1999/414/CFSP: Common Strategy of the European Union of 4 June 1999 on Russia
OJ L 157, 24.6.1999, p. 1–10 (ES, DA, DE, EL, EN, FR, IT, NL, PT, FI, SV)
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COMMON STRATEGY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
of 4 June 1999
THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL,
Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, in particular Article 13 thereof,
Whereas the Agreement on Partnership and Cooperation (PCA) between the European Communities, their Member States and the Russian Federation entered into force on 1 December 1997,
HAS ADOPTED THIS COMMON STRATEGY:
VISION OF THE EU FOR ITS PARTNERSHIP WITH RUSSIA
A stable, democratic and prosperous Russia, firmly anchored in a united Europe free of new dividing lines, is essential to lasting peace on the continent. The issues which the whole continent faces can be resolved only through ever closer cooperation between Russia and the European-Union. The European Union welcomes Russia's return to its rightful place in the European family in a spirit of friendship, cooperation, fair accommodation of interests and on the foundations of shared values enshrined in the common heritage of European civilisation.
The European Union has clear strategic goals:
- a stable, open and pluralistic democracy in Russia, governed by the rule of law and underpinning a prosperous market economy benefiting alike all the people of Russia and of the European Union,
- maintaining European stability, promoting global security and responding to the common challenges of the continent through intensified cooperation with Russia.
The Union remains firmly committed to working with Russia, at federal, regional and local levels, to support a successful political and economic transformation in Russia. The Union and its Member States offer to share with Russia their various experiences in building modern political, economic, social and administrative structures, fully recognising that the main responsibility for Russia's future lies with Russia itself.
The European Council therefore adopts this Common Strategy to strengthen the strategic partnership between the Union and Russia at the dawn of a new century. The European Council recognises that the future of Russia is an essential element in the future of the continent and constitutes a strategic interest for the European Union. The offer of a reinforced relationship, based on shared democratic values, will help Russia to assert its European identity and bring new opportunities to all the peoples of the continent. The enlargement of the Union will further increase these benefits and opportunities.
This Common Strategy sets out the objectives as well as the means to be used by the Union in taking forward this partnership. The core of the relationship between the Union and Russia remains the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA), with its aim of promoting the integration of Russia into a wider area of cooperation in Europe, as well as through creating the necessary conditions for the future establishment of a free trade area between the European Community and Russia. For their part the European Union and its Member States will develop the coordination, coherence and complementarity of all aspects of their policy towards Russia. The Union, the Community and its Member States will also work together with and within regional and other organisations and with like-minded partners to meet the objectives set out in this Common Strategy. The positions taken by the Member States in all relevant forums will conform to this Common Strategy. The European Council invites Russia to work with the Union on the basis of this Common Strategy to the benefit of both.
The European Council has identified the following principal objectives:
1. Consolidation of democracy, the rule of law and public institutions in Russia
The establishment of efficient, transparent public institutions is one of the prerequisites for confidence and wider adherence to democratic guidelines and the operation of the rule of law. It constitutes the necessary foundation for economic and social development. The situation in Russia calls for the use of appropriate mechanisms and means to strengthen such institutions in terms of efficiency and responsibility.
The Union wishes to support Russia in the consolidation of its public institutions, particularly its executive, legislative and judicial bodies and its police, in accordance with democratic principles. Institutions which are essential for the operation of the economy form the second part of this objective. The European Union will attach particular importance to regional and local administrations, within their powers. Relations between central, regional and local authorities are an essential factor in the future of the Federation.
The emergence of civil society in all areas is indispensable for the consolidation of democracy in Russia. The European Union wishes to support that process, particularly by developing direct exchanges between civil society actors in Russia and the Union.
2. Integration of Russia into a common European economic and social space
The Union and Russia both have an interest in enabling Russia to integrate into a common economic and social space in Europe. The Union is already Russia's main trading partner and Russia itself provides a significant part of the Union's energy supplies. European undertakings have also made major investments in Russia.
In the first instance, an operational market economy needs to be put in place. The recent crisis in Russia has demonstrated the need to pursue that objective with vigour. The major effort must obviously come from Russia, in the context of a comprehensive and sustainable economic programme approved by the IMF. This programme must address, inter alia, the problems of enterprise restructuring, public finance, the banking system and "corporate governance". The Union is ready to provide support in that framework.
