 December 2004.
2. By the same date, Member States shall transmit to the General Secretariat of the Council and to the Commission the text of the provisions transposing into their national law the obligations imposed on them by this framework Decision. On the basis of a report established using this information by the Commission, the Council shall, before 5 June 2005, assess the extent to which Member States have complied with the provisions of this framework Decision.
The provisions of Article 27(2) and (3) of the 1990 Schengen Convention shall be repealed as from 5 December 2004. Where a Member State implements this framework Decision pursuant to Article 9(1) in advance of that date, the said provisions shall cease to apply to that Member State from the date of implementation.
Entry into force
This framework Decision shall enter into force on the day of its publication in the Official Journal.
Done at Brussels, 28 November 2002.
For the Council
(1) OJ C 253, 4.9.2000, p. 6.
(2) OJ C 276, 1.10.2001, p. 244.
(3) See page 17 of this Official Journal.
(4) OJ L 176, 10.7.1999, p. 36.
(5) OJ L 176, 10.7.1999, p. 31.
(6) OJ L 131, 1.6.2000, p. 43.
(7) OJ L 64, 7.3.2002, p. 20.
(8) OJ L 351, 29.12.1998, p. 1.
(9) OJ C 313, 23.10.1996, p. 12.