The Union considers that the rule of law is a prerequisite for the development of a market economy which offers opportunities and benefits to all the citizens of Russia. Russia's development and future prosperity depend first and foremost on sound domestic policies and economic management, for which the establishment of a fair and transparent legislative and regulatory framework, as well as of the necessary institutions, is essential. Attracting domestic and foreign investment, which would be greatly enhanced by Russia's access to international financial markets, plays a key role in its development. The Union will therefore support Russia in developing and adopting the economic policies needed to strengthen the confidence necessary to increase domestic and foreign investment and to meet the requirements of international lenders.
The Union is committed to the integration of Russia into the European and world economy. In this context, the Union will support Russia's efforts in meeting the requirements of WTO membership. It will also examine how to create the necessary conditions, in addition to WTO accession, for the future establishment of an EU-Russia free trade area. The progressive approximation of legislation and standards between Russia and the European Union, in accordance with the PCA, will facilitate the creation of a common economic area.
Finally, the establishment of a market economy must take account of the social aspects of transition and the needs of the Russian people, particularly those who are most deprived. The Union is ready to provide expertise and to step up exchanges in this area.
3. Cooperation to strengthen stability and security in Europe and beyond
Russia and the Union have strategic interests and exercise particular responsibilities in the maintenance of stability and security in Europe, and in other parts of the world.
The Union considers Russia an essential partner in achieving that objective and is determined to cooperate with her. It proposes that the strategic partnership develop within the framework of a permanent policy and security dialogue designed to bring interests closer together and to respond jointly to some of the challenges to security on the European continent. That dialogue will allow greater concertation in all the relevant forums to which both Russia and the Member States belong, particularly the UN and the OSCE.
4. Common challenges on the European continent
Geographical proximity, as well as the deepening of relations and the development of exchanges between the Union and Russia, are leading to growing interdependence in a large number of areas. Only through common responses will it be possible to find solutions to challenges which are more and more often common to both parties.
The Union and Russia have a common interest in developing their energy policies in such a way as to improve the exploitation and management of resources and security of supplies in Russia and in Europe.
Nuclear safety is an essential issue. The Union is prepared to continue providing expertise and support in that area.
The environment is the common property of the people of Russia and the European Union. The sustainable use of natural resources, management of nuclear waste and the fight against air and water pollution, particularly across frontiers, are priorities in this area.
Russia and the Union have a common interest in stepping up their cooperation in the fight against common scourges, such as organised crime, money-laundering, illegal trafficking in human beings and drug trafficking. The fight against illegal immigration is also a major preoccupation. The Union proposes to put increased cooperation in place in these areas by creating the necessary tools and forms of cooperation between the competent bodies and by developing exchanges of experts. It is also ready to offer its expertise, particularly in the development of legislation and competent institutions.
Regional cooperation, particularly in the framework of existing regional organisations, is a useful framework for putting practical cooperation in place which will allow a local response to these challenges.
INSTRUMENTS AND MEANS
1. General provisions
This Common Strategy shall be implemented in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Treaties. The European Council calls on the Council and the Commission in accordance with the responsibilities defined in Articles 3 and 13 of the Treaty on European Union to ensure the unity, consistency and effectiveness of the Union's actions in implementing this Common Strategy.
The European Union will work to achieve the objectives of this Common Strategy by making appropriate use of all relevant instruments and means available to the Union, the Community and to the Member States.
The Secretary-General of the Council, High Representative for the CFSP, shall assist the Council in implementing this Common Strategy in the framework of his or her obligations under the Treaties. The Commission shall be fully associated in accordance with Articles 18 and 27 of the Treaty on European Union.
2. The Council, the Commission and Member States
The European Council calls on the Council, the Commission and Member States:
- to review, according to their competencies and capacities, existing actions, programmes, instruments, and policies to ensure their consistency with this Strategy; and, where there are inconsistencies, to make the necessary adjustments at the earliest review date,
- to make full and appropriate use of existing instruments and means, in particular the PCA, as well as all relevant EU and Member States' instruments and Member States' programmes, and to develop and maintain to this end an indicative inventory of the resources of the Union, the Community and Member States through which this Common Strategy will be implemented.
Member States shall make additional efforts to coordinate their actions vis-à-vis Russia, including in regional and international organisations such as the Council of Europe, the UN, the OSCE and the IFIs, and including coordination with the Community where it has competencies.
Coordination between the Member States and the Commission must also be consolidated, including through regular consultations between their respective representatives in Russia.
The Council, the Commission and Member States shall work towards more effective cooperation with regional and international organisations, and will seek with other like-minded countries to achieve the objectives of the Strategy.
The European Union will invite the candidate countries to associate themselves with actions within the framework of this Common Strategy.
4. Implementation and review
The European Council requests the Council:
- to ensure that each incoming Presidency presents to the Council, in the framework of its general programme, a work plan for implementation of this Common Strategy, based on the areas of action in Part II and taking due account of the specific initiatives in Part III,
- to review and evaluate the Union's action under this Strategy and to report to the European Council on progress towards its objectives not less than annually,
- to review the situation in Russia and the state of Russia's cooperation in the implementation of this Strategy, including through periodic reports by the Heads of Mission, and make an assessment in its report to the European Council,
- where necessary, to submit recommendations for amendments to Parts II and III of this Strategy to the European Council.
The Commission will contribute to the above within its competence.
5. Cooperation with Russia
The European Union and its Member States will work closely together with Russia to implement this Common Strategy, in particular through the PCA and its institutions.
6. Specific initiatives
The Union shall pursue the specific initiatives set out in Part III of this Common Strategy which are based on the areas of action identified in Part II. These initiatives shall be adapted when necessary and do not preclude possible new initiatives during the duration of this Common Strategy. The Council, the Commission and the Member States shall, according to their competencies and capacities, support and work towards the achievement of these specific initiatives.
AREAS OF ACTION
The European Union shall focus on the following areas of action in implementing this Common Strategy:
1. Consolidation of democracy, the rule of law and public institutions in Russia
To enhance democracy, institution-building and the rule of law in Russia, which is a prerequisite for the development of a market economy, the Union will undertake efforts to:
(a) strengthen the rule of law and public institutions,
- by providing support for and by encouraging the necessary institutional reforms towards a modern and effective administration within Russia's executive, legislature, and judiciary at federal, regional and local levels; in particular by developing the capacity of an independent judiciary, public administration and accountable law enforcement structures through the promotion of contacts between judicial authorities and law enforcement bodies of the EU Member States and Russia,
- by developing training programmes for young politicians and civil servants,
- by exploring, in response to a Russian request, the scope for EU action, in cooperation with international organisations such as the OSCE, in support of the efficient conduct of free and fair Presidential and Duma elections in 1999 and 2000,
- by supporting Russian efforts to meet its international human rights commitments including those to the Council of Europe, the UN and the OSCE, and by promoting joint EU-Council of Europe activities regarding Russia in the fields of the rule of law and human rights; by giving assistance in safeguarding human rights, including those of women, children and minorities, and by enhancing programmes to promote the abolition of the death penalty.
(b) to strengthen civic society,
- by enhancing contacts between politicians of Russia and the EU, at federal, regional and local levels including with assemblies at all levels,
- by promoting greater cultural and educational exchanges between Russia and the EU, and deeper contacts between societies, building on the long tradition of Russia's involvement in the formation of European civilisation, in particular by reviewing and enhancing, as necessary, scholarships and student contact programmes,
- by supporting independent NGOs,
- by cooperating with Russia to strengthen support for refugees and internally displaced people within Russia,
- by contributing to the freedom of the media,
- by promoting equal opportunities for men and women.
2. Integration of Russia into a common European economic and social space
The EU will:
(a) consolidate the process of economic reform in Russia,
- by enhancing the impact of economic policy advice, including through high-level policy dialogue so as to promote the development of a market economy, taking fully into account the transitional problems arising from necessary structural change,
- by undertaking additional efforts, in the competent bodies, to coordinate EU policy in the context of international financial institutions,
- by assisting in securing and implementing a transparent and stable legislative and regulatory framework in Russia designed to promote economic activity and increased domestic and foreign investment,
- by promoting the establishment of the necessary legislative and institutional framework for sustainable fiscal policies (e.g. taxation, accounting, and control of spending),
- by also promoting credible banking sector reforms with fair conditions for foreign banks and effective donor coordination with full EU participation,
- by encouraging further structural, economic and administrative reforms including further privatisation, restructuring of business, and the growth of the Russian SME sector,
- by helping to make Russian industry, agriculture, and energy sectors more competitive,
- by helping to provide the basis for effective land reform in Russia, allowing the introduction of private property, and providing technical assistance to this process (e.g. through a functioning land register);
(b) support the integration of Russia into a wider area of economic cooperation in Europe,
- by promoting progressive approximation of legislation, in particular in the field of customs as well as standards and certification, competition policy and the environment,
- by encouraging the further integration of Russia into the multilateral trading system and by supporting Russian efforts to meet the requirements for WTO accession, including legislative and institutional reform,
- by examining how to create the necessary conditions, in addition to Russia's WTO accession, for the future establishment of an EU-Russia free trade area,
- by encouraging Russia to remove obstacles to trade and investment, in particular through the improvement of border crossing procedures and facilities, and by examining, in accordance with EU rules and procedures, Russian concerns with respect to access to the EU market,
- by exploring more concretely the scope for cooperation in areas of established Russian expertise (e.g. science, aircraft, space, energy),
- by promoting partnership with a view to enhancing the development of the cultural industries of Russia including in the field of arts management,
- by better coordinating and, as necessary, expanding existing European programmes to train Russian managers and entrepreneurs;
(c) lay the basis for a social market economy,
- by favouring social dialogue through supporting the emergence of modern trade unions and employer organisations,
- by encouraging wider adherence to core ILO labour standards,
- by seeking to ensure the social protection of all Russia's citizens, in particular vulnerable groups, through technical support of administrative reforms of the Russian social services and health care systems.
3. Cooperation to strengthen stability and security in Europe and beyond
The EU wishes to deepen and widen cooperation with Russia and identify common responses to the security challenges in Europe and beyond through:
(a) reinforcing political dialogue
- by considering ways to give more continuity to the existing political dialogue and render it more operational, including through the important role to be played by the Secretary-General of the Council, High Representative for the CFSP,
- by working with Russia to develop joint foreign policy initiatives in support of common foreign policy objectives;
(b) Russia's place in the European security architecture,
- by further developing cooperation with Russia in the new European security architecture within the framework of the OSCE, in particular in the run-up to the Istanbul Summit,
- by continuing cooperation with Russia in the elaboration of aspects of the European Security Charter,
- by considering facilitating the participation of Russia when the EU avails itself of the WEU for missions within the range of the Petersberg tasks;
(c) preventive diplomacy,
- by enhancing EU-Russia cooperation to contribute to conflict prevention, crisis management and conflict resolution, including within the OSCE and the UN,
- by promoting arms control and disarmament and the implementation of existing agreements, reinforcing export controls, curbing the proliferation of WMD, and supporting nuclear disarmament and CW destruction.
4. Common challenges on the European continent
The European Union will, in particular, cooperate with Russia in:
(a) energy and nuclear safety,
- by enhancing the Russian commitment to energy sector reform, including nuclear safety and environmental protection; for example by working with Russia to improve energy efficiency and by providing technical assistance on energy conservation in Russia; by improving the safety of Russian nuclear power stations and by cooperation on nuclear waste and spent fuel issues in north-west Russia,
- by encouraging Russian commitment to nuclear safety in the framework of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, through the Nuclear Safety Account Agreement and in the framework of international initiatives and by helping to strengthen the Russian nuclear safety regulatory authority (GAN),
- by promoting Russian ratification of the Energy Charter Treaty and continuing consultations on a multilateral transit framework which will enhance cooperation between Russia and its neighbours over access to the Russian pipeline system;
(b) environment and health,
- by encouraging and supporting the secure storage of nuclear and chemical waste and the safe management of spent fuel, in particular in north-west Russia,
- by supporting the integration of environmental considerations in economic reform and by assisting in the creation of effective systems for monitoring and ensuring compliance with multilateral environmental agreements, and supporting Russian efforts to strengthen the enforcement of national environmental legislation,
- by working with Russia, especially in areas adjacent to the enlarging Union, to reduce water and air pollution and to improve environmental protection and by cooperating on promoting sustainable use of natural resources in particular in the various forums for regional cooperation,
- by cooperating with Russia in order to improve precautions against infectious diseases, including by supporting vaccination programmes,
- by cooperating also in strengthening phytosanitarian controls;
(c) fight against organised crime, money laundering and illicit traffic in human beings and drugs; judicial cooperation,
- by enhancing the rule of law and offering assistance in developing the legal order, including by encouraging Russia to sign, ratify and implement key conventions, especially in the field of judicial cooperation in civil and criminal matters,
- by pursuing, on the basis of existing common positions, an appropriate dialogue with Russia in the ongoing negotiations in Vienna on the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime,
- by increasing the cooperation and exchange of experts between Member States and Russia in the context of combating organised crime, including in the field of the treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts as well as in the field of drug prevention. This shall be achieved in cooperation with the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction,
- by organising seminars on types and methods of money laundering,
- by developing the cooperation of Europol with the competent Russian authorities as provided for under the Europol Convention, notably for improving the fight against illicit traffic in human beings and drugs as well as immigrant smuggling,
- by intensifying cooperation between the liaison officers of the Member States in Moscow, within the limits of their respective national laws,
- by developing cooperation mechanisms in combating transnational drug crime, and the involvement of Russia in the concertation process of the Dublin Group,
- by carrying out information campaigns in cooperation with Russian agencies in order to prevent the traffic of human beings,
- by improving the cooperation regarding the readmission of own nationals, persons without nationality and third country nationals, including the conclusion of a readmission agreement; by combating illegal migration including by continuing the basic and advanced training courses for staff members of border and migration authorities,
- by intensifying dialogue with Russia on the adjustment of Russia's visa policy to the European Union through the introduction of visa requirements in accordance with the EC provisions and introduction of travel documents which are sufficiently fake-proof,
- by working together with Russia with a view to the introduction of sanctions by Russia on carriers providing transfrontier transport of inadequately documented passengers and with a view to the introduction of penal provisions for combating immigrant-smuggling;
(d) regional and cross border cooperation and infrastructure,
- by working more effectively with Russia in the various form for regional cooperation (CBSS, BSEC, Barents Euro-Arctic Council), and by enhancing cross-border cooperation with neighbouring Russian regions (including Kaliningrad, especially in view of the EU's enlargement and including in the framework of the Northern Dimension,
- by enhancing cooperation and technical assistance in the areas of border management and customs,
- by exploring the scope for working towards linking the Russian transportation systems (road and rail) with the transeuropean corridors and by seeking mutually satisfactory ways to address transport issues.
The following specific initiatives shall be pursued not precluding possible new initiatives.
Political and security dialogue
The Union will consider ways to give more continuity, flexibility and substance to the existing political dialogue, as instituted under the PCA, and to render it more operational and effective:
- the Council will examine the possibility of creating a permanent EU/Russia mechanism for political and security dialogue, bearing in mind the important role to be played by the, Secretary-General of the Council, High Representative for the CFSP. One of the aims would be to work with Russia to develop joint foreign policy initiatives with regard to specific third countries and regions, to conflict prevention and to crisis management especially in areas adjacent to Russia, on the Balkans and the Middle East,
- the Council will consider developing a consultation mechanism, in addition to existing troika expert level talks, with Russia, possibly involving third countries, on non-proliferation issues, as well as intensifying efforts, including through increased coordination/joint activities with third countries, in support of Russia's chemical weapons destruction,
- the Council will, in addition, examine the scope for joint actions and common positions concerning the safe management of biological, and chemical materials, as well as fissile materials in Russia under IAEA verification which are designated as no longer necessary for defence purposes, notably on the basis of international conventions. Particular consideration will be given to the International Science and Technology Centre in Moscow.
Work on these actions will begin by the end of 1999.
Dialogue on economic questions
The macroeconomic situation in Russia, experience in building European unity, the introduction of the euro and the process of enlargement reinforce the importance of specific consultations between the Union and Russia on economic issues.
The Union will consider the launching of a specific high-level EU/Russia dialogue to support the development by the Russian Government of measures to promote sustained economic recovery based on a comprehensive economic programme, endorsed by the IMF, leading to a functioning market economy. The Union will also consider the provision of high-level economic policy advice to the Russian Government through the involvement of eminent EU experts.
The Member States will reinforce, where necessary, their coordination in relevant international organisations and forums.
A joint Presidency/Commission report in regard to these proposals should be prepared by the competent bodies by the end of 1999.
Trade and investment
Taking into account the launch of new multilateral negotiations in the WTO and the fact that the Community has made proposals as to how Russia can continue its negotiations to accede to that organisation, the Community reaffirms its readiness to maintain and, if appropriate, enhance its existing support for Russian efforts to meet the requirements for entering the WTO at the earliest possible time.
In addition, the Commission will examine ways to deepen the investment dialogue with Russia in the framework of the PCA to improve the trade and investment climate in Russia and to facilitate two-way trade and investment, and to report to the Council by the end of 1999.
Fight against organised crime
The European Union and Russia have a major interest in setting up durable, effective cooperation in the area of justice and home affairs, not least as a means of promoting respect for human rights and the rule of law. In that respect, the fight against organised crime is an obvious priority.
For that reason, the European Union is proposing to set up a plan focused on common action with Russia to fight organised crime, including actions to fight corruption, money laundering, trafficking in drugs, human beings and illegal immigration. The Union proposes to cover, inter alia, the following areas:
- assistance in training for members of the judiciary and law enforcement authorities, particularly with regard to investigation and intervention techniques,
- the development of the necessary legal, institutional and judicial framework for the effective prosecution of organised crime, especially in the areas of money laundering, illegal economic activity, and trafficking in human beings,
- the development of effective cooperation mechanisms to combat cross-border drugs crime, and
- the development of cooperation between Europol and the competent Russian authorities as provided for under the Europol Convention.
Discussion with Russia within the PCA framework and an ongoing dialogue between the competent Russian bodies and European Union Member States' liaison officers based in Moscow will make it possible to analyse Russia's requirements in this area more precisely. In this respect, the December 1999 EU-Russia Conference on Organised Crime will be of particular importance. A report will be submitted to the Council in the first half of 2000.
The dual objective of consolidating Russian public institutions and bringing civil societies closer together involves an increase in the development of exchanges at all levels between Russia and the Member States.
To that end, the Union wishes to develop twinning programmes with Russia:
- for the purpose of strengthening institutions: in regional and local administrations,
- for the purpose of bringing civil societies closer together: between professional associations and trade unions, universities, NGOs, and the media. The Commission will study the possibility of bringing Community programmes into play for this purpose (TACIS, Tempus and Democracy). The Member States' bilateral instruments will also be used. The Member States and the Commission will coordinate their programmes; in that connection, they may draw on the programme set up by the Union to train Russian executives.
On the basis of an inventory of instruments in existence (to be drawn up by the Commission in liaison with the General Secretariat of the Council) and an identification mission in Russia, the Commission will report to the Council by the end of 1999 and will thereafter submit proposals for action as appropriate.
Exchange programmes for students and young scientists
The Union will examine the possibility of developing EU exchange programmes for students constituting an integral part of their course of study and for young scientists working on International Science and Technology Centre contracts. In particular, this will involve:
- inviting the Commission to draw up an overview of existing EC and Member States' programmes,
- also inviting the Commission to report, in the first half of 2000, on the means for improving complementarity among existing European programmes in this field and on the possibilities for and the modalities of an enhanced Community exchange programme.
Establishment of a viable health and welfare system
The Member States and the Commission will review their programmes designed in general to encourage Russian efforts to establish a viable system of welfare and social protection and in particular to support the reform of public health care systems in Russia and improve the coordination, efficiency and complementarity of such programmes, with a view to a Commission report by June 2000.
Cross-border and regional cooperation
The Union will support the strengthening of cross-border and regional cooperation and will prepare an inventory of relevant EC and Member States instruments and actions directed at the enhanced involvement of EU programmes in Russian regions of special interest to the EU. In this context the Council and the Commission will intensify the preparation of the November 1999 Helsinki Conference on the EU's Northern Dimension.
This Common Strategy shall apply from the date of its publication for an initial period of four years. It may be prolonged, reviewed and, if necessary, adapted by the European Council on the recommendation of the Council.
This Common Strategy shall be published in the Official Journal.
Done at Cologne,4 June 1999.
For the European Council
EUROPEAN COUNCIL DECLARATION
related to the Common Strategy on Russia
The Council acts by qualified majority when adopting joint actions, common positions or any other decisions within the scope of Title V of the Treaty on European Union (common foreign and security policy), on the basis of the Common Strategy.
Acts adopted outside the scope of Title V of the Treaty on European Union shall continue to be adopted according to the appropriate decision-making procedures provided by the relevant provisions of the Treaties, including the Treaty establishing the European Community and Title VI of the Treaty on European Union.